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0^ . 







VOL. I. 




















PRBFACB . . . , ix 

Introduction to thb Acharnians 5 

Ths Acharnians 9 

Obsirvations on the Orkbr TbxI o¥ thr' Acm arR::^***^ .... 117 

Introduction to thb Knights 125 

The Knights 135 

Observations on the Greek Text op the Knights 263 

Introduction to the Clouds 269 

The Clouds 277 

Observations on the Greek Text of the Clouds 417 


It mufit often haye occurred to every one, what a great pity it 
18, that there were no active volcanoes, like Veuuvius, iii the 
heart of ancient Greece. J lad it no happened, we might have had 
a chance of digging np a fosfiil Greek city, at the expiration of a, 
couple of thousand years, in as perfect a state of preservation ai 
Pompeii or Herculatieum* How dclightfVil it would then have 
lieen lo w^inder amongst the dwell ing-liouses of a Pericles, a Clcon, 
a Bocrates, and a Euripides ■ to view the scenes where they had 
luibcnt their weary aoule in the calm tranquillity of domestic inter- 
eoun»e, or given tlicmselves up to the more exciting pleasures of 
m generous conviviality ; to become intimjitely acquainted, in fine, 
with aU the little interesting minutiae, which have been pai«!?ed 
ever, aa unworthy of notice, in the dignified pages of the philo- 
aopticr and the historian 1 "V^Tiat a much more distinct conception 
we »lM>uld have of the glorious spirit of antiquity, if we could tlms 
arrive at any deimite knowledge respecting the private habits of 
the warriors of Marathon and Salarais I The meanest hovel that 
fa^d witnessed the births the life, and the death of one of tliose 
amkble and acute Athenians, whom, with all their fuult$(, and all 
their crimes, we still cannot help loving and admiring, would be 
«f©d with far more transport than the moat magnificent palace 


ever erected by some dull prostiic monarch in these modem days. 
We might even hope in such a case to recover a few of the 
genuine letters, that had pa^^iied between the wits and the heroes 
of mieient Greece, as the example of llcrculaneum has taught us 
the possibility of deCTphering MSS, which have been lying for 
ages in a carbonised state beneath the solid lava. But if we were 
to carry our imagination beyond Oie sober boundaries of fact, and 
suppose for an instant tliat such entertaining miscellanies a& our 
newspapers and magazines had existed in those times, and had 
been preserved in the same manner ; what a bomidless field wotdd 
then be opened to the eye of the astonished spectator ! The 
political squabbles — the domestic scandals — the scurrilous lam- 
poons—the humourotis epigrams — of the most talented people 
that ever existed, would then be all bared to tlie view ; and we 
should feel as mucli at home when we were perusing the stately 
narrative of Thucydides, as we now do on listening to the recital 
of the great deeds achieved by a Wellington or a liuonaparte. 

These may appear wild dreams ; hut it so happens, tliat in one 
aense^ they are also sober realities, Tlie Comedies of Aristo- 
phanes are the Pompeii of Athens. In them have been enshrined 
the records of the private and pubHc life of the Athenians during 
the most brilliant period of the republic ? and in them alone we 
must seek for tliat personal knowledge of the high and mighty 
geniuses of tliose days, which cannot be hoped or desired from 
the grave writings of the tragedian, the phdoaopher, or the his- 
torian. For it must not be imagined for an instant that the ancient 
Attic Comedy bore more than a very slipfht resemblance to the 
productions known by that name in later times. In its virulent 
political diatribes, in its S4itirical attacks on private individuals, and 
altogether in the miscellaneous and temporary nature of the sub- 
jects which entered into its scope, it had a much nearer affinity to 
the modem newspaper. In one respect, indeed, the correspond- 
ence between the two is very striking. As the editor of the 


Journal h called upon to concoct hb ikading article for every 
publiciitioTi, in wliich he eitKer defends himself from the attacks 
of his rivals, or inflicts his chiistisDment upon those who have 
provoked his wrath, or funuahes his readers with general essajs 
upon the state of public affairs; so was the poet of the Old 
Comedy, in its most ancient fomi, expected to write his poetical 
Ai>DRES!» for QVQTy phiy, on precisely the same topics, and fre- 
quently in very nearly the same bitter and uncompronusing' spirt (• 
The very pbice which thcae productions occupied was the same ; 
for the address was always inserted, strange to say, in the middle 
of ihe drama; and, like the leading article, it was generally 
followed by a serieB of detached and unconnected pieces of a 
simlhir nature. It is to be lamented also, that, in another point 
of view, the parallel still holds between some of the ancient 
comedies and a few of the modern j>apcrs, wliich, if w*e may 
believe Iflaae TotnMnB, circulate more especially in the upper 
dasies of British society* Tlie indecencies in which both occa- 
mnaOy indtdge, are such as it is difficult in the abstract either 
to {filiate or to defend. But if we look at the very diiferent cir- 
cumstanees in which the two orders of writers have been placed, 
we thail find a great deal to be aUeged in favour of the Athenian, 
wllich doca not at all apply to the case of the Englishman. "In 
'* many respects,'* as the virtuous and ingenious Schlegel well 
observes, *' the ethics of the ancients were altogether different 
'* from oorsi, and of a much freer cliaractcr, * 'us arose from the 
** very nature of their religion, which wtiis a true natural worsliip, 
*' and had sanctioned many pubHc customs grossly injurious fju 
•* di?ceiicy* Besides, from the very retired manner in which the 
** women lived, while the men were almost constantly together, 
•• the language of conversation possessed a certain rudeness, as is 
*' alwnys the case under aimllar circumstances. In modem Eu- 
" rope, ftinci* the onglu of cliivalry, women have given the tone 
** of social life ; and to the respecUul homage which we yield to 

^ 2 



** them, we owe the pfevdence of a nobler morality in conversa^ 
** Horii in the fine arts, and in poetry. Resides, the ancient comic 
** writers, who took the world as they found it, had before their 
" eyes a very g^reat degree of corruption of morals/" As we 
shall have occasion to return to this subject hereafter, when we 
come to analyse more minutely the character of Aristophanes** 
comic poetry, it will not be necessary now to add any tiling to 
these very cxceUent observations* 

But it is not only in the light of a newspaper that we may con- 
sider the old Athenian comedy. As far as we can judge from 
existing remains, it also embraced the provinces of the modern 
Magazine and Review. The whole of some plays, and various 
parts of others, are occupied in fandftd sketehea of a purely 
literary character, or in critiques of the most savage description 
on the works of contemporary poets ajid proae -writers. Modem 
reviewers have certainly some of them dipped Uieir pens in gall ; 
but it may be questioned whether three such merciless attajcks 
were ever indited by them, aji the FeaMresses^ the Ffo^n^ and the 
Dehairesi^es of Arifltophanes ; the two first of which were directed 
against the tragedies of Euripides, and the last against the 
Utopian Republics of Plato, If we may trust to the accounts 
that have been left us by grammarians, who were fortunate enough 
to live before time had made such havoc in ancient literature^ 
our Author^s great predeceasor and rival, Cratinus, was even 
more distinguished than he himself was, for the austere severity 
of his style; while, on the contrary, his contemporary, Eupoiis, 
was as much beneath him in force and strength, as he surpassed 
him in smoothness and sweetness »* 

Having thus, it is to be hoped, thrown some light upon the 

(1) A. W. Schlcgel^B Ltehtr^t tm Dramat. Liter, h p. 904, Black's Tmns- 
(-2) Platdnius On (he Diffrrmiee ^f Si^kt, pn^wed ta tlic editicmB of ArlaUS- 



kind of amusement that we may expect from the authors of the 
Old Attie Comedy, let us consider what more solid advantages arc 
to be gained from them* It h reckoned an e^^ential part of a 
liberal edncation* to spend a few youthi\d years in t ravel Jm|i^ 
Uirough foreiprn countries, not merely for the sidtc of seeing 
elegant colonnades and lofty spires^ us if 

Thi? noblefit study of mankind was stmtes ,- 

but principally in order that tlie intellect may be enlarged, by com- 
paring the manners and institutions of distant natitms with those 
of our own. Now if it is of great service for tlie right regidation 
of the mind, to become intimately acquainted with the social rela* 
tKHiS of those highly -cultivated tribes, which are only removed from 
US in space, how much more advantageous must it be to study the 
private and public habits of a uatiout which is separated from us 
by a veij wide interval heth m »pace and in time / For it is 
evident that such a people wilJ be tlie least lUtely of any to parti- 
cipate in the vuJgar errors and prejudices wluch are, as it were* 
epidemic in certain centuries ; while on the other hand those pecu- 
liar modes of Ihiiildng, which seem, from some imkno wn cause, 
peculiar to certain cUmates, wiH also disappear on account of its 
remote geograpliical position* Viewing the subject in this light, 
too, we shall easily see the importance of interfering as httle as 
niiiy be witit Uie manners of the original, in any translation that 
may be attempted of the Old Atlienian Comedy. 

There is also another way in which tJicse writings* in common 
witli idi others which touch upon Grecian politics and Grecian 
history, may be considered as peculiarly instructive to the modem 
European. Tlie annals of Rome, from the termination of the 
mythological era, present nothing but the spectacle of a powerful 
and unscrupulous tribe, gradually acquiring* by force and by 
fraud, the absolute dominion of the whole civilized world. On 
iJus contrary, if we caAt our eyes upon Greece, in her most 



flourishing period, we behold n number of mdeiM*ndent States, — dl, 
however, considering theaifielvei as belongings to one common 
family, and connected by a certain indefinite bond of union, — 
amongst which the balance of power, though perpetually fluc- 
tuating, yet on the whole was never permanently oYerturned. 
We see a great commercial and naval nation waging a long and 
desolating war with a HtoI remarkable for her pre-eminence in 
military affairs. We observe them, at length, both so exhausted 
by their unnaturally-protracted efforts, that although the struggle 
is nominally ended by the success of one party, yet the conqueror 
and the conquered seem equally denationalbed and demoralised 
by the destructive events of tbe contest. A calm succeeds — the 
cahn of exhaustion and desolation, not of conscious strength and 
tmsuspecting innocence ; — tiH at length, after a few more suicidal 
wan, in which the remaining vigour of the Grecian States is 
fruitlessly consumed, a Northern Barbarian contrives to intermix 
himself in tlie politics of his civilized neighbours, and by an 
avowed and unblushing system of bribery, forms for liimself a 
party in the leading cities of the confederacy. Cold, cautious, 
and calcubting,— prodigal of his money, but still more prodigal of 
his oaths, ^grasping at universal empire, yet afraid to compromise 
himself by aiming too openly at his mark, — the wily despot 
pursues in the dark Ids crawling path, till, by the most barefaced 
political hypocrisy, he succeeds in the end in overtlirowing for ever 
the liberty, and with it, as a natural consequence, the intellectual 
pre-eminence of the httlc cluster of tribes, against whom his ma- 
noeuvres have been directed. In all these details there is a re* 
markable analogy with events, that have partly taken place already 
in Europe, and are partly in progress at the present moment* 
England and France are the Athena and Sparta of Christendom i 
they liave been weakening one another by wars without any 
definite object, and vritiiout any permanent result, for generations 
past : lei the former now take a lesson in political msdom from 



pages of Grecian history, and beware lest she suiler the 
Philip to ovcrtlirow, by \u& subtle machiavelii^in, tlie 
QUA of the continent, and grasp at length, in his greedy* 
dutches^ that great and glorious Britiah empire upon which the 
mm never sets* 

Before we proceed to examine into the merits of AristdpiianeSj 
a 'mtf a poet, and a patriot, it would be desirable to take a 
brief survey of the private and public relations of the Athenians, 
the period during which our author flourished* As far as 
rdfl their political condition, this has been already so ad- 
ijrably executed by Mr. Tlurlwall, in his Hktor^j of Greece^ that 
li would be presumption to attempt to follow in his footsteps, 
Suffice it therefore to say, that wilh the exception of one comedy, 
the DchatrcMes^ and the second edition of another, the Wealth^ 
nil the extant works of Aristophanes were written durmg \h& 
course of that dreadful Pelopoimeeian war, the pemiciom ejects 
l^f wliich were ktelj idJuded to. For a more extended view of 
itM causes, events, and consequences^ the reader is referred to the 
lliird and fortlicoming fourth volume of the excellent work just 
mentioned. We shah therefore now pass at once to a eouiide- 
lion of tlie domestic life of tlie Attic nation. 
Tlie population of 'Attica has been well fixed by Boeckli * in 
I found numbers at 500,000, of whom about 85,000 were pcjs- 
i of the rights of citi^senship, and 40,000 were sojourkers, 
nt resident aliens, — ^a class of men who, altliough freemen, atill 
were not admitted to the fuU Athenian franc liise. According to 
llie usual rule of statistics, the male adult citizens may therefore 
IsJum at only a little above 21,000 in number. The remaining 
inhahtlanU, amount ing to about 375 ,000, were slaves. The propor- 
tion of tlie &ee citizens to the servile population was consequently 

(S) Stc the inifOftueHon to thk dramn, 



nearly aa one to four, "In the American sugar plantations," 
says Boeckh, " it was as mucb as one to six* This number of 
*' slaves cannot appear too large, if tlie political circumstances of 
** 'Attica are taken into consideration. Even the poorer citizens 
'* used to have a slave for the care of their household affairs. 
"In every moderate establishment many were employed for all 
** possible occupations, such as grinders, bakers, cooks, tailors, 
** errand-boys, or to accompany the master and mistress, who 
** seldom went out ^^ithoiit an attendant. Any one who was 
** expensive, and wished to attract attt^ntion, took perhaps three 
'* attendants wth him. We even hear of philosophers who kept 
" ten slaves. Slaves were also let out m hired servants ; they 
** performed all tlie labour connected with the care of cattle and 
** agriculture ; they were employed m the working of the mines 
" and furnaces ; all manual labour and the lower brimches of 
" trade were in a great measure carried on by them ; large 
** gimgs laboured in tlie numerons workshops for which Athens 
'* was celebrated ; and a considerable number were employed in 
*' the merchant vessels and the ileet. Not to emimej-ate many 
'* instances of persons who had a Rmaller number of slaves, 
** Timarchus kept in iua workshop 1 1 or 12; Demostlienes's 
** father, 52 or 53, besides the female slaves in his house ; Lysias 
** and Polemarchus, 120. Plato expressly remarks, that tlie free 
" inhabitants had frequently 60 slaves, and the rich even more ; 
** Philemonides had 300 ; Hipponfcus, 600; Nicias, 1000 slaves^ 
** in the mines/*' As in every slave-holding country, this 
wretched class of beings was of course considered merely in the 
light of live stock, Th^ were compelled to keep their hair 
cropped close to their heads, and also to wear a peculiar dress, In 
order to distinguish them from their lordly masters. Upon the 
slightest niisbehaviouFt they were subject to blows or floggingB ; 

(5) Pu^. Econ Aihgju, I p. 53. 



and in case of aggmTated ill conduct, they were branded with 
Tcd'hoi irons* Gaien remarks, that the ancients had carried their 
erueltj in thia reipeet to such a pitch of refinement, that the 
particular part of the body wlueh had offended, was selected for 
the application of the branding; -iron. In the courtu of justice, 
*' at the discretion of either of the parties, evidence might he 
** wrung from them by torture, without even the excuse of 
** necessity, or of so much as a probable advantage ; for though 
** they miglit be wilUng to offer it freely, it was rejected as 
** wortldess^ until it had been sifted by the rack,^* * But though 
Uie slave in 'Attica was tiius degraded and debased* stU] his eon- 
ditioti was a perfect paradise compared with that of the Laconian 
Helot* This was more especially the case during the Pelopon- 
jiesian war, when the master was afraid of Ubing too much 
■everity towards him, lest he shotdd be provoked to run away 
into the enemies' territory, whence of course there would be no 
means of recovering him.^ If so barharously treated as to 
exeeetl all the conventional limits of cruelty, he had the privilege 
by the Attic statutes of commencing a suit against his tyrant ; 
and if it appeared that the complaint was reasonable and just, 
tlie law ordered that he should be sold to a fresh owner. Slaves 
were permitted also in 'Attica to accmuulate property, subject 
only to a smaU yearly tribute to their masters ; and if they could 
procure m much as would pay for their ransom, their masters 
faAd no power tu hinder them from buying their liberty. Upon 
the performance too of any remarkable service for the pubMc, Uie 
State usually took care to reward them with their tVeedom— a 
pleasing instatice of which we have in tlie slaves that behaved ihem* 
» selYes BO valiantly in the sea-6ght at Arginusa% who all not only 
Tcceived their fireedom, but were likewise allowed to enjoy it in 

(IS) ThirlwAlfi iivft i^re^en, IL p. 53. ^S«e alio Fro^M, Act II. k. fi. 

(7) See Ihe aoti4», 1 1. 



peace and safety/ On the contrary, the Spartans pursued the 
detestiible policy of first of all investing Helots with the rights of 
citizenship^ and afterwards taking them ofl^ hy secret aesaseination* 
On an occasion mentioned by Thucydides, " being afraid of the 
** vi^oiir and number of the Helots, they made proclamation, that 
** those who considered theraselves to have done them tlie 
** greatest aervice during the war, should come forward and 
^* receive their freedem. For they reckoned that thin would 
" afford a criterion, and that the staves who thought themselves 
" most worthy of freedom, would he most Ukely, from their spirit, 
" to conspire against theiii, Abo\it 2,000, therefore, having 
" been selected, were crowned and walked in procession round 
** the temples, under the idea that tht^y were freemen ; but noi 
** Imig afit^r wards the Spartantf put them out of the wa^^ and no 
" man perceived by witut method each indimdual was deUro^edJ^ ' 
There are perhaps no two instances which point out more clearly 
than tliose just adduced, the difference between the honest and 
open, hut frequently cruel democrat, and tlie cold-blooded^ heart- 
less ohgarch, who, perpetrating crimes of the most atrocious die, 
yet generally contrives to gloze tbem over by the solemnity of a 
mock-trial, or the decent obscurity of an assafiaination. 

The treatment of the female sex throughout ancient 'Attica, as is 
well known, was very similar to that which prevails at the present 
day in almost aO parts of the East. Every bouse, except iboee of 
tlie very meanest artbans, was divided into two distinct portions^ 
tlie men*s apartments or androrif and the ^tfjiwcunitis or harmUt 
wliicb was appropriated to the use of the women. In this last the 
unmarried girls of the Ikpiily were rigorously secluded, and 
scarcely ever permitted to go abroad, except to officiate in certaui 

(fl) Consult oil thia subject Pottcr'n Antu^ttitm^ L p. ^ 65* See ako lire 



nn reli^'aua prDcessions. Married women were allowed greater 

ty, OS is stil! tlie case in the Levant/* Tlieir husbands, iinlest 

I iHuticularlj severe, generally gave tliem Ml leave to visit t^eir 

female friends at their houses, and to go abroad occasionally for 

otlier purposes* Still it was reckoned highly disreputable for them 

to be seen often in public, and there were officers appointed at 

I Athens for the express purpose of watching their conduct while 

I phsent Erom home. 

^* Wcxzncti shtnilJ keep within^ and mind their slaves;' 
■ays the woman-hater Euripides ; and we find tlie foUowitif^ frag- 
ment of the comic poet, Menander, in Stobjeua,*' which was most 
probably put Into the moudi of some jealous old husband : — 

** WomiuiT yoii puss tlic houndaneft ©f wires, 
** By going through the HnJJ ; for the liall-dcKir 
*^ To her that'i free ahoidil ha the Hoiue'i end,** 

Such being the condition of the sc^c, it was not of course to be ex- 
pected tliat they should be udmitted into general society. Tlie 
presence of an Athenian lady at an Athenian dinner-party would 
have as much surprised and disgusted the guests, as it would an 
alderman of the City of London to see his wife come and seat 
lierself by his side at a great turtle and venison feast. There were 
! of those delightful entertainments to he met with in ^Attica, 
in which the young of both sexes are intermixed, and mutually 
endeavour to surpass one another in all the little amiable arts of 
pleasingt There were no convermzianes^ no pic-nic parties, and 
worst of all^no balls. Immured in their harems, the sole occu- 
^tion of the women seems to have been the superintendence of 
their domestic arrangcmenta, and the exercising themselves in 

11) See Ladj Mwy Mnrttagiie^s Lrtters. TlWa moat enteriumii>g writer, *-hn 
1 hur »*.'% nititt havu had the very betit rncuiiK of iwcortaimws the tmth^ 

^■rflft IhAt Ihc TdrkJnh wntnen have far greater apporttinili^ fur eiiminol 

ilitngue iJinji Ihone oniiiy European touutry. 



the arts of spinnings weaving, needle -work, and embroidery — in 
which last, like the Grecian ladies of the present day, tliey appear 
to have attained n most surprising degree of proficiency. In 
fluch a atate of society, it will not surprise the philosopliical 
mindp that women of a certain description should have abounded 
in 'Attica. Had they there occupied the Bame position, which, 
to the credit of Christianity, they do in modern Europe, the 
subject might have been passed over in silence ; but, as their 
company was sought alike by the liighest and the meanest, the 
most vicious and the most virtuous of the Grecians, witliout ajiy 
feeling of moral impropriety, it will be requisite, in order to obtain 
a clear view of Athenian matmera, to enquire briefly into the ideas 
which obtained rcBpeeting them. Tlie following passage ott the 
subject is from the learned work of Archbishop Potter :■ — 

Harlots wore no less common than concnbines, b^ing tolerated in muiil 
of the Grecian and otiier commonwealths. Nor was the ub© of them 
thought repugnant to gaod manners : whence the Latin comedian, speak- 
ing of Athens, aaja, 

^ For a young mno to wendi la not a crime," 

The wisest of the heathen aages were of ifae same mind. Solon allowed 
common stmmpeta to go pubUdy to tliose that hired them, and encou- 
raged the Ath^*nian yovuli to empty iheir lust upoo these, to hinder them 
fi-om makuig attempts upon tbe wives and daughters of his citi^cena. 
Philemon hua elegantly expressed that lawgiver's design in the following 
fragment ; — 

*' Yes, Solon, thy invention wa» a btcffiing 

*' To all mankind ; *lwaa you who firett they sajr, 

" Cotieeived the laatriotie^ aavitig Ihought ; 

'' (And, Solon T this it fits nio to assert ;) 

"You eaw th^; city crowded with young men* 

"* titled ou by nature's neccasaty lawft^ 

" And loving, where to love wus wrotig and sinfwh 

*' And flo you po rchased girli^ and dresbed them out, 

^' And placed them in the Btev« for public uae/ 

Cato, the llomun Ceiiaor, was of iIjc same opiiuon, m lippenrs from ihe 
Itaown Ktoryj that meeting a young noblennin of Home euming out of ihe 



common stew, lie commended him for diverting lumaelf in that place, as 
we read In Homco : — 

" Wli«i from the BU?wa n ccrtiin tioble came, 
•^ The god-like Cato thua approved IlIb aim : — 
* G« ©(», bravf yofifh, and mftt/t/f^n cer ^i€C4ftd, 
** And nm^er be ahathed to ou^ti the deed: 
** fVhrh fu4ff tind burtiing love jtwglJ evert/ vein^ 
" *Ti4 tai/pftU t& c&ma Here and toothe pour pain,** 

I forbear to mentjcm other instances, the testimony of CScero helng 
sufficient to confirm what I have saidf where he challenges all pt^r^ns to 
tiaine any time wherein *^ men were either repro^'ed for tliia pmctiee, or 
" not countenanced hi it/* Nor can it he wondered that heathens allowed 
thttmselveii this ljS)erty, when the Jews looked on it m lawful- they were 
indeed forbidden to commit adulteryt and fornication also was prohihited 
Wider jevere pen&ldei ; but these, a« Grodus observes, were thought to 
eoncem only women of tlielr own natiooi their law not extending to 
foreigners i and we find accordingly that public stewa were openly tole- 
rated amongst them^ and women residing there taketi into tlie protectiuit 
*if the govi'mment, as appears from the two harlots ttiat contended about 
a child} and were heard in open court by king Solomon. But the Jewish 
women were not allowed to prostitute their bodies ; and therefore strange 
or ibi«%n women axe iometimes taken for harlote^ aa when Solomon ad- 
Tvea his eon to embrace " wisdom and understandings that they may keep 
•♦ bim fnim the strange woman ^ from the stranger which flatten.* th with 
** ber words ;" and t^i ami bini against the allurements of harlotu^ he tells 
hiiii, **tbc lipof a strange woman drop as an boueycomb, and her mouth 
** is smoother than oil ; hut her end i^s hitter m wormwood, shaip aa a 
** two-edged «word," The Athenians, aa in many other thingSp io here 
had the same customs with the Jews j for though aevere penalties were 
laid on those that defiled women who were citistens of A thenar yet 
foreigi%en bad the liberty of keeping public 3teWB, and their harlots were 
fbr that reaaon, like those among the Jews, called *' strange women/*" 

It was but to he expected, that such debauched fellows as Ari- 
»tjpptis, Diot^enea, and Epicurus ^ should give in to the general 
ruatom ; but the English reader will be rather surprised to hear, 
that the two great phiJosopbera of antiquity were guilty of similar 
cxtra^^i^^ces. Athena?ua tells us, on the authority of Her* 

(12) ToiU^BAnMquitiet. vol. It, p. 301. 



raippiM, that " Aristotle, the Staglrite, had a son called Xicoma- 

" chus, by Herpyliifl the ccmrtesan, and that he lived with her till I 

^' hiH death;" and also '^ tliiLt she was properly provided for in the] 

'* philosopher's will," It was for the use of this yotmg gentleman 

that the philosopher composed the system of moral philosophy, 

wliich has come down to us under the name of tlie NicoiuBchean 

Ethics, The same ammmg author likewise informs us " that the 

** celeh rated Plato was in love with Archeanassa, tlie Colophonian 

" courtesan,** who appears by tlie bye to have been a little the 

worse for wear In his days, and that he composed the following 

epigram in her praise t. — 


" Archeaadfaa'ft tny nwri one, 

*^ The »wecl coyrtesnn Colopbdalsn ; 

" E'en from her wnnklon I feel 

" Love*& iirealBUble steel ! 

** O je wretches, whose biinRCr 
*' Was mided far Iwt when she wat jonnger I 
** Through what fiames, ala^ 
" Mu«t she have forced you to paaa f js 

The life of an ordinary AUienian citizen may be thus shortly 
described. He usually rose before daylight, in order to attend 
file General Assembly of the Citizens, if there happened to be one, 
or to take liis pbce perhaps as a juryman in one of the ten Courts 
of Justice, if he was one of the six thousand annually chosen for 
that purpose. On his return home he Ibimd his breakfast pre- 
pared by his wife, or some of his slaves, and made a frugal meal — 
" two or three bites of a piece of wheaten bread,'* as one of the 
comic writers expresses himself," a bason of barley-meal porridge, 
or a slice of a barley-loaf*** He then sauntered out into the 

(13) Alhenwutt^ XHt. p. 5B>9. Those who iriidi for fiii-lher mforinjition re- 
specting tbt* tdtuation of public womeo in Greece, may rend the Oration ngaimi 
Nifkru, attributed to I>eniMheiica* 

(14) Athein^s, L p. IK D. 

(15) The Ath(ftU£Lii5>, at the perioul when Aristophattc» wrote^ gent rally took 
twu meak ererj dsy — hreakfoiFt {aris(on) and tlinacr idipwin> — to which uns 



murket-placc, which was divided, like the modem bazaars all over 
the LcvaJitj into divisions appropriated to the sale of peculiar 
articks,^"* Hervce> when we read of the lish-niarket, the perfume- 
market, the garlic -market, and so forth, we are not lo suppose that 
these were situated one at one end of the city and tlie other at the 
other ; but that they were dLfferent parts of the same area set aaide 
for imrticular purposes ; aa m one portion of Coven t-garden market 
etablefl are sold, in a second singing-birds, in a third ornamental 
exotica. Here our friend meeta perhaps Bome acquaintances, and 
passea an idle hour or t^vo in gossiping about the private scandal 
Df the tow^n, or the last foreign news that has arrived at the 
If he can afibrd it, lie cheapens a few fish — a dish of 
pr&ta, or herrings it may be — and consigning them to the care of 
' lib attendant slave, returns towards the afternoon to his home* 
Should he venture with a thread- bare coat on hia hackj or with 
I cm his feet that are a little the worse for wear, to demand 

Aemionatlj adtled a supper idorpttn). It whs reckoited a piece of v&ry grmt 
mcuuieM to omit the break faut, thinrgh we reiij of mme miserly fellovs who 
^ Vaul^did so. The dinner wm the prmcipal repoftt, and wha taken, .is with u», 
I tlw etenitig, afWr the bufiin«?ss of the daj had been finialiod, I mention 
fall^ bfonttin the term ariston^ which is properly tranelated breakfast^ liaa been 
luppoii^ hy (tome to be etjuimlent to our dintier^ ami hi^ been nsed to form one 
of thosp baibofoufl o/o^im with whldi would-be scholmm b^ve beeti inutidntmg 
our iaiis|«Agc for the laht fifty years, Sueh person* oug^t really to consider what 
tlifj dfr ahotit ; for in the present ubite of affklra they may perhapa be sent m 
to Athens for murdering kinfi OUio's Greek. That ArixtoiiH}^ ouillOt 
ify ik^ Mckri£^ nf dimng^ w proTed by the confurrenl teatimony of the beit 
auUiore; for initance, '^Euchylus, who aayi, 

•■ To hTti$kJait, and tc dbw, and tHirdljr itip ;" 

r wh&re the tt^rm arvttfjti is used for what I have cjqiressed by breakfast. In the 
I (1*348) the old flentlemaii who hm tniaed hii wife from his Iwd b«- 
i diiyhght^ h a^kcd by hia friend^ who hivs suffered the same oiltimity, whethei 
lady of her aequiuntnnce may not have invited her to tiikc I he meat in 
|4|UailioK. it folio WR, therefore^ that as it was the repast in which the f(ut was 
[W(ik«n, ami <^ it was en ten tn the etLrliefit imrt of %hv day« it cim only be em- 
^leetly esipreaied by the EnglioJi torm liteokfaxL 

iW) See Leake'fi Taji^graph^t ttf Athm^t, p. 383-^J. 



the price of any of the more expensive kiiida of fisli, sueli m tuniiy, 
fiturgeon, or eels, tlie fishmonger probahly cither treats him with 
gilant contempt, or looking at lum from the comer of his eye^ 
squeezes out of his mouth, as if it waa a very troubleflome piece of 
condescension, the short anifwer ** 'leven/' This claas of men 
were always in very bad repute at Athens, for their incivility, 
their extortion, and their knavery ; inaomuch that a law waa 
actually enacted, ** that fishmonger* shall incur imprisoimient 
" who shall overrate their fish^ and take leaa than they first prof- 
** fered them for ; and that tliey shall not lay their stinking fish 
** in water, thereby to make it more vendible."*^ As soon as 
our Mend has reached liis hou^ with the produce of his market- 
ingi and any other little articles, such as wild-onions or garlic, 
that he has purchased for sauce, if he is neither engaged to any 
dinner-party nor gives one himself, he takes his prineipa) meal 
along with the females of hb family, every body helpmg them- 
selves from the dish of fried sprats with their fingers, and eating 
either wheaten or barley-bread along with the fish, or, as a Greek 
would have expressed himself, eating the fish along with wheaten 
or barley-bread > Leaving the ladies again behind liim, he next 
strolls out into some of the public walks, — ^the Academy, or the 
Lyceum, for instance, — which were gardens ornamentally laid 
out, like our parks, but diifering from them in containing large 
and extensive buildings for the accommodation of the citizens* 
In one of these perhaps he practises himself in gymnastic exer- 
cises, or stands idly looking on while liis more active compamona 
are doing so j or, if he pleases, in another apartment he may 
listen to the last new philosopher that has been imported into 
'Attica, amusing either his hearers or hiraseli", by wrangling and 
janghng away very much in the style of tlie schoolmen of the 

(17) ¥<M4^& Afiiiguiiurs, L p.lM. 



tDiddle ages. Should none of tT^eae eraployments hit his fancy, 
he hsA the itever-fmUng resource of an ancient Athenian — to 
gjonip with any hody he can meet with, busiJy engaged, h'ke 
hinuelf^ in killing time. As the evening draws in, he rettirna to 
his house* Here^ if he chooses it, he takes a supper as alight as 
bis breakfast, and consisting pretty nearly of the same articles, and 
then retires to repose for tlie niglit. It must not be biagined, 
however, that he has any apartment which can properly be called 
II bed*ehamber. The same rooms which have served as parlours 
during the day, are made to do double duty as sleeping apartment.^ 
during tlie night ; and the some couches on which he entertains 
hifl fnends, as will be afterwardji described, serve the purpose of 
bedsteads for himself and his iamily. There is no regidar bed 
made in our English fashion ; all llyit the warmth of the chmatc 
renders nccessaty is a mat or mattress, and a few thick blankets, 
which, together with his coat, form an ample protection against the 
coldest weather he is likely to meet wilh. The under garments 
are not taken off, hut retained to serve the purpose of a night- 
dfeis* In every one of these details, the habits of the ancient 
Greek correspond pretty accurately to those of his modem de- 
scendant^ and generally spoakingj of al! the natives of tlte Levant ;" 
and unless they arc duly Irorne in mind, endless confusion will be 
created in perusing the works of every Greek author. 

U&) See Hobhoune** Trtttt^U in AliHtttm^ h p, 57, At*. The? follow rn^ 
dEKfipUon (Iff the way in whicli the day of m modiiTn Greek i» spent, is from the 
able fich fif Mr, Hiigh^is, " The tinidcm^ like the ancient Oreek, is nbitemiouit 
** in hh moclo of living. lie ri«e» very early iii the moniirig, the diiwii nf thiy 
** heiixc: the mmt delightful pnrt of it in these elimate^^ whore (ill the busitH'M 
*' of tbt* TDiirket h gencriiHy done long before an KngUBhiiviin has taken hii 
** lirealtBi^L ARer a pijH'^ and a. cup of coffee, with which alnne the (Sreek 
** bnski hi* fust, he tauiiU'r* ahiHtt, mU» upon hi* friends, or nttendii to Hnninef^ 
'*liil mww, *hen Irif* principal meal h served up. He fenerally takes this 
** with lut Camf] V alone^ friend* beinn mrely invited, except on partitiiliiT festive 
■* ooauioim like a mafiiage, or theannirensary of a birth-day. The far*? fonnists 
'* ^bailed rice, oouietiiDea miJied with nil and vinegar; vegetables dreui^ with 




If, on tlio contrary, our Atlicmaji friend happens to have received 
an invitation to dine out, he orders liia slave to dress the articlea 
heha^ purchased, which wiU, in that case, piobahljhe a little more 
t'Xpensive> These are intended to be taken with him ; for at the 
period of which we are speaking, each guest generally brought 
his share of meat and wine, as in our pic-nic parties, the host 
Punishing every thing else« After bathing bimsclf, and anointing 
the upper part of hiis body either witli simple olive-oil, or, if he i» 
a bit of a dandy, with perfumed ointments, ho proceeds to his 
host's house* Hia attendant follows his footsteps, bearing a box 
in which the meat or fish is camedj ready dressed, and in case 
the night is likely to be dark, a link, to light lik master home by. 
As soon as be arrives at the house of his inviter, he knocks at the 
door, and after obtaining admittance, walks into the apartment 
where Uie company are assembled^ Here, if he has eome late, 
he beholds a number of gentlemen reclining on their lefl aides 
upon couches, each of which arc made to accommodate three, and 
helping themselves witli their right-band fingers to the dishes that 
are put before them. Previously to taking his place amongst 
them, he tlirows aside his shoes, and has his hands washed by an 

^ oil, an article whicJi entera laipelj into oil their diAhea; mutton baked with 
' fdnioadB or pistaciiia mits, stt'wed mcata, pilau, olireii allied eoliimh«ulca, thin 
' pastry mnde of e«j5s, floUT, and honey* The wine of the country is ^unemlly 
' drank, ^tid the fruits of the eeaaon are served up a» a dewvrt. The dishes aro 
' placed sepamtuly upon the table, and each member of the family hcl|JB 
' himself Ti-ith fork, or spoon, or fingem, out of the aame receptacle. After 

* dlnaer the females retire to the fft/ngknimt^ and the men itidu%e in a iieita.: 

* in the aitemoon visitrt are generally made or received, at which sweettneatSf 

* pipeSi and coffee, aw presented to the guests. If the weather be fiae^ parties 

* &ie made to walk in the environa of the city, to fow upon the lake, to visit 

* the island or the monoBterics on Its lianks, and about sunset they return to 

* supper, which for the most part is a very frugal meaL At Kome house* cauls 

* are Intmduced, and many French and Italian games are in vogue. This 

* amuiement was veiy common at the mansion of Sign ore Alc^io, from which 
^ our ho«t Nieolo frequently returoed with lighter pockets. Those who rise 
' early geaemlly retire early to r«»9t, and thia ie the caae with the Greeks, who 
^ rarely keep hite houK."— Travel in AibanUiy fitc, II, pp. 63, li4. 



w^etdmt tUve, The disliea are brought in upon tables, wliicb 
are put hy the side of the couches, and thougb various in their 
imturtv yel consist in a great measure of different kinds of fish, 
I toastedf baked, stewed, ftied, and boiled- Altogctlier, the general 
•tyle cif the cookery is more in tlie French than the English taste: 
the eniremhs are rather elegant than expensive, and there are no 
Inige masses of half- raw flesh placed on the board, when every 
gaeit has been already aatiated with more iBviting viaiids.^^ As 
aoon aa the company have satisfied their appetites, the tables are 
f«iiioved, Uie slaves bring in basins and ewers of water* and the 
hands of every person are again washed. After they have sung 
m Bolenm hymn^ and poured out a portion of unmixed wine on the 
ground, as a Hbation to the gods, the negus i^ brewed in large 
bowla^ and a young slave hands it round to the company ; not as 
Wltb ua, from right to left, but trom leil to right. Every body is 
pillaged to empty his cup ; for in those days there was no shirk- 
ing allowed * Their amusements are various. Sometimet some 
wag proposes a riddle ; when aM» who cannot guess the answer, 
are fined a bumper of wine mixed with salt. Sometimes they 
play at various kinds of games^ which it would be tedious to 
daaeribe at full length ; and sometimes tliey sing drinking-songs^ 
holding a branch of myrtle or of bay -tree in their hands. It were 
to be wished that all tlicir pleasures had been equally innocent \ 
bat we continually meet with mention in the old writers of the 
pwacBCc of courtemiis at tliese entertainments ; some of them 
dftDcSng-^ls, others piping-women, and othens again skilted in 

(la) Mllton'i diucicfil tioul han beautifully developod thi» fkd : — 

**Qi AHie iMtc, wUh wliirt iirhetic« «c nuij flM 
" To hear Hip iute well luuchcd^ or arifU voiee 
*• WwWe iminDrUl noltf and Tuflcmn iitr 
** lU wliD at tbne ileligbii eao Jodfi, md ipftn 
*' Ta InlcrpoK ibem ^p tsuot unwUt.* 

S^nufi In Mr. i^mrtrnv. 
€ 2 



various artifices to command admiration. Of course we may sup- 
pose, that tmdcr these cjrcumsUnces every guest did not go 
away sober ; and we leam that it was not an unusual thing for 
bodies of them to sally out with their lighted torches, for what is 
called in classical Greek, a comos^ and in vulgar English, a sprcf^ 
OT Si iarh. On an occasion like this, they frequently amused them- 
selves by breaking, in a tumultuous body, into eertain bouses, 
where it will, perbaps^ be safer for tbe reader not to aceompany 

This was the most usual kind of entertainment in the days of 
Aristopbanes ; but they Iiad also clubHlinners, tbe expense 
of wliich was equally divided amongst the party, one person being 
chosen beforeband, by common consent, to make tlie arrange- 
ments» Wealtby men also, on particular occasions, " feasted** 
their friends. In this case the guests did not bring their meat- 
boxes with them, and all tbe expenses were defrayed by tbe host. 
We have two elegant descriptions of parties of tbis kind still in 
existence ; one by Plato, and tbe other by Xeuopbon — and aj* tlie 
subject is of the first importance, (for if the G recti bad not eaten 
such good dinners, how could they possibly have written as they 
did?) it will be as well to ^ve a short account of both, beginning 
with the former.'" 

(20) The time at wliich Pluto's Banquet^ ot Drinkinff-parly, look place, if H 
ever took placi? :it all, mm u. c:. 417 ; this ift ppovpd by the tncntltm In it of Ihe 
victory guinet) hy ^\fiothon, Tho time nt which X<Jni>j>hon** Drinkinj^party 
may be fixcd^ is a little lieftiro b. c. A2ly as appeam trom lheci>mic poet, Eiipolia, 
having at that date ridiculed the victor/ of AutiSljcuft, whit'h was the cauae of 
the entertainment having Iweo given. Tlie Litter composition m fonnd fault 
with, perhapi mther hypercritjcally, hj Athcni^iiB, (p. "21tj,) for tcprcsenling 
Sikmteii as speaking of li discourse which is put into tht' mouth of PnusAnias in 
the former, and could nat, cojiseqtiently, have been delivered till four yeart 
aftenmtdfl. What would h« have wiid of Shaltftpcarc, who makes Heel^ talk 

** Yowag men ^hom ArUtottf thought 

*^ l^nfit to hejir moral ptillotophy/* 

Tfotf, umt Crisw. Act II. Se. ^ 



A little fallow, ciilk»d Aritftod^nius^ who ih a grcnt adinirer of S6cnit(*fl, 
«]id generdjy imitates him m the somewhat slovenly aistom of goiDg 
Imfbott njeeto the phlloBoplicr in the street one afternoon, and to hi» 
- gt^ nirprue perceives Ihat he hoa been lo the both and anoint^ him* 
I •£]( And has tikew]«e a pair of dreas shoes on. '< Where ore you going 
1 *■ to smart, Stjctijlesf " " To dine with 'Agtitlion, the tragic pocl.*^ 1 
*• escaped the grand dinner he gave yesterday, to celebrate his gaining; 
* the prf Ke witli his maiden tragedy ; hnt wila ohligod to prontise to wait 
'* ii[Kiii him to-doy» Now, my dear An^todemuSf how do yon feel disi* 
** [Mfted for accompanying me there writhont any invitation V ** Jnst wa 
** yet* please, Sir/' ** Come along^ tlien/' The two friends accordingly 
pnaoecd on their journey, hnt after awhik, S^rateji heginji to lag a littU; 
behind, in a deep meditation, which was a veiy usual custom with Inni, 
and requests his companion not to wait for him, hnt maintain his pace* 
When they arrive at 'Agathon's house, Aristod6nius walks in,— for the 
door has been left open by chance,— and is immediately condueU^d by a 
alare to the dining-room ; he Bnd^ the party already reclining at table, 
ajid just going to commence operations. ** Aristodenimi," exclaim?* 
'Agaihon, **you are just come in right time to dine with ns. If ymt 
" have any huainess with nie, pray put it off to another occasion. 1 was 
*' leeking for you yesterday to invite you, but could not sec you any 
" where* But how is it yon have not brought Sficrates with you ? ** 
Up«>n turning round to look for him, he findH, to his great amazement, 
that he has come in alone, and thus placed liimself in the awkward posi- 
tion of appearing to sponge upon another man s hospitality. The matter, 
however, is soon cleared np. It turns out that the ccmtcmplative philo- 
•opher haa retired to the porch of the next house to finigh his cogitations 
; aeenrding to his wont, and must on no accoimt be disturbed. Aristo- 
iBittft has his feet waalied by a slave, aa he hau come undressed for the 
!6ttiionf and biA hands also of course, and is requested by the host to 
\ lay himself down i>n one of the couches. The party » he Jinds, consists 
I dC Eryxitnacbus, a celebrated physician ; a gentleman named Pausinios ; 
Flittdrtii^ a handsome young Athenian, to whom Sficrates was particu- 

! not having flouriohed till five hundred year^^ at the very 

, after the Trojnn war ? This fact, however, is important on 

illter lu5C4mjil t it proves to us that the period when the w<irk of Xenoithon 

iwritien^ must have been positerior to that at which PUito'H waft written \ and 

KlteiriMSi, that the former borrowed the idea of the composition froin the latter. 

' The oiithority f*tT the dates giveti above, may Jie found in the passage of 

AthKiiJi^uii, then: rrft-'freJ to. 

(-Jf) TTrb (fentltimwi mil he iatrodueeil to our notice in the Comedjr' iif the 

i/'AMlrif^, where he cuti luthcr a ridJeulous figure. 



larly attached ; the poet Ariat^phanes, and a few olln^rs. WKen they 
have ahuut hulf dont^ dinner, m cornea S6crate^^ and after a Httle good' 
humouried niilbrVr takes hh place hy the side of 'Agalhon, They finish 
the repftiit i the solemn hynin is sung : the libations are poured out : and 
now the party begin to think of their wine, or rather negiis. ** Gentle- 
" men,*" aaya PaiisAniaa, ** I mnat confess, for my own piirt, that 1 am 
** HtiU ffuffering from the eflecta of oiir last night » irregukrityj and stand 
" in need of some repoae. And 1 think most of youj too, are in the 
^* same sitimdon ; for you wer« here yesterday : so just consider what 
** will be the most (i^eeable way for ua tn take our liquors/' *'■ By 
"Jove," replies Ariat6j}hane«, *' you are right there* 1 myself am one 
*' of those who got well soused yesterday/* Eryxlmachus then observes, 
" I quite iigrce wjtlx you both ; but I should Uke to know from '^Agathon 
" whether he feels himself in good cue for drinking/' " No, Sir, I assure 
" you ; 1 am quite as much indisposed for it as Hie renL" ** Tliun/* 
»ay.^ the other, '' it is a g^e&t god^nd fur tne and Aiistod^mus, and 
^* PhsL^drus, and the rest, if you, who are tlie greateiit drinkers here, 
" are now done np ; for uye can never drink much. As to S6criit<?y, 
** I put liim entirely out of the question ; for he can either drink much or 
** drink little, and will, therefore^ be contented witb wliatcver we agree to/' 
Tlie learned physician then goes on to inform his auditors of the bad 
eflfecta of indulging in intoxication, especially when they were stiU 
Buffering from the previnus day's debouch ; and the party all ttgree, 
that nobody is to he compelled to lake more than he pleases, and 
t!mt tliey shall not drink for the sake of getting tipsy. 

Eryxfmacbua having succeeded with hi^ first proposition, now brings 
forward another, — ^* that they shall send away the piping-girl, who has 
** just come into the niom, and let her pipe to herself, or» if she chooses^ 
*^ to the wonien in the harem ; and that they shall all, in turn, deliver a 
** diflcourac in praise of Love, beginning with Flioedrus, who is reclining 
" at the top, and proceeding from left to right." ^ Tlie company imme- 
diately assent, Socrates observing ■* Uiat Aristophanes at all events 
'* cannot oppose the plan, as bis whole life has been spent in the senice 
" of Bacehufi and Venus/* 

ESegant orations are accordingly delivered, as was proposed ; but as 
they do not throw any light upon the domestic maimers of the Athenians, 
and are far too long to admit i?f a brief suinmary, it wUl be necessary 
to omit them entirely* The turn come* round at length to Aristdphanei ; 

£22) Contrary to our modem custom, aa was before mentioned, the l™ttle 
amongst the Greeks travelled from left to right, or, aa a sailor would call it, 
" ag^nit the sun/' This ia the reason of the irropoaal la the text* 



bat Uie po«t tinfortunat^ly ftndst tliat he haa got a dreadJtil liiccup, oiid 
Clin imrcely «p«ttk* " My dear felbw/* he aay» to Erj^xiuittchiia the 
phyricinn, who wan tying ta the ri^^ht of bun, ^ you ought either to 
ire my hiccup^ or *peak iti my place, until it is OTer/* *' Nay, I'll 
** do Ixith* / will iqwak in ij/our place, niid afu^rwards you in m/ne*, 
•* And while I am spefLkiiigT try if yon can stop your hicjiip by holding 
** your breatli for a long time ; ajid if you jind you can't, gargle with 
** 9ome wat^r» But should it be Teiy ohstiimtc, taku up tsomething tlmt 
•* you can tickle your noae with, and procure a so oeie; and when you have 

r*^ done I his once or twice j it will leave otfj though ever so obstiuate,"* 
• Make haste, then, with your discourse j and Til follow your advice/' 

As »ooo as the phyiitcian lias finished a very entertaining little essay, 
Amtdphanei declares '* tliut his hic<nip Kaa now stopped not, however, 
** before the sneDzing-npplication was made use of;'* and delivers a 
kidkttkU» discourse, of which the following nummary will givc! some £ort 

•^ In ancient times the nature of mankind was quite different to what 
*• It is now. In the fin^t place^ diere then existed three sexea. There 

I ** was the male and the female, a« with us ; and also n third — the lier- 
** maphrtKllte — ^|jartaking of both tho former ; the name of which last 
^ rematn&f while the tiling itself ban diruippeared. Secondly, each indi- 
** I'klmd was in the shape of a cylinder, witli Ivi^ back and sides in a 
** eb-tle : and he bad four hands and four legs, and two faces placi^d 
** r>pj>mite to each other upim a round neck, exactly alike in e\ery 
*• rMpet-t ; and one head to both fjuces, and four ear^ and every tiling 

I •* the to correspond. Theie creatures walked uprlglit m we do now, 
* witerefoever they pleased ; but if they wished to run very fast, they 
•• Ijot on at a mo&t prodigiouB rate with tbetr eigbt limbs, by tumbling 
** bpt'U OTer bead like the tmnbler?, Tlie reason wliy the sexes were 
" three in number, and of such a nature as I have de^cribed^ waa 
*" bet'Htiiie tlie male originaWy sprung from the Sun, the female from the 
" E»rtht and ibe one which partukes of both from the Moon, aince the 
" MtKjn also partakes of both principles ; and their bodies and their 
** nu-itious were circular ou account of their resembling their parents. 
•• Now tbftse people were terribly strong and vigorous, and very high- 
" spirited ; and what Homer says respecting EphiAltes and Otus having 
** ntt^'inptefl to scale tlie heavens, in order to attack the godn, is uu'aut 
" to upply to them* Jiipiter, therefore^ and the other inmiortab, cou- 
** stdered wbat they should do to defeat their machinations, and were 
** dreadfully puzzled. Tliey could nut destroy tbcm with thunderbotta 
•* Itke tlie giants ; for then they would have got no honours and sacriliceB 
** fpoin maukind ; nor could they, on tht^ oiiier hant!, allow them to 

, * contiaile lh«?ir inntdenee. At laut Jiipiter eoiteeives an idea, ami sayi. 


*• / think Fve ^of u schema nihkh mil put a slop to tfmr mperttmnce 
" it'ifhiiitf annihUttl'tng the rttce. TU cut crertf one of them in half ; ami 
** lAujf iheif Will hoik he f4?eakerj and also more u$eful to m godj^ on account 
" of thfiir int^rrtufil numbers. Tk^y skull for the future walk upright 
" ttptin two Itffs; but if they still cotifi/nie itiEole7tt, and n'un't keep qtitett 
" FU cut Ihtm in half aqniuj and make ilttm hop along upon omu 
" Hg then prwreedeil to split tliein, just ah one cutn a medlar fm 
" pickling, or slices an egg in half with a hDtst-hair. As faat as 
** they were cut, he tlchvered ihern over ta Ap^>Ilo, to Imve the fuct^ and 
" the half of the neck twisted rounil to the part where the cut had been 
" made, in order that the man miglit conttnually hare o view of it, and 
" thus be induced to behave hiniaelf nior^ decently. Ap6lla accordingly 
" twisted round the face of each, and dragging the skin from every side 
*• to what is now culled the belly, likt the purses ivhich draw up with a 
^^ string, made one mouth of it, and fastened it ; and thk pAtt is now 
" named the navel. He also jointed the nba together on the braa^tt and 
*■* siiiootlied away the gretiter part of t)ic wrinkles, — making use of much 
*' such an instrimiL-nt ns the ia^lGii which Hhoemakcrs Binooth their liides,— 
" but left fl few in the neiglibourhood of tlie belly and navel^ to remind 
" them of their imcient misfortune. Each tif ua therefore h the half of 
" one of these double men ; and accor<ling to tlie isex of the creature from 
" wliich we derive our origin, our propensities iind incliimtiojis var>^ ; fo? 
" it is but rational to suppose, that from having been so closely cotmeeted 
** for so long a time witli a being tiimilar to oiipwlves, we should have 
" acquired a prodigious liking for i^ll others which resemble it. Hence 
" those who are sprung from tlie ancient hermaphroditci^ if they are men^ 
" are fond of the society of women ; if women, of tliat of men. Again, 
** those who arc the halves of tlie douhle-wojneti^ will have nothing to 
** say to the addre9sea even of the most beautiful youths^ and if tlieir 
" parents compel them to marry, lead their unfortunate husbands a com- 
" plete cat-and-di^g life of it And lastly, the halves of the double-men 
" are those morose, crabhed fellows who are always declaiming, bke my 
" good friend Euripides, against the deceitful n ess, the tren^chery, the im- 
** modesty, and tlie impiety of tlie fair sejc, 

** The inoral.therpfore^of my story ia tbis^ that whenever we see either 
" man or woman throwing away their health, their reputation, and their 
*' money, for the sake of indulging an imfortunate pa*;!iion for some person 
" of the other sex, we ahould mjike a Uttle allowance for the extravagances 
'* of which they are gnilty ; and reflect tliat it is their misfortune, and 
" not their faidt, that they originally formed part of one of the ancient 
** benn aphrodites. And we shoidd also bear in mind, that we ought ta 
^^ take care arkd behave piously find religioujsly toward)^ the gods, and 
'* especially the great and powerful god Love ; or cls<? we may perhapSi 



•* hv cut in halve« a ^cond thiie «*>iiie fine mormiig* ond have to gi> 
** iibmit with mdy one ehccki like the profile*iace8 in u biia-relicf.*' 

Ttie youtltfUt an J handsume ^4gftthan next taken up the ball ; and 
IKrrc then rvinaina no one but Socrates^ who haa not contributed his flbure 
lo llic ettt^rUinmcnt of the company. The philosopherT bJiving politt*1y 
i^ienied pemib»iont{?thri>whi»ide[LS into the fonn of queiitioiiis, acciitd- 
mi^ to liifl i^siml cit^tom, addr^i^d to IiIh young bo»t^ starts vfH nearly in 
l}ie follow infij words, which are given an a fuir speciintm of ihe far-famed 
Sdcritic method of iirgiiineht. Jt innjit be understood^ that he is quiti; 
in e&mcAt in what he Aays^ &nd tbiit the logic is every whit k6 good as 
what b genemlly put into his mouth in the works of Pkto, 

^ is Love, my dear 'Af^athon, the love of domething^ or the love of 
** noLhing f For instance, if 1 were to a«k you, is a Father the father of 
" mme one, or the father of no otie, woidd you not say, if you wished to 
••answer properly, that he is the father of a son, or of a daughter? *' 
** C*Ttftinly." ** And in like manner is not a Motlier the mother of a 
■^ son. Of a daughter?" '* YeB." ** And a Brotlier the brother of a 
** brother* or of a abler ? *" ** He is/' " Now then answer me thb — Is 
" Lave the love of son^ie thing, or the love of UDtMng ? " " Qeariy of 
" something/* *' Mind you recollect what you have just now agreed to- 
" And does Lo%*e desire that of wliicb it is the love or not ? " ** It 
*• d«iir«« it.** ** And is it yioBScaspd of thai which it desires and lovc% at 
•• di£ liine when it desires and loves ^ " ** 1 sbou!J tliink moat pr^ibably 
** not,** *• But i«n*t it not only prnftMr^ but absolutely n^cesmry^ that 
**that which desires should desire the thing which it want^^i, or eW not 
" degrin? itataJl, if it doeu not want it?" " I must eonfcsa you are right/* 
*• For would any tall man wbli to be tall, or any sirong man wish to be 
** mroag ? '* " Impossible. For he could not want that which he already 
ttoiei^'' ** For if you consider, 'Agathon, it k neeesAary for him to 
^lie |MMe«rd at the prc^'ut momei^t of the thinga of which he is pos- 
»ed, whether he chooses it or not ; and surely no one would desire 
irli tbin^w. So when any body w»ys, / ttm hcfjttUtf, and teinh fo bf 
'* ki'rtithtf ; ami / ttm ruh^ nmi wixh tn hr rich ; we ought to reply tohhn; 
^ Sir^ ^ou urt alrt^uthf pm^fm^fd uf meulthj and htatih^ and *trcngf/if and 
* ii kfiff the future that you d^^iff theae hkuinfft i for ui the pmeni 
^imommi jftm tirr posMrMrd of I At' m^ whrther tfou chmf4e it or n&t.'* ** You 
e quite right, Sficrates,'* *'And u not the desiring, that the thing 
•* which he hiu* at present may rL-maiii ti> him for tlie future, eijuivaknil 
** lo dmiring the thing which he is not aa yet |>OJ^Bei»ied of?*' ** Certainly/' 
*' ITib m«n« therefbre« m well as cver^^ body eUe who des^ire.^ desires 
** wliat hit bs» not got; and denire and love are always for sometiuTig 
** whieh a |Mfnon wanta? " ♦»¥»»." "Now then let us reconsider 
' the iSiffli we have arrived «l. In Ihe (irKt place, Lave b thv love of 



** somctliing ; andj in tiiL? second placet Irove is the love of tliat wluch it 
** wants ; or is i I not so ! " " You arc perfectly correct" " And is Love 
*^ the lovt! of lw?auty, or the love of iiglineM V* ** Of the fonner, un- 
** douhtedly." " Tlien love nmtit want beauty f " "Yes.'* ^* And would 
** yoii rail that heautifid which want& heaiity '? " ** By no means.*' 
** Then love cJinnoL he beautiful T' '* I am afraid not" ** And i^ not 
i* every tiling vvhiclt is good, also beautiful ? " ** Yes*'* '* Tlien love 
** cannot he gimd eitlier ? ** ** Dear Sdcratest, 1 cannot ar^e against you ; 
** 10 let it he 05 you say.'* " My ttweet friend, it is against fntth that you 
** cannot argue ; for to argue against S6crate8 is no diflicult niattcr." 

Them h a great deal more of ttiis irigeuions sort of trifling, which has 
been dignified by the name of philosophy, in die original ; but the reader 
must be pretty well uiirteited of it by this time, and we shuU tlierefon* 
pa^s it over in silence. As soon ha the diiitcotit-He has been finij^hed, 
atuid^t the rapturous plaudits of the company, there itt a violent knocking 
heard at tiie street-door, and the voices of a drunken party of young men, 
flcconipaiiied by a ptping^rL ** Boys/* says 'Agnthon to his slaves, 
**gaaml see wluit*8 the matter- and if it is any of my friends, invste hhn 
** in \ if not, any that we have done drinking, and arc just going to bed/* 
Soon ai^r^ards they hear Alcibiadeii!, in the open quadrangle or court, 
around winch tlic apartments of a Greek ^entletuan's house were buik. 
He is very drunk, and keeps bawling out for 'Agadion, and bidding 
the slaves take hini to 'Agathon. llie piping*girl therefore, and 
Borne of the attendants, lay hold of him* by tlie anns, and conduct 
him to tile door of the dining-room* The jiarty remark that he has 
got roupd hi* head a very bu^hy garland of ivy and violets, and a 
very great nmnher of ribands. "Gentlemen, how arc ye? " he exclaims; 
*' a drunken man will make famous company for you : or 'must I go, as 
** soon as I have done w^hat I came for t I was not able to attend your 
" party yesterday, 'Agathon, and therefore I have now" come with these 
'* ribaniU on my own head, to crowu the head of the moKt clever and 
" beautiful^( Airf^Hj]*) if I say so— (AjcrMjyjr) poet^will you laugh at me 
** for a drunkard ? Laugh aa yon please, airs; I know I'm spi^fdting 
" Uie tmth. Well now, shall I come in or not? Will you make an 
u agreement to drink with me or not t " Every body of course calls out 
to the liandsome yoimg hero to come in ; and he is supported by the 
attendants to the couch on which 'Agathon is lying along with Socrates, 
taking tlie ribands off Ids head as he goes. Hence, from having his 
eyes partially hlindetl, he does not observe his friend the philosopher, 
who has politely made r<xim for him» but sits down with his back to turn, 
between the two ; and af\er !iaving embraced the poet, crowns him witli 
the ribands, which he has brought for that purpose. " Boys, there," sajB 
tlie host, " take off Akihiade« s shoes thai he may he between us tw^/' 



** By all mpana," repUea Alciblades ; ** but who h our other friend ? ■' llu 

tarm rouud to look, discovers Socrates, and^ Uapltig up^ exdajmSf " O 

" ll^irulea, what has come to me? Here la S6cratt?H again in ambiiah, 

" jii»t a& be alwayi meets me.^ vfht*rc I leant expect liliii ! " After a little 

moT« amusing hadina^e, he beg» some of the ribands back again from his 

lioftt, and crowns bis master with iliemT '* as a man who has anrpaast^ 

•* nil mankind in literary attain me ntg, tliroughout his whole lifi?, nnd not 

" merely on a lute ocenaionj like you, 'Agatbon*" He then takes bts 

place cm the sofa, between the poet and the philosopher ; and as soon in 

_lie btti done so, cidU out : ** Gentlemen, you aeem to me to be sober : I 

not lillow it ; yon must drink, according to our agreement. Until, 

" dierefoTCj you are suffioicntly tipuy, I hereby elect myself as toastmjister* 

•* 'Agatlmn must let u» ha^e tlie largest cup be has got j or rather, there 

•' U no occasion ; but do you bring here, boy, that wine-cooler ;" obwrv- 

ing that it held more than two quarts. A3 he la desired, tlie slave brings 

[it, and Hlk it with negus; Alcibiades drinks it off at a drangbt, andUien 

[ Ws the boy £11 again ^ and present it to S6crateB, who came next in 

l^nlirr, ujccording to the Grecian custom. Tlie potent philosopher tosaes it 

Lolf; And while it is paasit^ round to the rest, Aknbiades is called u[H)n for 

rlii discourse in praise of Love, as all the othera have dehvered tlieirst. 

^ But, my good feilowa, I am tipsy, and you are sober ; and, besides, J 

*• dar* not praise* any body in Socrates s presenct. He is so jealous, tliflt 

*• he would not he ubk" to keep bis bands off me/' "Then if you won't 

** pmac Love, praise Sferates." *' Agreed ; 1 will do so." 

Tkk «nctnnium must ncceasarily be omitted, as it is extremely long 

I and grest purt of it k totally unfit to meet the eye of the English renden 

. Shortly aftLT it is finished, a great number of comdst^^ or yming gentle- 

ttiptt who biivc ftalUed out for an evening frolic, come to the doors of tl»e 

, nadi finding them by t'hance left open by a slave wbn had just 

I m^er the way, wdk in, and take their placea on the sofas. Every 

dng it immediati^ly in an uprour ; and the company are obliged to drink 

1 grfAt deal more Uiau Ibey either wishetl or intended. At length Ery- 

f Plucdrus, and some uther»| take their departure ; Aristod^nnua 

bto th« fttms of Muqdieus, and after a verj^ long nap wakes when 

if ts iit^orly dBy%ht and the cocks are crowing, and perceives that every 

fcidy in either gone or asleep, with the exception of 'Agathon, Arist^jpha- 

, and Stjcrates* This worthy trio, — thu tragic poet, the comic }>uet, 

ttod the philoaopbcr^ — -are paimng a bugo cup round moat vigorously ; 

and S^icmtcs is bniily arguing, that every good writer of Iragedies must 

I* also H good writer of comedies, aud vice vtrnd. llie ibeatrieal pair, 

||iuu|^1i ihey must have practically felt the falsehood of the doclnne, yet 

■ay nolliing in reply. By degrees they begin to %\i»\ i first of all 

' Afist/iptumca dto^ dS, and af^erward^, when it m now broad daylight, 



'^\gaLhoTi, The phUoflopher then gets up, bii\'ing, in the wortb of tltc 
original," put tlie tisai to sleep; '* so that the liimioraus description of our 
English Iittrd Thomson may be said to have been literally accomplished ; — 

" Perhaps some doctor of Ir^mendous paunch, 

** Awful aiul decp» a blAck abyss of drink* 

" OutUvca thetii all ; and fron^ hta buried Hock 

" RetiHtig* full of rumination Bad* 

^ Laments the weaknesH i>r these latter timee/' ^ 

Ae*^ompanied by hiu scholar AriatoddmuR, he prtjceeds to the gurdens of 
the Lyct-^utHj wa^he^ hig face and bands, mid paam^s the rest of the day 
there, as iisUiU, in discoursing on various philosophic: id subjects with any 
persons who choose to listen to him. TowartLi evt^iung he raturnu home, 
and goes to bed. 

Hers ends Hie Banquet, or, m tlie Greek word is more literally 
traniilated, the Drhikin(/~partif of Plato ; the reader will, no doubt 
by this time, be fully prepared to coincide in the propriety of the 
latter interpretation. The work of Xenophon, which bears the 
same name, was written at a subsequent period to that of Plato, 
as we have already seen,'* and was, most probably, intended to 
rival and surpass it. It is, however, far inferior in spirit and origi- 
nality, though a certain calm sweetness k preserved throughout, 
wliich we always meet with in the compositions of this author. 
The foUowing may be taken as an abridgment of the chief inci- 
dents in it, which bear upon the state of society at the time ; the 
philosophical disqiusitions are omitted, 

A young and handsome Ath^niaUj of the name of Aut6tyeus, haa oh- 
tainctl the prize in the ^'.rough-and-tiunblu" method of boxing at the great 
least of Minerva; and i» aft^jrwards taken along with hi« father Lyei>n by 
his friend C4llio3, '^ the celebrated patron of the sophista and ^ pliilo- 

(23) The S^ammt^Autumn ; in the part where he is treating of the feast of 
the fox-hunters. The whole of this (splendid pasKige, as well aa a great ileal 
more, has been mrwt unjustifiably cutout in tli*; edition of Thonison's works, 
published by Millar, bi 1750. 

{2A) Note!3n. 

(25) For a autice of htm, tec Bitdty L WL 



«)fpli«*r% to flcp the horac-race at tlie ^ame festival. As aooii an the* sporta 
are over, the party are procet'diitg to CAl liases hoiiB€ In the Pinpuji, uc- 
oompani^ by a gentl^^man culled Nic^ratu^ wh^n they spy out S6crat«s 
«t m dktance, surrounded by eome scholarii and admireTs of his — Crito- 
b&hiK, Hermdi^enes, Antisthenes, and Cbdrmictes. Immediately the 
Avd^ Meeaertfti directs a ^en^anl to abow \m compattiona the way, and 
walks up to the spot wliere S6crfltes b atunding. " I havo Just met 
" you," he exclmmft, ** in right tmie^ gentlemen. I am gning to ^ve 
**aji i?ntertainment in honour of Aut/jIyciis^H victojy ; and I tliink that 
" tay dining-room woidd be far more honoured by the presenee of such 
" lenmed and virtuous men as you, tlian by that q( Generals, and Co- 
** lunel^ and Plaee-huntena." " You are always laughing at ua/' reluniE} 
S6etat^ ^ because yon have paid lar]ge sum^ to Protfigoras, and Gbrgias, 
" rod Fr6dicui, and many otbersi, for the sake tif learnuig their flophisdcat 
*'arti ; while wf are obliged (o do our pliilosopbical drudgery ourselvefl. " 
** You &te quite right, gentlemen ; I am a most treniendouj» fellow iii 
'* |ihiloaophy, though I have always bittierto concealed it from you. But 
** if you wiU now come to my house, I will give you such a speeimen of 
**my extraordioary aet|iiiremenls, a^ islmll ronke it well worth your 
•* trouble. ' All express llieir great obligations to him for the kind invi- 
latitin, hilt as is polite and proper, infuse at first; tmtil they see that he 
really will Ite very much distressed to lose their society. They then con- 
tent to go; and having perfonned their gymnastic exercisein, and anointed 
Ihemjclres with oil, and ik>me of tliem having also taken the bath, they 
make their appearance at the mansion of tlieir munificent host. Aut6- 
Ijctii reclines by the aide of his father, and tlie rest arrange themselves 
in die order that was proper on Uie couebes. The dinner is served up ; 
but the party k at first extremely silent and dull. Before, however, it 
hit huited very long, a certain buffoon, called Plnlip, who is ofWn ad» 
mittcd to the entertainments of great people ^ for the sake of his making 
tnrrriinent, knocks at the street-door, and hida the servant carry word 

Milio be k, and say ** that be wishes to come in^ and has brought a meat* 

• box filled with every retjulsite for dining on other people's provi- 

" sioQs; and also, that bis attendant is terribly fagged , , * * in consequence 
' of aurytng nothing, and having gone without bis breakfast." The 
I is gmdoualy admitted, and standing at the entrance of the apartr 

"^ent, thiia opens his budget of drollerj'. " You are all aware, gentle- 
** men, that I atn a jester by profession ; and I fell no hesitation in 
** coming bere> becatjse I thought it was a far better jest to come with- 
•* out, than wiih, an invitation." ** Then take your place on one of tlie 
^ sofas,'' replies the host ; ** for, as you may see, the company are 
' irrdbly terious, and want, perhapA, a Utile laughter/' Philip rechnea 
»• dtfair»d, and immediati^y endeavoun to crnek a joke, that he may 



fulfil the purpose for ^liieU he wna uKUftlly invited. To Kb great mofti- 
iicatioti, nobtwiy will laugh at it, Shortly afterwards he brings out 
another good thin|^t atnl when no one will laugh at thnt either^ he leaves 
off eating, muffles up his face in the vkirts of his coat, and lays hiniMilf 1 
&t fijll length on tJie couch. ** What's the matter with you, Philip ?" 
raqiiirea ciilliafl j " arc you aeized with a mnldcn pain ? " " Yea,. 
** CAIlias," with a pit^^ouii groan^ " I nm Meiaied with a moat dread- 
" fid pain. My profesision is done for^ as laughter has fled away from 
** amongst mankind. Formerly^ I uaed to be invited to dinner-partiea 
** to amuse the company ; but now, for what end vdW nny body invite 
** me i I might just as well try to m^ike myself immortal, as to turn 
" serious ; and nobody will invite me under the expectation of his hein|^ . 
" iurited in return : for every one knowa, that it wonld be a perfect 
'* miracle to see n dinner carried into my house,*' As he says ihisy he 
bloW!i his nose^ and pretends to be crying^ The ctnnpany administer 
eonaolation, and bid him ** go on with his dinner ; they will laugh at his 
** jokes for the future.'* Critobulus, when he hears his friends around 
him expressing their comiuia4iration for the unfortunate gentleman, can- 
not contain himfielf, but biusts out into a tremendous horse-laugh. Tlie 
jester then immediately uncovers his face^ and goes on with his meal^ 
encouraging his «oul with tlie promite, ** that every bo*ly will pay his 
" flhare of laughter.*' Tlie tables are at length removed, and they pour 
out the libations, and sing ihe solenm hyum, as uaual. Shortly after- 
ward^ a foreigner, from Syracuse, waits tipon them, accompanied by an 
excellent piping-wommi, a daneing-gkl who perfortiis juggling feats, 
ftiid a very beautifiil boy, who can both play upon the guitar, and dance 
to adni tuition. For exhibiting all their accompli shmentii he ie to receive 
a certain amii of money, unlike Philip, who, bvlng a citizen of Athens, ii 
treated pretty nearly on a footing of equality with the rt^at, and is paid 
for his services by the dinner he eats. When the piping-woman has 
piped, and the boy has played on the guitar, and both have given very 
great satisfaction, S6eratea says, ** By Jove, Callias, tliis is a most coni- 
** plete entertainment ; for you have not only set before us an unex- 
" ceptionable diimer, hut you have also delighted our eyes and our ears." 
" Shall I send for some perfumes likewbe, that we may have another 
" sense gratified at the same tLme? " ^'No, I am much obHged to yon. 
" Perfumes are only fit for the ladies ; a man ought to smell of notliing 
" but simple olive-oil," After some further remarks, he continues thus : 
** But I see the dancing-girl is standing up, and some one h bringing 
" her some hoops.*' I^pon this the piping- woman begins to pipe^ and an 
attendant Kt-anding by the side of tlie domcuse, gives her the hoops one 
after the other, until they amount to the number of twelve. As she 
takes tbem^ she tosses them up in the air, dancing all th« time, and 



cAtctilatlng eituctly liow \ugh they oii^ht to be tliTOwn, in order lliat 
ihcy may l>c.' n^ceivi^d, mid toa&ed up again in n^giilar iuccessjon^ 
Tbi* womlerfViJ spectacle gives oc pulsion to Sfcrntea to remarkj that women 
ituiy evidently Ih^ taiiglit iiiiytltin|^ thiit is required. ** Tlien/' rejoins 
AntisitheTtes^ wlio afterwards founded the Cffmcal or emtine school of 
phiUi»ophy» **why dun*t you teaeh your wife Xanthfppe better he* 
'*hj|viour? for at present she is the greatest shrew that Ai^jt exiitt£^y doeti 
^* exist, or^ I think, ever tt^ill exist f *' Beciiiifle I oljserve that men who 
"* wi»h k» ride well, mount the most restive horses they can procure ; 
'rf Aiming thui*, that when tiiey have learnt to master them^ they wilJ 
*find it an easy task with tjmder nar^x. Iti the Hamc^ manner I, who want 
*^ to learn how to associate with mankind^ have maiTied a shrew^ knowinj^ 
** that if I can bear her vrtgarien, I shall find U an easy task witli those of 
** th& reat of my vpecies/' Imniediately afler wartls a circular board is 
brought in, siurounded on every side by a rampart of tiaked swords, 
fixed upright into it. In and out of tliia circle, over the swords, the 
d^ujcing-girl repeatedly "tumbles ; so that every body is afraid she will 
kill beris*?If^ though she does it with the most perfect boldness and safety. 
The handsome boy next eKhibits his abdities nis a dancer, and clicita 
frrnn ibe snsceptibie philosopher the remark, " that he looks still more 
** haudiiome while he ia dancing : and that every single limb in lus body 
**iiee^ms c^ed ijito action," **Come, now/' says the jester, as soon as the 
dAn4!e was over, ** let ihe woman pipe for me too \ I'll give ye a dance*" 
Accordingly, he fttands np* and exhihits a ludierouis parody on tlie feats 
which the girl and the boy Ijad p*?rformed. Because the compony re- 
marked that the hoy looked etiU handsomer while he waa daneing, ho 
mftkrs, every part of )ib 1)ody ihal ho moves appear slill more ridicidous 
thfta It natiirally ia : and becaiue the girl bent herw^' bsckwarck to imi- 
a whaei **, he bends himself forward to iniitato the same thing i 
at hwit, heeau.^e they praised the boy for calling every limb in hi» 
body in In action, he bids the piping-woman play quicker, and tlirowa 
ibout hi* legs, hands, and head, all at the same time, in tlie most extr^ 
wfditMyy manner. When he ii tired of tliii atnusement, he lays himaelf 

(26) ** We Bbopped for a short time in a laige ante-room, where the Vixijfi 
*'bttnd wm Inlaying to a troop of dancing l>oy^ dre^ited in the inoBt etfemtnate 
'^miniter,, with flowing petticoats of crimson ailk, and silver-cliwi^eil zones 
•*annin J the waisL. They were revotving in one giddy and interminable circle, 
*' twi>tln|{ their pliant bodic» li:ito the most contorted figures, and uning the mo&t 
:uou« gotaie% throwing about tlieir armit and heads Uke infariated Bac^ 
i^inlsv ^nd mm^me§ bemiing batk ihdr htjitien iiii their tifUff hair acinali^ 
wpt ihi ffrmmd,**~lliii^\\c9'» Traveh in Altamit, &c. II. p,4B, 



down iigmn, and myn^ '* Gt>ntlemen, this is a sign kliat every part of my 
" lutdy has been wt?ll pxercised — 1 am monstrnua tJiiraty. Let the scr^ 
** vant flU me the great flftgoii," " Yes,*" my& €&\hiL% ^* and \is Um ; for 
** we are all thirstj' with laughing at ycrnr mad pranks." Sficratt^, how- 
evL^Ft oppoj^es thia motion — '^* I tofi am an advocate for drinking ; for wina 
** i?xhilamteji our souls, aa a sliower of rain the plants in the field. But 
"just as these are borne down to the earth, if tlve rain is too copious, so 
** ii a man oveqjowered by immoderato indulgence In wine, I propose, 
" therefore, that we drink out of Kuiall cups, and tiave them frequently 
"replenished.*' AH assent; Philip ohacrving tiiattlie attendants must at 
ali events imitate knowing jockeys, imd increase their speed as they go 
on, This most important affair being thus settled, the boy tuneg his 
guitar to the pipe, and plays upon it, accompan^itvg himself with his 
robe, while the piping-woman adds her ahare to the concert. Their 
performances art universally approved of, which gives occasion to Socra- 
tes to remark, ** that every jx'rsoji present coutiiders , himself far cleverer 
*^ than the exhibitor^, and therefore it is disgracefid for them not to at- 
** tempt to amuse and instnict one another-" Hereupon be proposes 
that each of the company shall mention what he is most proud of, and 
afterwards declare his reasons for the predilection, A very long debate 
consequently takes place, wliich is not necessary to enter upon. At 
length the Syracuaan, ohserving that they are entertaining themselves 
with one another, and neglecting his exhibitions, and being imgry with 
S6crates for inciting them to do so^ makes a dead set at the philosopher : 
" Are you the Socrates wbo is suniamcd Tht Thinker ? '* " Ts not that 
** better than to be called 77/ c? Vntk'mkimj ?*' " Well, well ; never mbd. 
" But tell me how many of its own feet a flea is distant from me ; for 
" they say that these are your geometrical studies/' *^ The insolence 
of the fellow occasions a general feeling of indignation amongst the 
pnrty, and all begin to talk vehemently and loudly at once ; when Sticra* 
tea puts an end to the disturbance by good humourcdly observing, " Well, 
** as we all want to talkj why not sing at the same time ? '* Immediately 
upon which he volunteers a song. Tliis expedient of course procures 
flilcnce, and allows the angry passions of liis scbolani and adniirera to 
evaporate. When he bas finishe<l, a potters wheel is broiught in, un which 
the dancing girl is intended to st^ind^ and then to shew tlie company 
that she can read, write, and ^o t!irougb various otiier evolutions, while it 
is rapidly whirled round. ** It seems," says S6crates, " my good Syra- 
" ciisan, that 1 am really a thinktr ; for 1 have just been thinking bow 

(27) Alluding t<» the satire in the ClmdA 1. 144, The epithet TMnket is de- 
nred ^m the same source. 



** the paHy may be be«l diverted with your young people ; which I 
** know b the very thing that you yourst?lf aim itU A* to esihihiiions on 
** m jKitter s wheel and bq fortli, they are certainly very wondcriulT Iml 1 
** can't see whut pleasure they give* If we wanted mere wonders, we 
** have plenty of tfiem already before ua, \Vk tniglit puzzle ourselves 
** for the reason, why the brightness of this lamp gives* light, while the 
** bngbtnesn of that flagon out there doeH not give light, and yet refleets 
" olJier objectsi : or why one liqiud» oil^ feeds the fire^ and another 
**Uquid, water, puti it out. But these are not the kind of subjects which 
" are proper to be dJACUsaed over our wine. If, however, your young 
** friends were to dance a kind of hetlkf lo the music? of die pipe, and ex- 
" pr e n the cha meters of the Grafea, the SeaRons, or the Nymphi*, it would 
" lie both far easier for tbcnij and far more agreeable for us.** ** By Jove, 
'* you are quite right ;'* returns the Sjracilaan, " and I will entertain you 
** with a tpectacle tliat shall delight you extremely/' The man accord- 
ittgly retires out of the room to make bis prep&ratione, and the philo- 
sopher ftuts a fkvmirite topic of bis — -that of Love — which is dineugsed at 
fr«l length* At »oon as it h exhaustt^i, Aut^Jycus gets up^ and leaves 
die pttrty* accompanied by bii^ father ; for it [» now time for bini to take 
bk'tisaa] walk, perhaps to prepare himself for liis tiexi boxing match. 
A elialr i^ then brought tn^ and the Syractjitan steps forwards, and says^ 
*' Gent3emi^n, An4dne will enter the chamber which belongs to her and 
** Bwcchim ; mid afterwards* Baccbufl himself will come in from a party 
" amongst the gods, where be has been getting a little tipsy ; and they 
" will then toy with one another/' Upon this, as was predously ex- 
,||j|||9d, Ari&dne entcrst* dressed as a nyuipb, and takes her seat upon 
At dmr; Bacchus then comes in, dancing txj a quick Bacchic mea- 
•iifi. A* ioon m Ariadne perceives him^ every body sees that she is 
d*»lsght«*iK and tliati altliough she does not get up to meet him, still it 
i* »ith tbi* utmost ditHcnlty that she retains her seat. When Bacch\is 
olMer%4^ her, \\e daoces up to her in the mo»t loving manner po»sible| 
•iti down upon her hip, rmd embraces and kiraefi her. The nymph 
appeacri to be a little a^ihamed at lirat, but still returns his emUracei 
iDMt lovingly. Tlie clappings and exclamations of delight from the 
campany now become most rapturous, Bacchus next rises up, and 
Milibi liii fair mistrci^B from her Beat ; and tbey dance n pax df dt'iix^ 
kWng and embracing one another in various elegant attitudes. Every 
fcody now becomes exceedingly excited, from obsennng that Bacchus is 
aaUy hnndsome^ and Ari6dtie really beautiful, and that tbey do not 
makt believe, but kiss in earnest with tlteir mouths. Tbey can even 
of^rlittAr the youth asking the girl in a whisper, *' if she loves him," and 
tSw Wttcr replying in the affirmative, with stich pawionate adjurations^ 
thKt «iy person might know that ihey were mutually and sincerely 

iittaeliet]^ At lafit, hnving ^'^a tUcitt embracpi mid retire a» IF ta their 
n4poae, llHHe of tho party who tire uninarricd, swear tliat they wilt 
many as snon ns posaible, aiid tlioHe wlio are inarritKl, mount their 
hcmet) and gallop iiff to their wh'et^. Socrates, ntid sorne others who sliU 
rptnaiti beltiud tor a short time, go off along with Cillias, to accompany 
Lycon and hb son in tht-ir walk; and thus the cntprtainment concludes. 

And liere, too, we must conclude wltat we have to offer on tho 
subject of the manners and cu^iomit of the Atheniani ; a chapter 
in the history of foreign nations, that has ^'cnerally been written 
both by Engliahinen and Englishwomen in the same true John- 
Bull spirit ofsdf-Bufficient arrogance, which led the honest Brid*h 
seaman to fill up the corresponding colnmn in hia journal with 
the laconic notice, "Inhabitants of Muscat, — As to their 
** manners, they have none, and their customs are very beastly," " 

if the reader should complain of the want of high-flown morality 
and heroic disinterestedness in the men and women tJius briefly 
introduced to Ids vicw^ and desiderate something that approaches 
nearer to the glorious deeds of a ReguJus, a Marcus CfiHius, or 
a Codrus ; he had better desert tlie historic for the heroic age, 
and the sober pages of truth for the idealized fictiona of imagi- 
nation. The only periods when men are represent-ed aa having 
been poB&eised of every virtue, and ignorant of every vice^ are 
precisely thosCt in the description of which the writer has fup- 
plied the dearth of facta by the fertility of his fancy. The world 
may rest ansured* that it is a very good little world still* and Qir 
better than It ever was in the fabulous days of its early youth. 

Let us now pass on to a subject winch more immediately con- 
cerns Aristophanes and hia readers ; that of the ancient Grecian 
Hieatres. The first point to be here attended to, ia their prodi- 
gious size. The theatre at Argoa, as is proved by existing 
remains, measured about 4S5 feet acnms | that at Sparta, about 

(^) Sec Sir Joha Malcolm** SkeicUas ^f Ferma, I. p. 16. 



453 ; that at Megalopolis, aiboiit 480; while the ^'gantic building 
nl Ephc»uSi in Asia Minor, actually reached the astonishiiig bread tli 
of exactly 660 feet, or half a quarter of a mile**® Yet, notwith- 
standing these enormoua dimensions, so great was the akill of the 
archilects of those days, that the voiee of the actor was Ueard with 
perfect facility in the most remote part of such an immense con- 
ftmetjoti. Nor are we left to depend for the truth of tliis fact on 
the evidence of ancient authors, to whom, from not properly dii- 
eriminating between the idle fabulisrt and the trustworthy his- 
torian, many would reluctantly yield their assent : we learn irom 
s modem traveller, that even in the ruins of one of theee huge 
pQcs of marble, where we might certainly expect to find a leas 
IKrfect distribution of ftoimd than in the perfect erection, the slight 
noM made by tearing a piece of paper h disseminated to the 
mojit remote spectator's fieat.^^" Witli sucli a iact as tliisi before 
OUT eye% it would l>e ridiculous to waste time in urging the force 
of eollalera] autliorities. 

The theatre at Athens is unfortunately in such an extremely 
ftAooos state, that it k very difficult to form any tiling like a satis- 
kcUnj idea of its dimensions. Colonel Leake, however, to whose 
id^mle and teamed researches the classical world is under such 
«tema] obligationa, has estimated its probable breadth at not less 
ihan 'l5Ci or 500 feet." Hence, it would have contained nearly 

(2») See tor tkcm roeo»iifemeral», Lcoko^s Tour m Asia Atinof^ p. 328, and 
7W«fil« iit ihf Moria^ IL p. 40. 

(30) Speaking of the remuifid of tlie Roman Lhcatrc uf TaiLrom^iujn, the 
modem Taaimimi, Mr. Hii^if» aajs, ^' Those are in u Hinguliu- stJiU' of pn^iiter- 
*ttliimi «nci? ni>l only the cav^fa^ but prre^t part of the ftrmcmdutn^ ha» 
*feiiit«d tJie attaekA of time. The circumference <>f the iip|]«r gallerj, whkh 
^«M ii<ralile, and iupported by three rows of cutumtiS!, ci^oeeded IMM> f^, 
to 0iir measurement. Vet, in JU preMQt niinoui Rtate^ the leiut 
t nude upon th« proMCftnujn^ vv&n thiLi of tearing a emaU piece of paper ^ 
I heud n\}Bimci\y iti the furthest posdble di«tiin«N3 b thi* jnmipnBe fi*bri<j."^ 

i in Gre^ca, ^e. T p. l2fK 
(>l) Topoffrmpky qfJth^nM, p. m. The learnt author afterwanli mw oeca- 

d 2 



18,000 spocUtors, or 20,000 on an emergency, which is the 
number the same scholar assigns^ firoin its existing remains, to 
the theatre of DramisuSi near Joannina, in Epini£ ; whose internal 
diameter is, however^ unusually small compared with its external, 
(80 feet to 460 feet,) and, therefore, its capacity of accommo- 
dating a large audience unusually great.'' 

The next hnportant consideration relative to thia subject, is the 
fact of the ancient Greek theatres having been open to the sky, 
like Shakfipeare^a Globe Theatre,^* and the performances, as in 
that caae also, having taken place by daylight. In the event of a 
mdden shower of rain coming on, and its being necessary to sus- 
pend the play* we learn that there were Piazzas, or Porticos 
and Porches, as they are frequently called, open for the reception 
of the spectators ; but we must not measure the frequency of such 
a circumstance in 'Attica, by its common occurrence in England* 
It is to the peculiar advantage of being thus exposed to the face 
of the heavens, as has been felicitously ohsen^ed by Mr* Words- 
worth, that we are to ascribe, " in a great degree, the successful 
** daring of the Aristophanic plays. To cite instances : How, in 
** the confinement of a modem theatre, could we imagine a Try- 
" g^ua soaring above the sea in an aerial excursion?" There 

«on to modify his vieWB a httlfl respectisg a pan^ge in tlie DnnMng-parti/ nf 
P]at4>, (p. 175,) to which he return in the provioua page* (Compare Toftoffr. 
Athem^ p. 59, aiid notes 1, and Travels in ihe Morea^ U. pp, 397 and 5M. 
See also the uuthorities indicated in Wordsworth*!^ Athene and * Attica^ pp, r>2, 
m, and Boeckh^s FubL Ecm. Aihens, I- p. 47 J TlieophrAstus iCH^fftct. *29^ 
mak&a his L^e Learner^ or ScA'a^enariati Schooiliotf, *' stay out ihree or four 
" filling? at the? public shows, harrdnff the songs h^ heart ; '' whenL* it would 
seem to folJow^ that the jmm€ tragedy or c&mtdtf was pJaj^ed over three or four 
times, in order to aceommodatG the muUitudes who thronged to see it ; just ns 
tk college, whose haU is not laji:ge enoll^h to dine all ita atadenta at one go, geti 
over the difficulty by having two dinners in one day. 

(32) Leaked Traveh in A'^orihem Grirerc, 1. p. 265. 

t33) A* W. Schlegera Leeturesm Bramifin' Literahtre, ILp. 2G6. 

134) '' PeaceJ. IGS;' 



" hU journey wotiid be reduced to a mere meehameal process of 
'* fopes and pullles> and would Ik? inexorably baffled by the resist- 
'* ance of the roof. Rut Ln the Atlienian Theatre, the sky itaeU' 
" was then visible, whither he was mounting, and in which he was 
" plaeed by the simple machinery of the imaginatioQ of the 
" spectatorsi to which free play was given by the natural proper- 
" ties of the theatre itself. How again, if pent in hy the limits 
** of a modem theatre, could the Birds be imagined to build their 
''aerial city?" How could the Clouds have come sailiug on 
•• the stage from the heights of a neighbouring Pames ? How 
** in such A position could the fixture minbter of Athens have 
" surveyed from the stages as he did/* the natural map of liis own 
'^ future domains ; the 'Agora, the harbours, and the Pnyx, and 
** all the tributary islands lying in a group around him ?***' 

In order to arrive at a clear idea of the construction of a 
Greek the-atre, let us take the largest of our London ones — 
tka Italian Opera-house — and having stripped it of its roof and 
its galleries, and substituted the genial beams of the sun for the 
l?lare of artificial light, let ua extend the lower tier of seats 
bsckwards, at the same gentle ascent, until the depth of this tier 
of seats becomes somewhere about equal to the breadth of the 
»ta|?c. If we til en clear the pit and the orchestra of their 
benches and divisions, ornamenting the naked wall thus presented 
to the eye with some elegant columns and statuary," and place in 
the centre of this new and enlarged orchestra the sacred Thy- 
uaki or altar of Bacchus," and imagine a troop of twenty-four 

my Aihau and JtHca, p. U\l (38) PoUux, IV. 124. 

(J9) A. W, Sehlegel ntuttn, without any expresa authority a# fkr aa 1 am 
wait, that the Thjifm^if *' wm the *tfttJoti of the Chorum wheti it diil not sin^, 
* Imt merely tank an iiiter^t Ui the adioti^"* Aoci thnt *' the leader of the 
^Choruf tht'ii lotik hh ^Ution on the top ol:' thtr Thi^mtlf' to «» whiU was 
'^ pvMtDg on ihc^ dtii^% mid to comtnuniL'sitt.' wUh thu eharuilefs.'' {Ltci. Dram, 



dancera moving round it in a compact oblong figure, carolling 
their merry lays to the music of a few pipes or flageolets ;^we 
may fomi some notion of the appearance of one of the very 
email est Grecian theatres during the exhibition of a new comedy* 
But the stage, too, must submit to be remodelled, before we can 
consider the resemblance as at all complete* Instead of the 
innunierable sliding and rolling scenes, which add such splendour 
to our dramatic representations, we must ereet of solid marble, at 
the distance of a very few feet from the modem ** hnnps," a 
long, low line of buildings, containing, together with a fair pro- 
portion of windows," a large door in the centre, a smaller one on 
eacli side of it, and a still smaUer one at each extremi^ of the 
facade*" TIub erection is to be considered as permanent ; for 
with the addition, perhaps, of a few columns, and other architec- 
tural ornaments, for tlie sake of adding dignity and majesty to ita 
character, it served, generally speaking, equally for tragedy and * 
for comedy. Let the reader now conceive three ordinary i^eenes I 
united together in the form of a triangular prism, and revolving 
upon an axis m such a way as to exliibit, by turns, each of the 
three facea to the eye of the spectator ; let hiiu also imagine a 1 
machine of tliis description ** placed at each extremity of the I 
line of building;s fronting the audience ; and he will then he in 

iAt. I. p. 62.) He appeaiv to have been led into thii stippoaitioa bj the term 'I 
CotypAWvf, OT headttmtiy which was applied to the leatler of the Chorus; tmil 
by the words of PoilfLT {IV. 123), ''the ITiyitielo, whpthpr it wm n. kind of 
" hutHngn {hvmn]^ or whether it wijs an altar." It seems more probable, how- 
ever, that this Thymtk^ or altar^ was merely » remimtit of the elJeti day^ 
when the sjicrifiLial hymn to Bacchus hnd ivot yet passed Into the ilramatie re- 
pi-e&entation ; and that it was gradually diiiused in later a^es. Neither Pollux, 
nor the gmmmariati Phrytiiehiis, seems to have understood what it meiuit, wliich , 
proves that lu their times, at all eventa, it had cea»e<l to ej^ist. 

(4(1) Waxpft, I. 379. Compurc Bthfi tresses, L 9^. and Famtr&ses, I W^ 

(41) Poilux, IV. m, 136. Compare Vitrut^lm, V, chap. 6. g§ 3 and B. ed, | 

(42) U was technicuUy termed a perUteioii and the paid ted cimvai^or board, I 
which wan teuipomnly afliiied to one of il« three hiCL^ wag called a eaiaUema, j 
-.See PoUuf, IV. VM, 131 , VUHmm, V. chap. 6. g H. 



rion of the only means used by the ancient Greeks for re- 

' ^iresenting that change of place, wliieh we exhibit by such tnul- 
tiikrious contrivancea* 

But the question now immediately occurs — how could any 
allusion e\eT Imve been felt, in the slightest degree^ when the 

' lame unmeaning row of houses was always staring the »pectatur 
to the &ce, whether he waa required to imagine himself at Argos 
ur at Delphi^iii the heights of heaven, or the depths of hell ! 
Kow, in answer to this objection, let the reader ask himself^ 

^ whether the presence of a brace of stage-doors ever formed any 
bar to his momentary belief in the reality of a horrid murder, 
perpetrating in the depths of a gloomy wood by a hand of melo- 
dramatic banditti ? Yet the two cases are precisely analogous ; 

rBxcept that in the modern one tlie thing represented is in the 
centre, and the anomalous additions on eac)i side of it ; wliile in 
the ancient instaaice the converse position was ohsert-^ed. When, 

^indeed, the judgment has once surrendered itself to the guidance 
of the rniaginution, we may sec from other exiunples how grow 
are the deceptions to which it quietly and passively submiu ; 
for, as A. W, Scldegel lias well remarkeil, '* the decoration of 
** our theatres is merely calculated for a single point of view : 
" seen from every other place, the broken lines betray the im- 
** perfection of the imitatjon* So little attention do the audience 
** in genemi pay to these niceties, that they are not even shocked 
•* when the actors enter and disappear through a wall without 
' a door, between tlie side-scenes,**" There is another reason 
rhy tlie perpetual presence of this line of building should 
have been less oif^nsive to an ancient than to a modem eye. As 
we may see from numberless drawings on Grecian vases, &c. 
which have been preserved to the prestnt day, tlic dose juxla- 

ii^) i,itr. tlrum. Ltt. I. i>.3I.V 



positian of two groups of figures, which were in reality separated 
by a very wide interval of sjpace, does not appear to have at all 
shocked the ancient ideas of propriety. Wlieu, therefore, the 
triangular Bide-Bcene was shifted, to represent ^ for instance, a 
distant part of 'Attica instead of a view in Athens, (as in the 
jichdrnians, Act 11. sc, 1,) all that the Athenian fancy was called 
upon to do, was to transport itself to the required spot in the 
country, while, at the same time, it still retained a sort of bird'a- 
eye glance at the central part of the arclutectural decoration, 
which it had been agreed should he taken to represent some 
houses in the heart of the city. 

According to the exigencies of the play to be performed, all or 
part of the five different doors» or, what came to the same thing, 
the five different houses, in the row facing the spectators, were 
distributed amongst those different characters in the piece, whom 
it suited the poet's purpose to exhibit in connexion with their 
dwelling-places. As a general rule, which, however, was not un- 
frequently violated when necessary, the centre one was assigned 
to the first or leading actor ; that on the right*hand to the second ; 
and that on the left to the third,** AH the characters of the 
drama ^ whom the poet did not choose to represent as householders, 
entered the orchestra by one of the two ** entrances " tlirough 
which tlie Chonis came, and then ascended the stage by a flight 
ofstepa,*^ Thebr exits were managed in a precisely similar 
manner. If we may believe some of the ancient grammarians, 
according to the door by which tliey made their appearance, it 
was understood by the audience whether they came from the town 
or from the country ;** and we are alfio told> that of the two 

{U) Poii^iT, IV, 124. (45) Ibid. 127, 

(46) Ibid. 126. See the ninth InlrGductoty Fta^meni in Bekkcr^B n/^ 



fMe triangular scenes , one was appropriated in like rnanner to 
town, and the other to country views.*' 

Hitherto we Lave been occupied in investigating tlie meanaf by 
whicli the change of pkice from one part of a country to another 
was represented on the Grecian stage ; bitt it must have ab-eady 
occurred to every reader faniibar with theatrical matterst that 
thctrt* is another change of place, for wbich no provision at all bas 
yet been made — ^tbe change from tlie exterior to the interior of 
the house. The manner in wliicb thia wa& exbibited to the eyes 
of the audience was, by ** whecUng^out,*' as It was calledi or rather 
** wheeling round" the front of that one of the live permanent 
dwellings^ whose inside was required to be eiqjosed to view : for 
which purpose they were all furnished with appropriate ma- 
chinery." This operation is twice actually named in Aristo- 
phanes,* and we shall meet with numberless other instances where 
there can be no doubt of its haying been employed. But we are 
not to suppose that it occufred at all as frequently as the corre- 
sponding change in a modem drama. For, as Schlegel perti- 
nenUy remarks, ** the Greeks^ like many southern nations of the 
** prefient day^ lived much more in the open air than we do, and 
" tr&nsiictcil many things in public places which usually take place 
** with us in houses."" Besides, every theatrical author would 
imtUTolly have a tendency to make things happen i^efore the house, 
which might equally well happen wUhin it, if it were only Ibf the 
mkt of avoiding the giving unnecessary trouble to the theatrical 
meefaanist^. Accordingly we shall fbid many comedies, as for 
initaiiee the Knuffifs, in which this contrivance is not once made 
use of from tlie beginning to the end ; and the whole action of the 
pieci? takes place under the open canopy of heaven* 

There were various other devices occaaiomdly employed on the 

(iSf) S«v AtMrtimm, Note m. 

(4a) Ibid. 12H. 

(aO) l€(!i. Dmm. Lit. I. (]> £& 



ancient stage, for the several purpoaeu required by the dramatiat. 
For instance, when the habitation of some god was to be exhibited, 
as in the comedy of the Peace ^ there was a little cottage erected 
m the air above the usual permanent facade, to which the actors 
ascended by a somewhat ticklish fljglit of steps, or were drawn up 
in a car, as Hie case might he" There were also certain ropes 
and piUleyg, aa in modem theatres, by which, when requisite, 
lieit>efl and gods were made to ^y through the air, like Perseus in 
the Feastr eases , or Iris in the Birds J^ But it will be best, per- 
haps, to leave the reader to collect information on these points 
from a perusal of our au thorns plays themselves*'^ 

In two very miportant respects, all ancient dramatic represents- 
tiona differed materially from those of the present day* In the 
first place, t!ie actors were all male, m in the times of Sliakspeare, 
and mi til a comparatively recent period; and secondly, no actor 
came before the audience unprovided with a mask, which covered 
tlie whole of hii^ conntenanee. By this latter means, the poet wan 
enabled to exliibit a close resemblance of the features of any person 
whom he chose to satirize, and, in addition, to reproduce over and 
over again the same actor in a different part, with scarcely a pos- 
sibility of t!ie audience noticing the deception. As to the ad- 
vantage, which it will be thought that he lost, of the expressive 
infections of the performer's face, this must have been reduced 
to a mere nothing by the enormous aisse of the ancient theatres, 
and the consequent enormous distance at which the greatest part 
■of the .spectators were placed from the stage. 

It must be borne steadily in mind by every one who wishes to 
form a clear conception of the Grecian tlieatre, that the perfor- 
mances of the Actors are to be carefiilly distinguished from those 

(51) f*oitu^, IV m. See »li«i IhnPeffce, I 174. (,>2) /V/wj, IV. i;il. 

(:)3) See likewiM^ Note (A) al tlit* vm\ of thv Ff^toe. 


"of the Chorus* The former t^xhibited on the Stage ; the latter, bs 
liAlbecn before hinted^ in that ** Orchestra," or Uterally " Dancing- 
*• place," which we have imagined to be composed by throwing into 
tine the modem Pit, and what is now corruptly called the Orchestra, 
Olid appropriated to the Musicians. Thua, fltrange as it may ap- 
pear, one part of every dramatic entertainment was performed 
upon a platform, elevated some ten or twelve feet above the level 
on which the renminder was exliibited to the audience.** We 
ha?e said all that our limits wiH permit respecting t3»e Stage and 
the Actors ; and we will therefore now proceed to offer a few oh- 
^rratioui respecting the Orchestra and the Chorus, 

To our Englisb notions scarcely any thing could neera more 
gtrange, than to behold a troop of four-and-twenty gentlemen or 
Ixdies, drawn up like soldiers in re^^ilar array, and cupering about 
and performing sundry motions with their arms and legs, in correct 
military time, to the music of a few flageolets. If, however, we 
were to hear them, while exhibiting this strange dance^ simul- 
taneom^j sing at the utmost pitch of their voices, in sueh a way as 
to correspond accurately with the mo%^ements of their limbs, we 
ftHouM infallibly conclude that they must be either drunk or de- 
mented, and consign them immediately to bed or to bedlam, Yet 
(t i« positively and precisely true that this was the exact nature of 
the choric performiinces of Grecian Comedy; and tliose of Tragedy 
do not appear to have differed materially, except in the diminished 
numbers of the dramatic troop, and in the more grave and solemn 
choneter of the music and the movements/* Such is the unac- 

(54) rilrwOTW, V. t-hap, J. § 2. 

(.VS) The Comic Chorui UBually i?otiM5tcd of twenty-four, the Tragic of fiftetm : 
ilwf fniTucf WA* dntwii up either ii% or four deep ; the latter either five or three. 
Each had ii " headmnn," { CnrtfphSui^ who Iwl the 9on^. Wht'u the Chonl^ iw 
cootiniiiilfy ocnum^*! lioth m Travel j nnd Corat»dy, formed a merd tut^Tlocutor 
tn IhiS dmlflgiie, this " liusuliuiin '" wm the outy ^jerwui, in nil prohubUity, who 
tpoke- which iiceou7)1» fnf tht* totiliimid t'onfuaiou bolwecn "rue*' imd " hh* in 
IlkMe c»aei^ llitf ipokesmuti eiUier eonftidenng liimsclf m 041 imtividujilt or aia 
ntmber of the body to which he btlotigvd 



countable variety in the opinions and habits of separate nations, 
that a mode of expressing festal joy, which would excite the utmOBt 
astDnkliment in these cold-blooded noitbeni regions, has always 
been approved and practised in Greece from the remotest historic 
era down to tlie present moment. An Englishman has no objec- 
tion to sing, and he has no objection to dance ; but if you a^^k him 
to do both at once, he laughs at you, and positively refiises* On 
the contrary, tlie lively Greek, as will be seen from tlie following 
paaaagcfl, finds it diflicwUi nay* almost impossible, to indulge in one 
mode of venting his superabundant gaiety, without at the same 
time employing the otlier. Speaking of the modem dance known 
by the name of the Romeika^ Mr* Hughes says ; — 

TlkG music which enlivened tlvis esdiibition proceeded from a vile iu- 
strumentr in the Ukenesia of a violin, with eleven airings, five in the up)>er, 
all cutgut^ and ^ix in the lower row, which, hi'jng tn^c of brass, and out 
of rrach of the fiddlestick, are intended prtibably to sound by vibratioiK 
This wretched music, a concatenation of discords, was a^sbtcd, and 
ftorne times nearly drowned, hy the voices of the conipiiny, proceeding 
througli their imml organs ; fart according to ancle at eustum^ f A^r Grtfks 
alwa^x xinff fo the motion of their feet. This orchestra vtm quite over- 

Mr.Dodwell also expreise* himself nearly to the same effect: — 

A Greek tan seldom Jtintf without dancing ui the mme timf ; and the 
rest of the company present can never reaist tlie temptation of joining 
the part)% as if actuated by a natural impulse j and, when they all sing 
together, tlie din is really homhle.*' 

[$&) Travels in Greeee, &c. 1, p. 2i}h. 

(ST) Trateijt in Greeve^ &c. IL p. IB.— -In Captain Crtok*8 Third Fa^gein 
IfoFoci/fA (Book IL chap. 5,) a ve>y spirited and intercatini^'description will be 
fbund of some dance* in the island of tlAi'AKK, in whkh the |>erfonnei*, beiriR 
arninfsud in various n^lar figures* §nng and danced simoUaneoualy. These 
exhibitions seem to ha^e borne a veiy n^mark&bte unalot^ to the chorit dances 
of the Greeks^ they highly astonished and ddighted the j^at navigntOF, who 
csrprenes his opinion that they would havdieen witnessed with extreme pleasuro 
in any EuropenJi theatre, — See espet'ially Flatus 1(1 & i?* in the folio Illuiitm- 
t ions to the Vo/ogc, repre&enti»g the Nti/ht (kim^i\ % Men^ and the JVi^Ai dtinee 



These passages illustrate admirably the permanence of the 
aocient custom in unodern Greece ; but wc should do very wrong 
to estimate the degree of musical skill attained in previous ages, 
bj that which we find possessed by the same nation at the present 
daj^ Afl well might we conclude, because in the arts of poetry, 
af statuary, and of architecture, the proficiency of the modem 
Greek is almost beneath contempt, that therefore his ancestors 
could neither have produced an 'Iliad nor an 'Odyssey — ^an Apollo 
Belvidere nor a Venus de Medici — a Parthenon nor a TheBetim, 
Slil] it is unquestionably true, that in the science of music, a^ in 
the fine arts, the taste of the ancient Greeks leaned decidedly 
towards a massive simplicity. In one respect also the genius of 
their language made that necessary, wliich we have reason to 
think they would otherwise have voluntarily chosen. Every syl- 
lable, as pronounced m ordinary conversation, besides being 
accented or unaccented, as in modern languages, was likewise, in 
technical ^phrase, either ** short" or ** long;" that is to say, 
calling the quarter or any other fraction of a moment a ** time," 
it was pronounced either in one or in two " timea ;" and this not 
according to the arbitrary wliim of the speaker, but by certain 
fcied ajid definite laws* Hence, when words were set to music, 
this proportion was very naturally retained; and, aa in most 
Wiple melodies at the present day, there were only two kinds of 
notes made use of in one composition — for instance, crotchets and 
minims ; ihe former appropriated to the " short," the latter to the 
_ •* long " syllables." How much this must have added to the 
K clear and distinct expression of the words of a song, must be 
H ipfMrent to every one ; and indeed, without some faeilities of 

^^^^■i^^UlP et!ca.iiciiiiilly alfto, hjj we flhall oAcrtrards see, divided a lottg syl- 

^^KtmVtowm »hQrt nnteit. The authontiea Tor the stalemetitii made here and 

iMwIlec, ftspc^ng mw«cal jniitter*, mt^y l>e found in the very learned and 

9^tiAtUttf DUitrtAHm m ihe Mu$ic of th^ Jndtftit, prefixed to Burtiey** 



this kind, it ^cina impoBsiblt^ to comprehend how the 
of fiiVeen or four-and-twenty-persons^ all singing the same 
words at onee, could haire been perfectly understood by th#^| 
audience^ ai we know they were. Far in the ancient dramatic 
exhibitionfi, contrary to the practice in the modern Opera, the 
music, both instrumental and vocal, was kept itrictly in subordi- 
nation to the fidl developement of the poetry. Hence, there were 
no sentences slurred over with bucU extreme rapidity, that the ^ 
{^yickcRt ear would have been unable to detect the meaning of "* 
ihem ; no unimportant words dwelt upon witli such tcdaoiu;; delay, 
as to nauseate the least fastidious amateur amongst the audience ; 
but every single syllable was allowed to occupy precisely that 
time, and no more, in its musical pronunciation} which it would ^h 
have done in ordinary parlance, ^1 

There can be little doubt also, that die ancient Greeks were 
not acquainted widi thorough -bass^ or what the Et trick Shepherd 
ludicrously called, *^ singing two tmies at once." Dr. Burney 
has satisfactorily shewn ^ that when we read in aiicient authors of 
the voice being accompankd by the lyre or the pipe, all that m 
be understood is, that the instrimient played in unisons, or oeta^ 
to the voice ; and that there was no such tlunj* then known as a 
regular baaa to a melody. The various voices also often sang in 
concert, not only in the octave, but the double octave, or 
fifteenth.*' But on this subject j if the reader wishes for fuller 
information J he cannot do better than conflidt the learned and 
acute author just now named/^ 

The admittance to the ordinary seats in the Athenian theatre 
during the times of Aristophanes * appears to have been four- 

(59) HiifL Mm. L p. 137, &«. 

(60) See aim Note (B) at the end of the Prafbce, whete same specimeoa of 
oadeat music will be fauad. 


pence ;^^ but in order to enable the poorer citizens to attend, 
they were allowed to draw that sum" from the coffers of the 
state, whenever an exhibition took place. Very shortly, how- 
ever, it was found that the rich were not ashamed to ask for 
their fourpences ; and thenceforth the fund intended merely 
to minister to the wants of the needy, was perverted into the 
Pension-list of the Athenian Exchequer. With respect to the 
question whether the fair sex ever made their appearance at 
dramatic exhibitions in Athens, from what has been already 
stated, it must be evident that all unmarried, and a great many 
married females would have been denied the privilege by their 
relations and friends. Still, from the love for tragic poetry, 
which Plato attributes •' to ladies of education ; and from women 
being addressed as actually present in two passages of our 
author,** it would seem that a few occasionaUy attended. On 
the other hand, that this was the exception and not the rule, 
may be considered as proved by two other passages of Aristo- 
phanes, the references to which will be found at the bottom of the 

It must be carefully borne in mind, therefore, whenever we 
think of ancient dramatic perfonnances, that they differed in 
almost every respect from those of the modems. The former 
were exhibited, as we have seen, by daylight, in enormous 

(61) Boeckh'8 Publ. Econ. Athens, I. p. 292—299. 

(62) The sum is stated bjr Pollux to have varied. '* The Theoric Fund was 
^ what was distributed amongst the multitude on holidays and sacred festivals ; 
** and the sum g^ven was called the theoric dole, (like the ecclesiastic, and the 
^ tUeastie dole,) which was both sixpence, and foujx>enoe, and twopence.** 
(VIII. 113.) — From not attending to the parenthesis, Boeckh has misunder- 
stood this passage. Bee Publ, Econ. Athens, I., Notes 344 and 365. 

(63) Laws, II. p. 658 D. See also p. 817 C ; and G6rgias, p. 502 D. 

(64) Achdmians, 1. 1003; Peace, 1. 966. See, however, Thiriwall*s Hist. 
Greece, III. p. 81. Hase's Ancient Greeks, p. 316. 

(66) Peace, L 60l-53 ; Birds, 1. 793, 794. 


constructions, formed entirely of Rtone or marble, and open to the 
heavens; t])e latter are exhibited by artificiaJ bgbti in compa- 
ratively small buildings J composed to a great extent of gew- 
gaw wood, and closed in with a roof. In the former, the 
changes of scene took place at the extreme sides of the stage; 
in the latter, they take place towards the centre* In the 
former, the contemporaneous juxta^position of remote places 
formed for the most part, the regulating principle of tliis change ; In 
the latter, it is their consecutive presentation which does so. In the 
fornier, the actors were all of the male sex, and wore masks ; in the 
latter, they are taken iiidiscrinainately from both sexes, and wear 
no masks. In the former, the ** Orchestra" was filled with a 
troop of singing dancers ; in the latter, it is appropriated to the 
reception, partly of the musicians, and partly of the audience. 
We must reflect also, that in 'Attica, plays were only performed 
at two, or as others think, at three ^ periods during the year; 
while in large modem cities we have dozens of theatres open 
almost every night. If to all this we add the fact, that the simie 
play, generally speakings was only exhibited upon one occasion in 
ancient Greece, and then thrown aside and forgotten ; while with 
us a single piece is sometimes repeated for a hundred conaecutiye 
nights : and if we consider that the representation of these plays 
formed, in those ages, one of the most arduous and honourable 
duties incumbent upon rich individuals, instead of beiugj as it is 
at aU events in England, a mere speculation, voluntarily entered 
into from mercenary motives ; and if we likewise take into account 
the sacred character of the Athenian Festivals, during which 
alone dramatic exhibitions were allowed, and the holy and reli- 
gious feelings which were consequently mixed up, inextricably 
even with the buifooneriea of the most ludicrous comedy : ^^ we 

(66) Hase'a Ancient Greeks, p. U9. 

(67) Take, for example, Achdrniant, I 237—279 ; Ffww^ l- 937— U 26 ; FrogM, 



shall tJien^ perhaps, be enabled ta fbrm aotne inadequate concep- 
tion of the broad distinctions, which separated the simple graJidenr 
of the Greeks from the gaudy splendour of the modem nations of 

It is now time for us, aiWr having thus taken a rapid glance 
at some of the peculiarities which characterised the theatrical 
taste of the Athenians, to notice brieflj a few of the leading 
points that more especially arrest the attention of the reader in 
perusing the Comedies of Aristophanes* Our limits will not 
allow us to do more than this; and^ perhaps^ on Giich topics 
as the general scope and tendency of our author^s works, most 
persons will prefer forming an opinion for themselves from an 
actual penisaj* 

There h nothing that is more apt to puzzle and confound the 
young student, in these antique dramas, than what are usually 
known by the name of jokes ** contrary to expectation," A 
Grecian audience, it must be rememberedi was composed of a 
hearing and not a reading public ; and as their appetite for literary 
novelties was not kept in a continual a tote of repledon by that never- 
ceasing stream of new books, which forms so remarkable an object 
for philosophical contemplation in modern times, it was but na- 
tund, that, when the loiig-escpected period for the mental meal 
arrived, they should be wrought up to a condition of the most 
eager and feverish excitement. But, in addition to this^ the 
Attic nation, especially, prided themselves above aH the other 
Greeks upon the acuteness and subtlety of their intellectual 
powers. Hence^ when at the annual festivals of Bacchus they took 
their places in the theatre to listen to Euripides 's new tragedy, or 
the comedy of Aristophanee that they had heard a hundred odd 
reports about ; they were perpetually endeavouring to outstrip 
the slow tongue of the actor by the nimblcness of their own brains* 
and to forestall mentally the conclusion of a verse, or the point of 
a jest. Now the comic poets reckoning upon this propensity, 



often amused themaelves by disappointing the expectations of their 
auditorsj and concluding the verse, or pointing the jest, in quite a 
different way to what they had purposely led the gaping multitude 
to antieipate. The result of course was, that the good-humoured 
people laughed most heartily at the bad success of their specula- 
tions, and girded tip tlieir loius for a fresh guess, which might 
perJiaps turn out more fortunately « Witticisms of tlds kind are 
innumerable in Aristophanes ; and in order to prevent the ne- 
cessity of continual notes to explain the force of them, wherever 
one occurs a few dots(. . . *) have been placed in the translation to 
indicate it at once to the eye, hAjj a general rule, therefore, the 
reader must be careful, whenever he sees these mysterious points, 
always to expect ♦ , . , something perfectly unexpected. By way of 
a practical exemplification of the use of them, tliere will also be 
found in the foot-note," printed in the same style, a Mttle poem of 

A^ £t«3V ON THs OLoav OF HER Sx^ Mh$. Marv Blaize. 

Gfiod people all^ with one accord. 

Lament for Maditm Blaizf^, 
Who never wanted a good word .,,. 

From tlioBC who spoke her pmiae* 

The needy iddom passed her door, 

And always found her kind ; 
She freely lent to all the poor. . „ 

Who left a pledge behind. 

She atroie the neigh hourhood to pleaae^ 

With manners wnndroD» winning; 
And never followed wicked whjb. .. . 

Unless when frhe was BtnniJig, 

At chuirh, in silks flud satinn new, 

With hoop of monitrous size, 
She never slutnbcTed in hej pew. »** 

But when she shut her eje^ ^ 

Ifer lore was Boui^bt, I do aver, 

Bj twenty beaiuc and more ; 
The king hiittself has followed her , ., . 

When ihe hafi walked beforci 


Goldimiith's, which abounds in the species of jest that we have 
been discussing. 

In another peculiar kind of wit Aristophanes and the other 
comic poets have been followed more closely by modem play- 
wrights, though still at a very respectful distance — the practice of 
addressing the audience more or less directly, with a total dis- 
regard of scenic illusion. The latter class of writers, however, gene- 
rally confine themselves to throwing out mere allusions and hints 
to the pit, which are frequently found, as Schlegel remarks,^ to be 
attended with great success ; while the former, who were not 
much in the habit of mincing matters, spoke out boldly at once, 
and addressed the audience, or " spectators" as they called them, 
by name. Thus in the 36th line of the Knights^ the two slaves, after 
firuitlessly seeking a cure fbr their misfortunes, agree with ridicu- 
lous gravity to inform the audience of the matter. There is a 
precisely similar instance in the 54th line of the Wasps; and many 
more might be added, which the intelligent reader will easily ob- 
serve for himself. Connected with this usage was the custom of 
throwing fhiit, nuts, &c., amongst the spectators in the middle of 
a play, in order to conciliate their good will;^® which was so 
common, that our author amuses himself in the fVeaUh (1. 789 — 
801) by making one of his actors bring a basket of dried figs 
upon the stage — to excite the appetites of the gluttons — ^and then 

But now, her wealth and finexy fled, 

Her hangers-on cut short all. 
The doctors found, when she was dead .... 

Her last disorder mortal. 

Let us lament, in sorrow sore; 

For Kentrstreet well may say. 
That, had she lived a twelvemonth more .... 

She had not died to-daj. 

Uet. Dram, LU, I. p. 201. (70) See Aohdmians, Note 87. 




good dinner in the Btrek ; and, laHtl)% Bacchus himself, — the veiy 
god in wlio&e Honour the festival b were held, {if which the perform* 
ance of thcise comedies formed part, — ^so terribly frightened by 
a hobgobliii in the Frogs ^ that he misbehavefl himself in a way 
which it must be left to the poet*s own words to explain.*' What 
right, then, had a philosopher to elevate himself above the 
standard of the immortals ? Nobody considers that Pope, or 
Gifford, or Byron, were guflty of any very heinous crime, be- 
cause, while they were wielding the satiric knout, they sometimes 
allowed it to descend upon shoulders which merely deserved the 
whip ; and as tlie Old Athenian Comedy corresponded in rmmy 
respects to our Satire, in order to view the matter rightly, we 
ought to reflect how little we should find fault with an English 
satirist who might make, for instance, disrespectful mention of 
some of the eccentricities of a great modern philosopher — such 
m his rmming at full speed, bareheaded, and witli streaming grey 
locks, down one of our most crowded tlioroughfares in the veij 
busiest part of the day." 

Neither is it conceivable^ if the attack of Aristophanes had 

(71) *^Tho deep wid serious imprecaitinns of Pitjmtthpiw, in the pbiy'i 
** 'jfLachjlu*, savour at legist m strongly of impiety as the fajtical ciLrJcaturcs 
" of Ariaidpfaancid.'" — Tranalator of llaiw's Ancitni Greeks^ p. 3.56. 

(73) The Clascal reader will remark, that the TmnsiaUir has laid no fltran^ 
hori? or elsewhere, upon what htw now become a very prevalent notion, €«pe- 
cially in Gertnfiny^ thai Aristdp bancs i mended to satLriM the Sophlsta col- 
leiifthely under the c)iar»eter of Sttcraten, The Sophists were rich, and men of 
the world, and from the style of several declamatory contestB In our uutb<iTi il 
mny be safety conjectured that he had himself received their instructions; 
Sdcratcs, on the contrary, wiui poor, and extremely eecentric in many of hh 
babiti^ and it i» more especial ly on Iheee accounts that he U ridiculed in the 
Cbmtti. It would fleem to follow, therefore, that the chfirRcter of S(kmie«, aa 
drawn hj our author^ couid not have been intended as a genemlmtion of tbat 
of the Sophista, The circnmstince of mnny of the doctrineei, attribiitefl by the 
poet to the philosopher, not being really his, h of no consequence ; what would 
liccome of satirijita, if they were tdl to be tried in a court of l»w as to the liteml 
truth of cxcry one of their ehaxica ? 



been looked upon in any very serious light by Socrates, tliat one 
of the philoiopher*s moat diBtinguislied pupils, Plato, when re- 
qtiested for information respecting the Athenians by his patron, 
tbe tyrant DionysluE^ should have sent bim the ChndB^ and 
hidden him study that and the other comedies by the same 
author, in order to attaiii the knowledge which he desired*" 
Or again* that the sanie talented writer should have composed 
the following flattering epitaph upon the poet after his death : — 

** Once on a tjmc the GiiiceB — 

^ In March of so holy «. pUce, as 
** NeVr ki decny shrmld roU — 
** Found Arifltuphfu)c»' souL" ?* 

now pass to the consideration of the second grand 
diargie which has been brought again^^t our author — ^that of his 
b^ttial grossness and indecency. With respect to this accusation, 
it will Ue sufficieut to quote the opinions of some great modern 
writers ; merely premisingi that the propensity to grosaness, vid- 
gaiily, and navtinessi ia to be carefully distinguiahed from the 
vice of prurient and libidinous sensuality ; and that the utmost 
reBnement of the latter is completely abhorrent from every thing 
tint appears in the remotest degree to border upon the former. 
Now it is in grossness alone that Aristophanes errs ; the general 
tendency of his writings is usually as unexceptionable as that of 
llie most approved novel-writers of the day. In him we meet 
with no sentimental seducers, no amiable adultresses^ no lo%- 
nunded murderers. Vice is always depicted in its native hideous- 
new ; and if the colouring is sometimes painfully natural, yet the 
moral perspective is never distorted, to pander to the puling 
■4]ueamisbness of conscious depravity. 

Of the indecetii-y which flbound* in Arist^iphanes, ujijuBtifiahb as it 
'ieriainly i«» it lutty, howeverp be obeervedt that difTerent ages difler 

{7i] ThomM Magii(CT'9 Gret-k Life of Ari^titpfmmM^ l\M, 



extremely in tliiur ideas of tills aflbnse. Among i3ie ancients plain 
s|i€akiiig wiiH the fashion ; nor was that ceremonious delicacy ijitroduc' 
which has taught men U* shiue om? another with tlic utnio»t politene: 
and express the most indecent ideas iu the most modest lan^inge. 
ancients had little ^f tliiu ; they were necustomed to call a spade a tpoda, 
to give evtity thing its proper nanve. There Is another sort of indecencvi 
which is infinitely more dangerous ; which corrupts the Heart without 
otrending the ear. I helieve there is no man of sonnd judgment, who 
would not sooner let his son read AriHt6phanos than Congrcve or Vau- 
brugh. In all AnBtf>phanes'ti indecency there is nothing that can aUmfe, 
but much that miij^t deter- He never dresses up the mo^t detestable 
vice« in an amiable light; but gcnerallyt by describing them in their 
native coliair^, makes the reader disgusted with them. His abnse of the 
moat eminent citizens may be accounted fur upon shnilar principles. 
iJesides, iu a republic freedom of speech was reckoned an essential 
privDege of a citizen. Dem^isthenes treats his adversaries with such 
language as wonld. In our days, be reckoned scnrriloua enough ; but it 
passed^ in those days, without any notice or reprehension* Tlie world 
11 since greatly altered for the better. We hnvc, indeed, retained the 
matter, hut judiciously altered tlie manner.'^* — 

We might apply to the pieces of Aristophanes the motto of a pleasant 
and acute adventurer in Goetlie r — Mad, but wise* Here we are beat 
enabled to conceive why the dramatic art was consecrated to Bacchus ; 
it h the dnmkfuncsa of poetry, the Bacchanalia of fim. This f acidly 
will at times afajcrt its rigbta as well as others ; and hence several nations 
have set apart certain festivals, such as SatuniAlia, carnivals, &c,, in 
which the people may give themselves altogether up to frtrlicsome folliG%^ 
that when once tlic fit is over, they tiiay remain quiet, and apply theni^| 
selves to serious concerns during the rest of the year. The old comedy 
is a general masking of the wcirld, diuing which many tJungB happen 
that are not authorized by the ordinary ndcs of propriety j but durinffi^ 
which, also, many things that are diverting, witty, and even instructive," 
come out, which, without tliis momentary suspension of order, would 
never he heard of?* — 

It b certainly to be wished tltat decency should be obierved on al 
public uecasions, and, consequently, also on the stage ; but even in thif 
it is possible to go too far. That censorious spirit, which scents out 
impurity in every sally of a bold and vivtwious description, is at best but 
an ambiguous criterion of purity of morals i and there is frequently 
concealed under this hypocrisy the consciousness of an impure ima- 
gination. The determination to tolerate notliing which has the leaat 

(75) Poreon'i Trmls, p. 13. (76) A. W. Si'hiegel's Led. Dram. Lit J. p. 20rJ 



nc¥16 the «eii8ual relation betwi?en tlip two sexes, may b^ carried 
to a pitch extremely oppresiiive to a dnuimljc poel, and ijijimotis to llie 
boldness and freedf»m of hia cr»npo&(ition. If considc ratio mh of such a 
natui^ were to be attended to, nmny of the happiest parts of the plays tif 
SUcipi^ttFe — foT example, in Memurefor Mfojture, and JlTg WeU that 
Ends WtU — wliich are haridk^d with a due regard to decency, must be 
Kt Mide for thijij- inipr{>priety J^^ 

The sentimental poet, again, contrives to lighten their heart, Hia 
fcneral doctrine amounts properly ta thi»j that what is called a good 
heart ati>nes for aU errors and extravngancedi and that^ with respect to 
nrtue, we are not to insist so strictly on principles* Allow only fre« 
ifO|»e to your natiira] impulses, he seems to say to his spectators ; see 
how well it becomes my naiv^ girls, when they confess every thing of 
tbemselvei. If he only knowg how to corrupt hy mean a of effeminate 
emot^omv rather sensual than morale but* at the end^ to nnike all neariy 
e^^cn hy the introduction of aome generous Wnefactor^ wlio showers out 
\m libertility with open haaids, he then pleases the vitiated hearts of his 
imiiience in an extraordinm-j- degree. Tliey feel as if they had Ihem- 
whe^ dune noble actions, without, however, putting their hands in their 
own pockets : all is dj^wn (rom the purse of the generoua poet. The 
^ii^cting" species can hardly, therefore, fail, in the long run, to gain a 
vittriiy over the ^* ecouomical ; ** and this has acttialJy been the case in 
tirnnany. But wlmt, in these drainoA, is painted to us not only as 
nilnral and allowshle, but even as moral and dignified^ exceeds all 
imagination ; and this seduction is much more dangerous than that of 
(he iicentioim comedy, for this very reason, thai it does not disgust ns by 
tsiemal indecency, but steals into ungiiarded minds, and seSect^ the 
t sacred names for a disguise*'*— 

177 » A. W, Sehlegpl s Ltei. Bmm. Lit. 11. p. 112. 

47K) Ibid. 1 1, p, atf-2. To the^ ftuUiorities nii^ht he added the opinion of the 
*'iti?ni momliiil," Johajson, rettpecting an author who in many ri^pecta r^- 
nmblfd AiistiSphimes— .the celebmted Matthew Friar, FeUow of St John's 
Cotlnir, Gmnhriilgc. 

^ I ankisi whether Prbrs poems vere to be printwl entire ; Johnnon «aid 
'thfy were. I mentinned Lord Hniless censure of Prior, in his prefnee to a 

C*itlc9c4itm afSacreti Pocms^ hv various himdii, puhliiihed hy him at £diabuT|;h, 

t gf%3Sk% many years agi>^ where he mentions ^ tho&e inipun:> tales which wiU be 
^ the et^fital opprobrium of their bgenious author/— Jon nsc*n\ "" Sir, Lord 
• llailv* kw fon^Tt There i» nothing in Prior that will exeite to lewdness. If 
*" Ltxtl Hiuleft Ibiaks there ii, be must be more com bust jble than other people/ 
" I in*Lat»ced the tale of ' Paulo Purgfttiti and his Wife.' — .foHNSOW. * Sir, there 
** i» QfithinsE there, but that his wife wanted to lie kiwed, when poor Pnulo wii» 
"* out e»f iHidti.^. Si\ sif : Prior is (i Iftdy * hooV, No bidy i» nuhamed to have 

^ il Kfttiiliiig m her library^/"— Croker* ed. of Boa well* JaAn*(m, IL pp, U>, 45, 



The lieathen poet might also shelter himself mider the wingsi 
of that pious and learned father of the christian churchy St. Chry- 
ftostom, who J aa we are told by several authors, ** derived thai 
" greatest part of hia eloquence^ and veliemence in reproving 
" \nces, especially tlioee of women , from the daily perusal of 
**" Aristuplmnes ; and used to put tliia authorVs works under his 
'* pillow, when he went to bed, ns Alexander the Great did with 
" Homer^spoem."'* i 

Still J however, allowing that there is Jio thing morally unjusti- 
fiable in the works of Aristophanes, the manners of mankijid are 
80 changed since his time, that no translator, possessed of com- 
mon sense, would now attempt a literal version of many of his 
phrases^ An original atitlior is always hound not to offend against 
the decencies and charities of the society to which he belongs ; 
and although a person who endeavours to re -produce in lu«ij 
own language the works of a foreign writer, is placed in an ] 
entirely different situation in this respect, yet something must 
always be conceded to the conventional prejudices of the world in ^ 
which we live, and this is more especially necessary in the preaenk ] 
age of ultra-purity and ultra-refinement* For, as the virtuoiit 
Schlegel well observes, *' it is a remarkable phenomenon, the 
" causes of which are deserving of mention, that the English 
** nation, in the last half of the eighteenth century, passed all at 
" once from the most opposite way of thinking, to an ahtiost 
" over-scruptdous strictness of manners, in social conversation, in 
•' romances and plays, and in the plastic arts/'*° Besides, how- 
ever much a people, hke an individual, may chop and change 
about in its notions on any subject ; that, of course, becomes merely 
an additional reason for its obstinately maintaining, at any given 
moment, tliat it has seized upon the precise happy medium 
between the two extremes* We find tlie iKjpular writers of the 

(79) See Frischlm** Life qfArUi. in Kikter't ed. Arirt. p. iviL 

(80) LecL Dram, LU. IL p. 317. 



inBtance, who are a sort of thermometer of the popular 
miiidf gravely cxpreesiiig their virtuous indigniition against tlie 
aboniiuations of the French coteriei ; while^ converselyt they run 
dffwn and ridicule the North Amencan kdies for their ridicdouii 
refinement^ in being shocked at the use of auch words as ** knee " 
and *' corset/^ In the same way there ean be no question, hut 
that an Athenian audience would have been perfectly horrified at 
the loose morality of eome of our dramatie piecei ; as, for exam- 
ple, the enormity of young unmarried ladies mixing in general 
nociety, and actually forming attach me ntii for themselves ; or the 
naughty love-intrigues with married women, which form such a 
pie commodity with our play-wrights : wl^lc again they would 
a?e laughed at our over-scrupulous objections to the habitual 
blroduction of courtesans, in the avowed character of courtesam, 
uta the public stage. 

On the other hand, no person whose intellectual horizon 
pitended beyond the novek of the year, woii!d maintain the 
expediency of making the Athenian wag talk exactly like tlie 
English editor of a Metliodiut Magazine. The question, there- 
fore, of the road which a translator ought to keep, becomes one 
of mode and degree ; and as the varieties of opinion must conse- 
quently be infinite, it must not, and can not be expected by each 
individua] reader » that his exact notions on the subject can be 
conformed to* Thus much however it will, perhaps, be prudent 
ind proper to add^ — that those who keep an ExpifROATEn 


A^EiATDPaABTEB. And if any such per»on should complaint that a 
*rork of tlas nature ought not to have been published* the plain 
answer is, that now it is publighed, he has no occasion to read it. 
To netum once more to the character of our author, and in the 
eloquent language of Poreon, to sum up his character,—" If we 
** consider his just and severe ridicule of the AtJienian foibles ; his 



" detestation of tlie e^cpensive and mi nous war in wliich Greece 
" wajs engaged ; his pointed invectivea against die factious and 
** interested demagogues , by whom the populace was deluded, 

* Who bdwJed for freedoin in their aeixieleii mood;* 
" Ha contempt of the useless and frivolous inquiries of the lophiats; 
" his wit and versatility of style ; the astonishing playfulness, 
** origin alityj and tertiUty of liia imagination j tlie great harmony 
" of versification wherever the subject required it, and his moat 
" refined elegance of language ; in spite of Dr, Beattie's dictum, 
'* we shall look over his blemishes, and aDow that with all his 
'^ faults, he might be a very good citizen, and was certainly an 
" excellent poet/' " 

It now merely remains for the Translator to oifer a few obser- 
vations, respecting certain rules which he has preacribed to himself 
in the present work. Tlie language of the ancient Greeks, as has 
beeu before partly explained," was spoken, in ordinary conversa^ 
tion, both according to quantity and to accent ; and not^ Uke ours, 
according to accent alone* It is evident, therefore, that they 
miglit liave founded their metrical systems either upon one or the 
other, and were not tied down by the want of the former priti- 
dple, like aU the modem nations of Europe, to the " Hobson*i 
'* choice " of the latter. The selection which they actually made 
was that of quantity ; or, in other words, it was the succession of 
"long" and ** short " syllables, not, as with uSi the succession 
of "accented" and "unaccented*' ones, aecording to certain 
definite laws, that constituted their poetry. This double regula* 
tion of tlie spoken tongue was, most probably, the peculiarity that 
rendered the science of music ao indispensable a part of Grecian 

(81) Traciti, p. 15, The " dictum" of the sapieal ecioliftt named bj Foisew 
may be found in hin Remurks on the UtU'ittf of Ch^sictil Lettrning, p. h^% ed. 
1776. " The wit und humour of the Athdiuitn poet are now bcK^omc ulmoAt 
*' inviilble* and se^m never io have It^n veiy coaspiciioufl ;" and *sq on with 
the nmt fif the twaddle. 

(83) See abovc» p, liii. 





education ; it diatin fished, too, the Greeks from other nations, 
and gave rise to the term ^* barbarian b/' applied sometimes eyen 
to those half*Grecian tribes who spoke the Grecian language 
Without attending to quantity. In consequence, however, of the 
imiptions of savage hordea from the North, eren the Greeks 
tiiemselvef^t somewhere hetween the fourth and twelfth centurieu 
after CbriEt, gradually lost this diatin^ihing featurei and having 
eeated to attend to the musical ** time ** of their syllables, became 
m the true ancient sense of t!ie term ** barbarians.'^ All modern 
Grecian poetry is therefore necessarily founded, like that of other 
modem nations, upon accent ^ not upon ienjth ; for it manifestly 
cannot depend upon a nonentity* Originally^ like tJie " Citizens' 
** Vei«es " of Tzetzes^ and similar ones which arc composed to the 
pfsent day, it was written without rhyme ; hut rhyme of various 
Muds was soon introduced^ and establii^hcd and maintained a 
permanent footing in the long^gc.*' 

it is evident, therefore, that, stricUy speaking, the ancient 
Bietrcs can have no e^dstence in Romaic, in English, or in any 
other modern language ; for tliough one English syllable often 
occupies a longer time in pronouncing than another, — m for 
* sbong-box^' takes longer than " river,**— yet there are 
! all the intermediate grades between extreme length and 
fxtreme shortness, wliich is quite a different thing from the 
Gfvcian sy^stem, as above explained, which recof^nised only two 
kngths, one of which was the exact double of the other. 

8t£ll in a certain sense, our metres may be said to " eorre- 
"tpond** to those of the ancients; for by considering an accented 

3) Aftj one who wifthcM for a t^nfiimatioiT of these remarki, may conipnre 
I IctrAineter limhit^ of the clo^ic^ wuXcts^ fnundcd upon quaniiti/^ {Uika 
f^ Cioud*, t 1051— 1084,) with the ThjT?>eIe« telr^ieter linibics of fzetze**» 
CAfilSad^jL founilotl ujmjh accent^ and the rhymed Tnodem Greek tetrameter 
ilmliiiv, lifct?wJAe frmiiilpil upon iifturHi^ pnnteil in CoL Leake's Trawh in the 
M«ria, Vol. I. ejiil "f ditip. H. See also upon thin subject the verj learned 
Ion in Sir J. C. HobhoasQ'» Travelt in Gree&f^ ^c. II. p. M3-^5a» nod 



syllable as equivalent to a loufjf one, and an unaccented syllable m 
equivalent to a short one ; we shall find a very rcmarkiiblc analogy 
prevailing between tlie two poetic?*] bc hemes. What is known to 
Bchol&Ts by the name of the "tetrameter iambic,'**^ if we only 
divide it in two at the " cffisiira/' or break in the middle of tlie 
verse, thus becomes precisely analogous to the common English 
measure — 

" Yebijit}]^ exalted, tlrtuoUi dunca^ 

** Tied up in godJy lace«, 
" Before yc gie jKwr frailtj names, 

" Suppose u change o' i^ms ; 
** A deax^lovet) liui, convenience rniug, 

*" A trenchemuf mcli nation— 
** Bot let me whisper id youf tu§, 

** Ye'ne esiblina na© temptation/ « 

Similarly, the " trochaie tetrameter," ''^ when divided in the 
same way, correaponda accurately to another common EngUsh 
metre, which has been wielded with such tremendoua effect by 
Anstey iji his New Bath Guide^ Letter XIV. 

** Hearken, Lady Bettjr^ hearken^ 
** To the disnjal news I tell, 

" How your friends are all embarking 
"For the fieiy gulf of hell 

" Brother Simkin*s growrn a rakehell, 
"* Canb and dieea every day ; 

**3-KstiY laugha at tabernacle - 
*' Ta«by EtWT ifl gone aKtio/. 

*" Audi mieatuin, Elim* questum, 
" Nimtium audi horrid um ; 

*" BELrathrum ord torrid um. 

" SmKTN fmtcr despemtur, 
** Ludit, sal it, turinttr ; 

" Ridot Jan A sacra fena; 
" Tabitha Rt;wT deperditur. 

(84) See for cismplce of this motr^, Knighia^ I 333—3(36, h 407—440. Clotifii, 
L 1034—1084, L 1351— ISa^, I. 1397—144';. 

(83) Bums ; Address lo the Unoo Guid, of ike Rigidly tlighieom. It must 
he recollectedn, that a ^at many particle* in oar language do not usually take 
any accent at all ; as for example, ** a," " Uie,^' *^ in,''* " hut," '^ euicI," " to^'' iccL 
** To love/" h a» much one word, as far ajs proamtciation goc^ ivs mmm-^ or 
amdre; for it ha* only one eceent, like "to-day, " This fact, when properly 
attended to, fbrm» a completo answer to those who have foolishly ridiculed the 
monMylkbic i^lmracter of our tongue. It is only eo to the i^r^ not to the cur. 

(86) BeeAcUmiuns, 1. 67i>— 691, L 703^716. Knighii, 1. 242-^283, I 563— 
fiaO, 1. 595— filO. Cbmdt, I 575-^94, 1. ml— 626, 1 1115—1130. 



Hand i, thmig^ once rejected 
" Liks « little wandering Hheep, 
** Wbo thk mormtig wii» t,']ect«d 
** Rf a ruion In mj sleep ! 

*' f<3it I dreumed an appfiritlon 
^CAme^ like Ro^KI^ from ubo^'e, 

"Snjing, ' 05 divine c^iminiesloii 
" ' 1 must fell you full of lote,' "* 

" EgOf ut ovts, eirraiit qudvk, 
*' Scoitima nuper omnluiPt 

** Tor beata, qune vocata 
^' Man^ Kum per Bomniumi 

" Nam procem par R<:k^eko 
" Spectrum vetiit txclitiift, 

** Dicons, * Ego ftraore implebo 
" * Te divino peaitinL' ^ •' 

(87) Thi* tnutelttttrtn h from the edition of Anslejrs Works, pufalbhed bj 
Cidell in 18CI8, p* 92. It ij* give?ii here to illustrate the difference between 
■ndeot and inodern vewiiti cation m the Lntin langitA^e. Properly ^{Hiuking, 
the metf«s of the aJicientJi ciin afford nn more prnt location to ub, who have uo 
poeeption of the sjit*m on which they txre founded, tlian the mere pemaaJ of 
WTittcti muiic does tn a musiml connoiascur. Both parties obsene that certAin 
Utn Hje properly attended to, wbich^ if the dumb ehamften» were made to 
^Makf would confer upon thorn the power of gnitifying the ear; but neither 
iam »ij aeeurate m^aiiH of measuring the fHculty of pleaiing by the enr 
ilidl Still, by a pjirtial and irreguUu' adaptation of the iraotlem echemc 
of ttee^tuaifcton to the ancient M-'heme of quantity in our generaJ pronun* 
duioa, which if very different from the nearly complete adaptation cm- 
ployed m "icanninfi/' we hare succeeded in forming a kind of rude cfttimate 
of tb^ bea^uty of the Qreeiaa find Roman poetry. The earliest imitaton 
of the juieieut metres imitate the imitation thus produced, instead of 
boMlj £alloiring out the tuialogy, and f^uhstittjtlng every where acc«nt Jbr 
qwnti^^ Take m an instance some " hei^metcni '' in Sir Philip Sidney** 
Aft4dm, (ed. 1656, Book II. p.22tiO where the lirsl, afth^and iieveiith lines 
i«QMU^ab\f exemplifj the truth of the obserTUtlDti jusl miude. 

Dial^ffn^ ifeiweeft PmLi9iDW and Echo. 
'* Wata nskm gmidljf riv«r^ iwect wtmdM^ when ituUI 1 >« peACt !— FttPM I 
; ** Poet I What ban n« mf tongue I Who It ti that c«meft me »□ nigh t^I. 
** 0% t t da tnow what g9trt t I^mt* met. It |i Eeho.-'TIi Echo. 
'* WdJ QWt, e^Ui}'. MppTtiMht tliiin Ml me thy wiU tod.— I wfU too. 
" Bphd, what do [ g€X ylplding mjr fp'rit to mx jrriofa ?— GrJeft. 
** Wbit Uttdklfie tnoix t And fur a frrlvf thai dnwi m« to death f —Death. 
^' O pobanouB Ua^dfifl I what worie to mc c^n be (bad it r^lL." 

In ronM^uence of the change thu^ eaujied, we have been compelled to 
^vt np the vncieal Greek situntions of the nccenta, && still retuitied both 
b i|«akliig and writing the modem Greek language. For uiAtunce, n>ueh 
l» the ftnnoyBiiee ot a Eomiic echotar^ W0 call it '' anthnfpos^" wliile h^^ 
tikt hii tmem/tom, cslb it '^ Anthmpoft*'' 

It It lb* partial lubstitution vf accent for quantity alBi», which hai tetl 
l» the helief in the existeDce of a eeiiain nnndeftcHpt thing, called *' ictus 
•• aMoa&*' But thit subject ia &r too eattensive to he fully developed in the 
%M liinltt «r a tiote. 



Thirdly, the ** anapaestic tetrameter**" may be said to bear a 
tolerably close relation to the well -known metre so exquisitely 
employed by tlie Rev» Mr* Wolff* except that the place of the 
spondee of qtiantiQ^ is usually supplied by the iambus of accent, 

** Not ft drum wns heard, not n funeral in>ti?, 

*' Am his KOTwe to the mm part vrc hurried \ 
** Not & Mihlier dlHch^rgecl his farewell ^hot* 

" O^et the grave where tmr hero we buried." 

" W« buried him darkly at dead of night, 

" The *od» with our bayoaet^ turning ; 
** Bj the gtniggliug moon-beam^a niJst^ ^ght^ 
" And the lantern dimly burning.'''^ 

Any ordinary " hexameter **^ may be convcrteci into an *" ana= 
•* pOBstic tctraDieter" by simply adding a foot and a half at the 
beginning ; and therefore conversely we obtain an Englislt hex- 
ameter of accent by suhtracting a foot and a half ik)m the b0^| 
ginning of the odd lines in the above stanza, which then asatimes 
tlie following form — disregarding, of course* the seme — 

** Huard not a funeral note, 

" As his corse to the rampart We harried ; 
" 'Cliargfid his fareweU lihot, 

** O'er the gmTe where our hero we buried*" 

These four English metTes have, therefore, been uniformly 
ployed in the translation* wherever the corresponding ones occtir " 
in the original. The ** choral metrei" might be imitated in any 
modem language, on preeisely similar principles ; but as, from their 
irregularity, they were only fitted for pubhc musical performance, 
and were never intended by the writer for private perusal in tlie 
closet* it has been thought better to take the nearest regular measure 
to express them in English. SjTfnmetHcal chorie systems have, 

(88) See AcMrmam, 1 62(3—653. KmghlM, 1 507^-546, 1. 76*— 823. Chudt, 
L 314—438, L(J53_lOOfi. 

(89) On the Denih a/Sir JoAu ilfuwif— fimt printed from the newspapera in 
Bkckwood'K Mftgaziihe.Jxme 1817. 

(90) BeeKmgfUs, L 107-201, L lOlS^lOQO, 1.1030—1034. 1. 1037—1040 
L 1051—1060* I im—lOm, I 10WJ^1095. 



(rever, generally been followed as closely as possible," The 
ordinary **trioieter mmbic" lias been turned into common blank 
ftersCi With respect to the other metresi after what has been 
slready said, there can be little or no difficuUy, 

As often as any play npon words occurred in the Greek text, 
there were of course two roads open to the Tranaktor^ — cither to 
»t]ek to the It^Mer^ and lose the ifpirU of the original ; or to stick 
ta the *ptril and lose the tetter, He hat in every ctoe preferred 
the latter alternative. Whenever, therefore, the youth fid classical 
student meets with a j&wn in the English version, he must be 
careful not to be led into error by expecting verbal accuracy. 

fn tuming^ the names of various birds, fish^ insects, &c»« which 
iie either unknown to us, from the circumstance of the ancients 
mi having bad any regular system of Natural History, or, if 
known, have no name in English, in consequence of their being 
itrangere to these shores; no regular plan has been followed* 
GeneraUy speaking, it has been thought sufficient if any modem 
"herring/* ** sprat,"' or *• cock- roach,'* coidd be pressed into tlie 
service, in such a way as to keep up the spirit of the originaL 

The same observation applies to many articles employed in 
domeetic economy, such as ** potSj" ** coats,/" "tables/' *^ cakes," 
and so forth, wliich being the work of fickle man, not of unchang- 
iag and unchangeable nature, have necessarily varied indefmitely 
in form and substance in almost every age ; and cannot, therefore, 
itrictly speaking, be correctly eitpressed by any corresponding 
rn terms. We have borrowed words enough in all conscience 
L the ancients, and therefore it is but fair to give them this 
opportunity of claiming a few from us in return. 

As tJiis work b intended for the use of the general reader, as 
as that of the young classical student, an effort has been 




made to avaid an much as possible the introduction of Angtii 
Greek terms into the text and the fool- notes. In order to pre- 
vent confusion p there will be found in a note at the bottom of the 
page/* a list of such wordb as have generally been treated in 
this way by writer* on Grecian subjects^ with the corresponding 
English phrases adopted by the Translator » 

For a similar reason the Athenian money has been reduced to 
KngU&h, aeoording to a uniform and consistent scale ; the Athd^J 
nian coin which contained only as much silver as would be nearly 
equal to 9^d. English,'^ being translated throughout ** a shMing," 
and all superior denominations in proportion. Since money wvm 
worth considerahly more in the days when Aristophanes wrote, than 
it IB now, this theoretical incorrectness will be fotmd, in practice, to 
have a very convenient tendency towards equalizing the scale of 
ancient and modern prices, \\Tien» however, the poet is evidently 
talking at random in round numbers, the Translator has sometimes 
taken the liberty of increasing or diminishing the amount named, 
for the sake of consulting the English ear. 

In order sdso to assist the general reader as much as possible, 
the proper names of more than two syllables have been &b^M 
canted throughout the work, according to the conventional pro- 
nunciation of English scholars* In the case of very common 
words, such as ** Athenian," tliis is certainly unnecessary, and has 
an odd appearance t but it was found impossible to draw any line 
of demarcation between those which were usual and those which 

(92) Acnipolis, Ciiade!; Cemmicus, Poitffie*; ^AgOfn, Marhel-piac^ii Pry- 
tajitfum, Taimi'hfilt; Gymn^iii^ PuUk Witlks ; Piilwatra, WrtBdin^hmi^: 
Plijrle, Countff i Hem us, Faruh ; FJiratHK, Families ; Agorinomi, Cltrkt &/ 
i!m Market; Ar^hon, Ruter; Bult, SennU^ Ecc]6s\iL, Assembly ^ Prytane^^ 
CpnuniMiW^ffvn ; Trietarch, Captain nf n Gniky ; Trireme, CaUeif^ Skip^ or 
JtfvHrqf-tVar^ KisphoTa^PuMitycoii/rihtiiioH ,- Euthyne, Attdll ,• AtfmbL, Di^fran- 
tfhhmnenf: SchiSlium, Gfi^lf mde : Sclidlmst, Greek n&U-trtittr: ChoT6gu&, 
Fn>vitler ■ Motoki, or pieties, Sajoumfrtt; DtGast« Imymam; Bi^nia, ilu*tm$fi; 
Diiu:hma, Shminff: Stiitcr aureus, U; Miii»,5/.; TllfiQt, aO(». 

fdS) Boeckh'i Puht. Ec&n. Aihent, L pw 2S. 

Ipnnusuidf and It was consequently judged better to adopt one 
lite and consistent rule, although it might ocoasionally Iciid to 
worka of typographical supererogation. 

It ifl from the same motive that the TrEnslator has ayoided 
loading the foot-notes with Greek and Latin quotations, or even* 
in many casea, with references, when tjiere could he no difference 
of opmion on the subject discu^ed. Gene rally speakings if the 
•liident should require authorities for any fact asserted without 
pfoof, he will find them in the great body of annotations annexed 
to Bekker*s edition of Aristophanes ; or in the very ancient and 
l»f7ied Greek notes, {Sch6lia\ which have come down to ua 
abng with the MSS. of the author. 

The Greek text which has been token as the ground -work of 
die translation, h W, Dindorf's— partly that published by him in 
182^* amongst the Llipzio Cl^ssic;^, and partly that contained 
ia the FoMTJE ScEKici, by the same author.** Wherever the 
Translator has had occasion to dlAer from one or both of these, txn 
poinls thai materially ajfeettd the sense, he has thrown what he 
liad lo say on the subject into the form of Observations ap- 
pended to each separate play. Thus the student who h possessed 
wf cither work will find it unnecessary to purchase the other« 
he desire carefully tu compare I lie English version with 
It Greek original. The numbering of the lines, both in these 
Obsekvatiokr/' and in the TaANSLA-riaii, m that of Bnmck*s 
ition^ which has been accurately tbilowed by Dindorf in the two 
named. It were to be wished, that every editor of Greek 
^ys would take a similar course ; as the time which the clasjsical 
idio1ar)o«eSf — from the discrepancies in this respect between various 
recendons of the same tragedy or comedy, — in laboriously search* 
ing for sueh and such a line, can scarcely be conceived by the 
BoglUh reader. 

(Uh Thi» Uiil hiiii iHHtn rtpriat^a tepwmUly m 2 vuli. Bvo. at the Cliu»f(idoii 
?re«, Oxionl 




The vulgar modem diviHioTi of the Comedies into Acts and 
Scenes has been retajned, partly for convenience of reference^ and 
partly for the sakt* of giving these compositioiis a little more the 
appearance of plays of this world- It is well known, however, to 
classical students, that no such division was ever made use of by 
the Athenian dramatists ; and the general scholar will soon per- 
ceive, that in many cases it is harsh and arbitrary* Tlie stage^ as 
will be observed, is scarcely ever empty, in the intervals between 
the Scenes as thus arranged, and occasionally actors remain on, 
even between the Acts, It is hardly necessary to add, that the 
*' stage directions" are not from the pen of the Attic poet, but 
have been added in the present version. 

The Translator cannot conclude this Preface » without expressing 
his deep obligations to the various authors, upon whose literary 
stores he has drawn so largely in the body of the book. He feels 
it due to the reader, however, to state, that from his total igno- 
rance of German, he has been unable to derive any advantage from 
many classical works of the first celebrity in that language ; and 
especially from some translations of Aristophafies which hear a 
very high character on the contineTit* If, in the course of the ob- 
servations that he has himself made, he should have unfortunately 
wounded the feelings of any man or body of men, he earnestly 
intreats that it may be attributed to the thoughtlessness of early 
years — to the Attic freedom of speech unwittingly imbibed from a 
continual ntudy of his author— to whatever other cause, in fine, 
it can charitably be assigned— rather than to an intention 
wantonly inflicting pain upon any of his fellow -creatures. 


Note A, — See p. L. 

Ttii Traiiikcor ii fully lensible how inaJequaie any mere verbul dcsiTip* 
lion initst be, to coovpy precise knowledge on the diffieuU si*l»]ect of tbf 
■rtvagemctit of the old Grecian atage ; nnd yet he does itot know of uny pie- 
leirifil design to wrhkh lie can MtUfactodly rtrfer Uiii rt^ader. That uf (Jen^Ni 
<B fT ttp opdi neither with existing remains, nor with the dc»cnptioiifl of 
FqQqk ■nd Vitrtivtus ; he lias confounded the Roman stage with the Greek 
Odi, And entirely amitted the periacU. Perhaps the clearest tiotioiis on the 
nafjeci may be gained from the small sketcbci^ of the Theatres at Patara Jmd 
tiMyra, drawn by Mr. Cockerel 1^ and inserted in Colonel Leake's Tour in Aria 
Ufawr, p. 32K It will be observed, however, that the foimer of these has 
ody three siage-doors, instead of fitv, which Pollux telU iii was the usual 
number, sad which we meel with in the latter building. Five also are found 
in ihe ictne of the Theatre of Sagaliwans, as verbally described in Arundell's 
Ttmf in Ana Minor ^ ^J- P- ^^* ^^^^t however, misukes the jcene for the pni- 
pihm. The dimenijons of these, as given hy him, are lJ5 feet by 9, 11 by % 
aod 1 1(f) by S. h should be noticed also, that the stage of the Theatre of 
Fhtara m on the level of the lowermost row of seats, which were the seats of 
honour i just as the convenience of our " npper*gallery'* is sactiliced to that 

The grtm dignity in settling the arranfement of the parts of the Greek 
itage, is fo ciKplain the terms TrpwrK^vtov, protcmium, and Kiry fifty ^ puIpHnm, 
Genrlii ptaeet the latter in /rant d/ tlie former ; bnt from the expression 
"pidpitum proseenii,'* used by Vitruviii* (V. 6, f 1* cd- Schneider j with 
ahkh compare alfo V. 7, $ tr) it would father a|vpear that it was pari 
^ iis and ihat the term proscenium was applied to the whole stage 
b front of the jk!i?ne or range of hou»e«, and that of ktjythv^ pulpiium, or 
tpt^ing-ptaett to a certain railed platform, occupying the central part of 
the proaccnium, on which the acton ip&ke ; whence came the Greek name. 

It ttv intended originally that this work should have contained a per- 
lp«9^f« fUsUPTition of the Theatre nf Bacchus at Athens, by way of Frontlf- 
fieert lOd the Translator had collected materials for the purpose, and 
fiteed ibem in the hiinds of an Artint in London* Owing, however, tu eir* 
fmnmmnt tm over which he had no control, be has been disappointed. Should 
my of his mdera wi»b to pursue the ti^vestigation themselves, they may 
f^toy t ind the following tist of inferences of some service to thenu 




AthftUf pp, 5S — 60, aiid PlACes I. II. HI. Wordiworih't Aikent and AtiieOf 
p. 92, Dedweli's Travtls In Grr^c^ I. pp, 300-^06. 


TuKXTRE.—Jiiliui P^Huj:, TV, 121" 132. riinti^u*, V. chap. 3| to chap. % 
Ltake't jfiia JWirtw, pp. 320 — 320* J. W. St^klfgeCf Lt^cftim tm Drtmiaiic 
Literature f L pp. 52 — 72. Some useful r^marka m&y ahti he picked from 
the Imrned, but misernhly lU-arrauged and lung-winded Treatise of Bniewger 
dt Theatrit; thf? plates in which are, however, good for nothiug. 

Plams op Asiatic Gh£P.k TncATREi.— Hiera|>oliS| htake^i Agia MmoT^ 
p, 3f 1 ; Side, Btaufart's Karamcinia, pp 142^147. Strattiuicea^ MiletuBi 
Laodicea, lassua, Patara, Cisteoe, and Macris, lonicm Jnti^uiliet, Plates 3$, 
4^. 49, 55, 56 and S7, 5S, 59. Telmisaus^ aud Assos, CAoui^l Gqv^*s f'Q^^e 
Piltoregque de ia Gritty I. p. 123, and II, p, S6. 

Pl,A«5 OF European GREKit TheatRCs, — Scgeaia, Tyndaris, Catana 
tind SyrauHse, Hmt^fi Voyage Pittitretque dc in Sicik, F!otea 7 and 8; 57 
and 5n; 139-- HI i ISl, 182; 1B7— ISi)* Dramiaut. Leake's Northern 
Gfiti^, L p. 265, Thuricua, DodweWx Travik m Greece ^ L p^ 536. — Verbal 
DLscRtPTlONS, — Theatre near Epidauros, DodwiU*§ Trawk m Greece t II. 
p. 257^ ThoricuB, H'ordfmforih*if A them and Attictt, pp* 209, 210. Others in 
Leake* M Travch in iht Morra and Northern Greece^ pattim. 

FLAPi» OF Roman TiiEATREfl^—Tauromemum, UmWt Vu^, PUlw. d^ l<s 
Siciief Plates tl— 96. Pompeii, D^^mldstm'i Pompeii^ pp^ 40, 4-5. Hercu- 
I a Ileum, Ohsert'atiotff ^ur let Jntiqmth d* ilefcvlaneunh P^^ MM^ Cochin ei 
BtlUcard, p» 9, which last work, however, the Tratiskttir ha* not been able to 
meet with, but has copied ihe reference from the EngUeh preface to the 
Antiqn$ti€M of JlerQutmeumt p* xiii. Note g. 

Note B.— See p* LIV» 

The apecinien^ of Aneient Music annexed to thi« note, which are the only 
ones that have come down to us, are given as they are arranged m Buraey'a 
Hiittfftf of Mmk (I- pp, S7— 112*) with the exception of some alterations in 
tile " times/' of the necessity of which Burney himself seems to have after- 
wards become aware, as we may Learn from the following addituinal mte of 
hia, printed in p. 49S of the some volume*—** In giving an account froin 
*• Aristtdes Quintilianus of the many different kinds of time used by the 
** ancieiUB in their vocal music, the reader ahould have been informed that 
" brides our common and triple time, they had measures of tive and of aeven 
** e^ual notes in a bar ; circumstances which roust appor very eittraordinary 
" to tnodern musicians. '' Strictly speaking, the Greeks had no stieh thing a« 
triple time; for although the Romans scanned lambica by single feet, as we 
leam from the term " senarian," the Greeks always scanned thetn by double- 
feet , or dipodist, whence the same verse which ihe Hoioans called a ** sena- 
** rilitl,'' was by them ilenominated a '* trimeter*" ^See Chuds^ L 642.) Dac- 
lylkii hcing scanned by t^vnglc feet, were e<i^iivalcnt to common time, or 

KlnTiftca phorminx Apollo ni>& ka 1 oplc 

Cc^iieiilmrporj'0uii|ApoFLo Aod of the Muao 





r a J r-^ I 

'EundiiloDn tnoisan kt0a^i> noiit tas mei\| 
leethip hollow Ijlamxpe of tiie bold, dtuiccrs follow* 5is 






veiy gjief nrast end' Thee the itoeti 





na&in ha . . , . ^hcrikho . tun. liopo _ tan 

J iKJJ-' l ^hiJJl^ 

phronmofi amvolad Imi. Mice cl6 . 

ia spire ^Bo^om^ ^enfly quiverings 



ywjj i j^jijjj^ 

Rhio - novlepliSL - too pater Aoos, Rhodho. 

Lovely tariier of saowy-browed ^lomin:^, Gol. den 


..essan ho& anUi-gha po-lon 
treddcs tiiy shouldeiiB a . .dor. . nin^- 

Pta- - , iioJB hup^i - 
By wmg- footed 


^^jj ^' 1 ^ 

» l el * » 


-khnossl dhi - -okeis. Khrusc . .asjn. a -ghaJloinc. 
steeds tiioii art Jwmein Thy e chaiiot of 




TIO& Lorrias, Peri no ton a. .-pei -,riton. 

roses, hi^K On die measureless back of die 

^V^JJi l '^-j l JjJ I JJJ I '^' 

oora. noo; Ak . -tina po.histi-ophon amplekorij 
azure slgrl Thou kiiittesteadirayin a meshy tie, 



f|>»'*'r.^ I J J 3 



A - - . .glas polu kcrdhea 

And fhngesb' die ghstcring 




-m — m-- 


-^ €h 


^haan ha pa. saii he li&sorii 

ocoaii and valley and mauntain; 

^i^" I 1 1 J J Ji J J J I'LLliL 

Putu . inui dhc se . .then puroB anuvro-toc 

And the ri...e..ry torrwUe that round tfaeeplajr, 



«*— # 

■ ^ ^ ^ 

Tlk ... too 5111 c^) - . eraton haineran I 

Tour fbrlix iram their l>060in« int .nior.tal day! 

^^^^^^:^JJJ|J. I .^^ 

Soi men klioros cudbios adteron 

To thcts the nu? lo. .di.ous ftlarry Joand. 


^ Ji 

ifll * 7 

nljj It^ 



'_K# >^ 







tf? t>^ ■ 1 



ILal'O Imnpon a naktakho rcaei, 

In the heavens aro daneing and aprin^'ng. 


Ane ton melos aien a eidhon, 

ijnd their lays ever liquidly singing, 


four crottbeu in a bar ; nnd it is remarkable that this was the most andertt 
kittd <tf limu used in Greece, being that of the epic |iotiii9 of Momer and hii 
auci:«sflorf. Afterward*, wlicn tnodtTn innovutions began to prcvaiJ, the 
irochiiic and iaiiibic nmea were ititroducedj each containing originitlly six 
crutch CIS in a bar, though by a licence which mmt appear egpeciahy itrange 
to tijodero musiciana, they were at a later period allowed to contain indiffer- 
emly either six or ueren, whichever the musician-poel chose. The metres 
known to schoIarE by the namei of the Antispastic, the Choriambic, and the 
ionic a minori* and a majori, were precisely aimilar. They each vontained^ 

I properly and originoUy, six crotchets in a bar, but were afterwards occa- 
aiodolly allowed » with more or lesa fret)uency, the liberty of admitting seven. 
The C relic or Phonic nvetre, on the contrary, was rigidly rcitricted to /ai 

Lisroishett, at the Anapie^tic was to eight in ix bar j which last bore the same 
Ificin towards the Dactylic metre, that the ancient pure Trochaic do«s to 
the modern tnp!e timet being exactly its double. Thus the Greeks way b* 
tald to have employed the four following times : 

Dactylic » , . . , or ~ or eoromoti time. 

Cretic or Fe&tMue .*,,,,,,,*. 

Trochaic, Iambic, Antispastic, ChoHanibic,) e r 

.nd the w» kind, of Ionic /i" " f '-d'ff'reoay. 

Anipsstic ............. 

In the ancient and most simple form of Grecian musiCj that whi<^h it had 

MUned in the days of Homer, and retained for some centuries aJterwards^ 

the time waa never changed in the satne composition : for Plutarch ttslla ua, 

iji hit Diaiogne en MtaiCt that *^ the compositions of Terpen der, and other old 

'* BUil^rtp were «et to hexameters chiefly of Homer," that i^*, they were la 

npiir eommon time ; and the change and intertniiture of rhythms, or timea, 

Ji 'here spoken of as the innovation of modem artists. But in what are 

^oiffally known to scholars by the names of choral metres, nothing is more 

frei|ttenl than tliis change ; and we shall find it repeatedly occnr in the spe- 

euneita stiortly to be submitted 10 our notice. Why it should liave been lo, 

I md h9W such a perpetual alteration could have gratified the Greek ear, are 

I ftiesliotis which it is now very difficult to answer ^ but the fact 11 as indis- 

putaiily made out, as that Milton's ParadUe Lett i« written in blank verse, 

•n J Sjieoaer^s Fmrh Qmtne in rhyme, Ii appears, however, from a note in 

the work of Burneyi already so often referred to, (I. p. 101,) that in the 

l'*fvnch opertis the time is changed frequently, every two or three 

I frooi oomeion to triple time ; which, although do explanation, may yet 

reoosidered as some sort of an illustration of the ancient Grecian usage, 

Hetv follow the pieces of poetry, the music to which has fortunately come 

I to us in part, aide by tide with an English translation, and attended 

I by a few ohi«rvation& 



\jf«Waa *i w«p vi&da /So/mk' Tbwigtt >««n Uat, thnu dnggtit tlw nku^itf j 

ratffi&vfifvov alxivA itAiMit' lO Tttou boweil the neck that U haughty i 

MTTo ♦Jht"" "*i ^**tro¥ fitrptiv' Bf tlw cubU ihuii mcaaur^l life's hrief fpaefl| ^ 

^i^if ^' ^iTf't j^vXrov 4«i MTw i^t^vi'], And tbi^ugh is thy tm^cim thau hid'it thy tm^^ 

Ci>j&¥ jufxa xf*P« tcpaTouira, The icaJpa in thy clulchei arc caught ajf*. 

NtWl* TA¥imilrTKfH3y* '^M^pii^ ui^i 

This and tlie two foUowiog odeii were first publislied from an ancitint MS* 
along with the iptisical notf^&t in GalUei's Dialogue* upon Ancient and Mwietn 
Music, Florence^ a.d, 15SL They were afterwards tditcd, likewise from a 
MS,, at the end of the Amtm before inenUoited, prinrcd at Oxford iiv 1672 ; 
and, finally, from a MS. in the King* a Library at Paris, hy M. Burette, in 
the M^mvire^ de V Acad^ de* Inset^pfiaHs. V. a. i>* 1720. pp* IS+'^tfl^. 

They are stated in the Oxford MS. to have been wtitten by Dionyaius ; 
bnt who thii Dion^'iius was i» quite uncertain* a& there were so many pcK^ts 
of the name. The " Ode to Nemesis*' U, however, attributed to a poet of llse 
name of Mesodmes, or rather MesomedcSp bf m writer who lived about 
A. D, 527—565* (See M. Burette** Obaervationa, p. 18B.) This last piece 
cannot be later than A,n« 412, aa lines E^ — 11 of tt are quoted by Syneaju% 
a Father of the Churcli, who lived at that period. 

In line 12 of the Ode to Nemesis, JS^puK is evidently a tcholiuro which 
has crept into the text, as the tnetre points out. In line 13 read fcv^of 
instead of ^uyAvt for the Aake of the metre ; the word is used in the eBme 
sense in the Feostreifsef, line Sit, as will be shown hereafter. The last seven 
lines are manifestly spurious i as appears from their general io£eri<jrity, and 
frcMn their being only found in the Paris MS. 


Fair Mtis*, my flftt and latest love, 
Bej^in i]\c Invocation ; 

And fill, by breeds ftom Ihy grove, 
My EDUl «lLh InipLratlda. 

Lovely CAlllopp, com^. 
Blight quc«n of the Nbie ; and do than, I 

DeUan Phoebtiih, hy ytkom 

I* pvcn the iinpulfe we bow to; 
L'rgp along the f t&edi af long. 

The same observation applies to this elegant little trifle, as to the passage 
of Pindar given above t the vers^^s have been split into two for the sake of 
suitini^ the trans] atioQ, Lines I and 2, like lines 3 and i, make up together 
an iambic letraineCer ; liuea d and compose a common hexameter* as also 
do lines 7 atkd 8. 

ecu 901^ tM^/vTp^ra 
Aarmi KOftf ^^X«c tldiav* 




r^ 4ai Wi'tirTdt ecu w*otain 
T«rM»vtri.F lirj^^pdTdr 4&^#(Mii'. 

Ltrrsl^ fkthcT of ctiowy-browed M^vmingp 
Gcldpn tresis tbf thouldiTs iKlnruhsi;^ 
By winu-ftstjteij iit^ds thou nirt liorne tJi 
Tliy ftheTcaJ chariot of roB>efr| high 
On t)iu menuiuTelcM lack cf ihe uufc tkf r 
Thou kuittcdt <i»ch ray in s mrthy He* 
And flliif^l (lie i^U^rerltift fountain 
Over ocjran and Talliey uad mountain ; 
And thr fiery toiTcnti rhat itiund tliw pLij 
Pour fbrth ftani Ihdr bosoina immortnl ^^, 
Tw thte the mtlodioua alaxry &ai>d 
In the hcAveui are danelnf; and uprinKlnp, 
And th<*iT iay« ever liquid I j ifngiiii^* 
Apd «wwpLn^ the tyr^ with deHf(hted handi 
Wh[l«-*lead)nir the twi f>f the choraa— 
f n her pnuon paje Lnna hefote tis 
By iiU}vy*wIiUe heifen Li whIrJtsd on, 
Oveii9owtn|f with mirth, u around the «arih 
The hanmaiikHu dkcord ii huiM on. 

tht Grat six lines are not in the Florence or Oxford copyi and though 
■pptfifiitiy ancient, yet do not seem to have any contiexion with the body of 
the tide » 111 line 11 the Oxford MS. has SnrttptiTov, the Fretich MS. da-ei/nj- 
^**» hui M, Bpivin very propvrly proposeB to read dirriptT&y. In line 13 the 
Oxibrd MS. hsfi wokvStpKta. In line Mi the Oxford MS. hns ^w^ptrrov. In 
line Si, hoik the French utid the Ojtford MSS. have rap* oTrfi whtch is 
noMense i but the former gives wdpatSt in the margin a« a various reading. 
U Sine 23, the Piirin MS. tcud^ vaAvti^oi*a, which M. Burette adopts, 
"lioff, thiit derivatives from dt^ot^nd in -^r,. not -wm« at ^i^tij^of ^ iripoi^«i. 
^ii is certaiuly true, as far as the usage of the claij«icttl writers ^roes ; but 
• «t trr now dealing with i poet who wrote at a tate periods and ns irMt^l- 
I vould give rather a itratige lentet '* will perhapi be better to rctairv 
Shoulil any one^ however, prefer the former, it will be ea^y to 
I ibe two ooncluding Lines iu the following way, with a reference to 
t tfcf^lunging phasea which the moon usHiunea : — 

♦♦ Orerilowing w^ith mirths ai around tlip earth 
** Hvr coitume rver-changlns L» hurled oq." 

The rvadc? shall now judge for himself of the merle of these solitary frag- 
Msti of saeieut music^ which ttave beeu reicued from the greedy ma^ of 


old father Time. It is to be hoped that he will not conclude with the scientific 
Dr. Burney, that with all the advantages of modern notes and modern mea- 
sure, if he had been told that they came from the Cherokees or the Hottentots, 
he should not have thought them any thing extraordinary even from such a 
set of uncivilized barbarians. 





V^gv XX, line 11 nroiu bottuiu. 

thy invention 

your invention 

xliii, nole30,lim-l. 



Ivl, line t froni bottom. 

, inextricably 


Ixxx. ... 19. 



Ixxxiil, ... 15. 

And itwecping 

5, ... 11. 



15, note 14. line J. 



10, line 5. 



117, ... 7 fh>m bottom. 



119, ... 15 

•• to-morrow " 


120, ... J. 



185, ... 10. 



«H, ... 3. 



183, note 14, line f«. 

•• perhaps 



" the former 

the former 

312. line 9. 



346, note 103, line 3. 



365. ... 124, ... 4. 

old true 

true old 

419. line 10. 





Dica6polis, an Attic Farmer. 

A Crier, or Public Herald, 



Athenian Ambassadors /rowi the King of Persia. 

PseudArtabas, the King's Eye, 

The6rus, an Athenian Ambassador from the King of Thrace. 

Chorus of Achdmian Old Men, 

Wife of Dicttdpolis, 

Daughter of Diccedpolis, 

Xanthias and another Slave of Diccedpolis, both dumb 

Slave of Euripides.^ 
Euripides, the Tragic Poet 
Lamachus, the Military Officer. 
A Megarian Pig-jobber. 
His two Daughters. 
An Informer. 

A B(e6tian Marketman, with Attendants, Sfc. 
NicArchus, an Athenian Informer. 
Slave of Ldmachus. 
A Farmer. 
A Bridesman. 

A Bridesmaid, a dumb Character. 
Messengers, Sfc, 

(1) Elmalej has well observed, that this slave could not have been Cephf- 
tophon, as the M8S. have it, because Cephuophon was any thing but the kind 
of name usually given to this unfortunate class of beings. For a notice of the 
celcbmted friend of Euripides, who was so called, sec Frogs, 1. 944. 



The Adiamlatis^ or men of Achamse, from whom 
this comedy takes its name and its Chorus, inhabited the 
richest, tlie most exteosive, and the most populous pai'islx 
in all 'Attica. Situated to the northward of Athens, it 
adjoined the roots of Mount Fames, from the thick forests 
of which they manufactured large quantities of charcoal — 
a conunodity not only much used by the Greeks in their 
houses, which it is well known had no chimneys, but also 
in great demand for the smelting of the Laurian silver 
ores. It is a curious circumstance^ that this trade is 
carried on to the present day by the Inhabitants of two 
villages in the very same part of 'Attica, — Khassia and 
MenMhi^ — who bum their charcoal, as of old, on the 
mountain^ and convey it on asses' backs to Athens for 
wde. Ach&rnae is supposed by CoL Leake to have been 
m little to the south-east of the latter place J 

T he aJj H^- ^rf-the pi^lin this xirama,,t_a-^tfip to 
the ruinous war Jn^ which his country__had embroiled 
jignM?l ft ,by setting befQr^_Jier the^ deli gbtg^of thai ruatic 

(I) On the Demi qf AU\m. Tmm. Ho^tSat. Lilet. Vol I. PjiH 1. pp. 134 
^*l9ti. Boc'ukh Mi'^tn^ in hurt!' oottflidcred lh)%L tliere wt^te two pAruhe» of thii 
isiutnv " <hp little vilbgu rif the ch^iroml-burnen;* and '' n Tni>rc couiMpmble 
f i<>irii, wIjUIi wan ci^lvbratt^l fnr the heroiftin of it;* nnirknt inbubilar^te /' htti 
mf^annilly without uny fuiuidjitioii.— /^«^/. Ecnn, (i/Afhcns^ l. \*. MB. 



r epose whic h, as we leant from Thucydides, jHfls -^Q £Qti- 
^ jgenialjio the aiiciont A tticteirijTef. The plot, if plot it 
can be said to be, may be e^iiplaiiied in very few words. 
Die ffiop^is is one^ ojL the- unJortujiate f armer s^ who have 
bee n compelled to mi|rrate tQ_ the ^ow n by the Spar tan 
incursions. He cornea gnim bling aiid j^wIiog» — as 
Jiurmara in all ages have been notorious for doing,-:^to^ 
tbePny^* the usual place_of assembly. We are then 
entertained J by way of episode, with some burlesque satire 
on the way JD^wldch^- state iijlair^-w«re-_.carx^ at 

Athens I after wluch the honest liUHbanthnanj io, despair 
^f persuading his countrymen to arrange their^jdiffereiicea 
with Spartaj declares that he will hayeaprivate peaee" 
.fpi Jiiniself and iamily ; for wliich purpose the author has 
previously introduced a vei^convenient personage,_gne__ 
^Am^hitheus, a sort of poetic^ cement to make the loose 
bricks of the comedy stick tog^ither- Tliis worthy, who 
professes to have a touch of tlivine blood in his vein^, 
Jgdaj;^«^ihat_th^ gods. h^Yfi gitten J^im^ll pi>wera to jio-all 
tl\&t_Picflei3polis wants, ^djiaecordingly despatched by 
him to Sparta, whence he returns in a most miraculously 
short time, no dtmbt by the assistaiic^ of hi^ heav^idy 
ancestors, witli the required peace. 'We are next intro- 
duced to the Chorus of Achaniian old men, who come on 
in a great rage, determined to stone the jjeace-makers to 
death. A long colloquy follows, after which it is..^aUy 
jji^nged^that tlie 4^torous husbandman shaU^spegk in 
defence of Ida conduct witli his pLTicranium on a butcher's 
chopping'block ; it hcing underistotKl, that, if his tongud 
fails him, hia head is to pay the penalty. As usual in 
these political comedios^ iberc is a great deal of humorous 
bulibonery, both before and after the serious appeal ta 
the audi once J in ord|ta to sweeten the nauseous do^*^ JbfT 


the Athenian palate* Ttii_re.snll isg of course, lJiat--Uie 
omtof Jg pronounced vicUirious hy the Choruj^j gjuL tlie 
A DDE ESS follows, Antt here, according to our modem 
ideas, the pky would be considered to end, the Addeess 
supplying the place of our Epilogi;e. 

But an Attic appetite was not so easily surfeited. We 
are presented with tlu'ee more Acts, in which, according to 
the ancient tastei the e%cts ofjthe p£g4;e whichjiaa h&eik 
made are e xhibited in various attractive Ughts, and strongly 
^iit£&&t£iLjyith the niii^erie^ aiul-calamities of wan To 
modem gastronomists this will no doubt forni the most 
attractive part of the play, as Aristophanes seems to have 
considered it as aii axiom, that the high road to an 
Athenians head lay through his stomach. Accordingly 
dainties of various kinds me exliibited on the st^e, as 
the fruits of the successful negotiation^ some of which will 
no doubt rather shock tl^ prejudices of the artiste and 
the amateur — for instance, moles, jackdaws, and hedge- 
hogs. Such person^ however, should bear in mind that 
t]iese &ct5 tell rather in favour of^ than against, Athenian 
cc»okefy. Any bungler* it is notorious, can make good 
meat palatable ; but tlie genius which could shine in 
frkasseeing a fox, or tossing up a ragout of cats, must 
hft¥e been truly suhUiue ! The whole winds up by the 
hi?ro of the piece appearing on the stage in that state of 
vinou!) elevation which was considered, as we leai^n from 
Plato, the duty of every good and pious citizen durmg 
tlie Bacclianalian carnival, and attended also, I am sorry 
»lp say, by some ladies of rather doubtful character, 
Itliough tlie audience have had ocular proof of his being 
1 manied man. ^4^ Jo exliibi t the contrast Jujas^strong 
[le braggadocio general, wlio embodies 
t'i conception of t hg^ war jai'^ts brought in at the 


mmt tone in a most wretched plight^ from an excursion 
in wKjcE~^be TSi been^^woundedj and entertains the 
Audjenee hy lamenting hk hard fate in whining, whim- 
prmig s«3iigs, according to the most npproved receipt 
i^ Greek tragedy and Italian opera, 

^hiit--d«tina was represented at tlie Lensean Feast of 
Batchus^ in the sixth year of the Peloponnesian war, 
(February, b»c- 425.y It was the third composition of 
tlu* aitthor's,^ — ^two previous plays, the Banqueters and 
tlie Ba6tfi6manSf having been iinibrtunately lost, — and, 
lik^ tliese two, wag^ exh i bited J n the_jiaDl^_of_aMlfeer 
jEjeraon, who| as was usual, took the first part in the 
piece. It was very well understood, however, w^ho was 
the reid composer, although, either from a feeling of 
diffidence, or an aristocratic repugnance to expose himself 
to thi* popular gaze, he chose to make use of his friend 
Crtllistrqtug as his substitute •' Aristophanes is recorde3^ 
to have gained the first prize, Cratinus and Eupolia 
obtaining respectively the second and third* 

('i) Thii ia dent from cmnparing thU ttm^f {I 377-^382) with that of the 
Wf^iqtti {I l'3M— l*i!n), whith wns represented in the naine, not of Cfdlfs- 
\m\ns Imt of nuUttiklen- We (ind the Chorua apt-aking m the character of Uie 
HUthur in iMith Ihew fJoiBn^ts of a certain «|iuihWe bt^twt'en Cliion ami himnelf 
U IbltiiWR, thervfiin^ thut the person imdeintood to iy^ alluded to eouM nt>t 
\MkXv bt'itn iiillii^r Colllitniluv or Fhildnide^ and must con3«?queiitly havi? bwn 
AiiiliJfJiiiuiai. SffO iJao on thii lubjeet EnighUj 512— 5l£», tmd Chudti 528—53:$^ 



Scene I. Athens. 

[The Scene presents the usual range of houses in front, the centre one 
of which belongs to Dicjeopolis, and those on the right and left to 
Lamaciius and Euripides, while the little door on the extreme right 
tail afterwards figure as the countrg house of the hero of the piece. 
The movable triangular scenes are painted to imitate the Pnyx. See 
Note 7.] 

Enter DiCiEOPOLis. 


How many things have worried my poor heart ! 

IVe had four puny, very puny, pleasures, 

While my vexations were sand-numerous.* 

Let's see, what pleasure had I wortli " rejoicement?"' 

I know what sight it was gladdened my soul ! — 5 

(1) Though DicmSpolis here talks of four pleasures which he has cx^h?- 
rienced, jet we shall find afterwards that he only enumerates two, leaving 
the Kit to be supplied by the fancy of the reader. 

(2) Arist4$phane8 here makes use of an affected, out-of-the-way word, which 
had most probably been coined l)y EurfpideSw We shiiU sec afterwards from 
the plays of the Feastresses and the Progs, how fond the bard of comedy vras 
of ridiculing and parodying hu» tragic brother. 


The fifteen hundred pounds disgorged bj Cleon*' 

How this delighted me ; and how I love 

The Kiiight45 for causmg it! " *Tis good for Greece*"* 

But then I had a tragical vexation : 

When I was waiting, with my moutli wide open. 

For one of '^scliylua's tragedies, 10 

The crier bawled, " Commence jour play, Theugnis!''* 

Tills made my heart quake — ^you can't tliink how much, 

I fdt great pleasure, when Dexithelis, 

The harper, came on, after stupid Moschus, 

To play a piece in the Boeotian style | 

But then this year I was half killed with wrath, 

And my eyes squinted when I saw the piper 15 

Chaeris start forth to play some lofty music* 

But never yet, since I began to bathe, 

Have my eyes smarted so much with the soap,,,.. 

(3) We IwiTti from the Gr<?ek notes, on the author! tj of TheojMjnipu3, (hut 
Cleon hml rt-ccUed it brilw of 1 j(K>/. from the Ifilunderw, under a ivromi*e thai 
he would pc?niUade the Athenian people to rtducv the enntri))utiotiB exa4*ted 
from them \ and that he waa pros«?ctJted by the KnighU, find condenmed to 
refund the money in the ahupe of a fine. According to the Blrict law, he would 
either have lM*en capitatiy puni&hed, or mulcted iiv ten times the amount of 
the hril^e. The miHleedBS of thb dewuijuoguc form the subject of the comedy 
of the Kaiffhta. H\^ chameter is admimldy nnd impartiaUy dmirn bj 
Mr. Thirlwall, in lib HUtura of Greece, II L pp. 1B5— 157- 

(4) A fjtiotation from the Teiephnj^ it lost p!ny of Euripides. The Qj^\ 
note supplies us with the entiru line — 

'' Then may he peii»li ! Ii L» giM4 tbr Gr««cf t" 

(5) Thetvgnis eompi>fted tragedies in such n frigid vein, that he was nlek- 
unmet] "^^ Snovr." In Ihe Uflth line of tJiis ptay, tho Athtnian envoy silly 
iiisinuiitea that the frcisly werither he hitd met with in Thmce was owing to tbe 
repie^enlJition uf ont? ofthfiM^ tntgedies at Athens^ 

(<i) This unfortunate piper i^ete two additional miis on the knuckles in the 
I' face {I HM), uud the Birth (L 8.5S.) " I^%" music was a liarticulai style, 
but wv know too liltli^ on the fuhjwt to swy exactly what was ilt natmn. 




As now, when an Assembly should be held 

By law at dawn, and yet the PnyXj* you see, 

I« emptVj and the citizens are prating 

F the Market-place, and running up and down, 

To get away from the vemiilioii'd rope.' 

Even the Committee*tnen are not yet here ; 

TlieyTl come behind their time, and, rusliing down 

In a body, jostle one another strangely 

For the first bench,* But as for making peace 

They do not care a straw. O Athens, Athens ! 

Now / get alwayis first to an Assembly, 

And sit me down. Then, finding Fm alone, 

I groan, I gape, I stretch myself, I belch, 

I think, I scrawl, I pluck out hairs, I reckon. 

And looking towards the country, sigh for peace, 



(T) The P^ys wm the usual plnce of assembly at this perincj. Two lj<?atitiful 
wlewti of tli# ranmifii of iU fH^micirL'uLox area may be seen in Mr. Wonla worth's 
Athms &mi AHkn. 

iji) la onler tr> ftirce the atlFudance of the citkeiu at the Assetnblte*, it wns 
Mad ikOt only to cteur \\w jiUMb i>f all vendibles, luid to ^hut uj? suM roads 
hiik Qusmt which led to the Pnyx, but alao to awec?p the market-place wjtii a 
rc^ cov«iri^l with Viirmilmn or ruddJe. The espririkling the loiti^rera with 
rmiiUc and wmter was u hitef inventioti. (See DeMtreMrs^ 1. 378.) l*he Grock 
Bi4« telb ui thftt tlnMse who were fouud marketl were itubject to a amitll fine* 
It it tnore prohable thnt the only penalty they p:Ud wufi that of btiing mad^ 
m b«lt for the wit of their more fortumitc brethwm. Hblorkus record, I 

t]W¥L% th*l ft mob of ieditioti* Frcut^h women was once dispelled hy plajinK 

on thnn with tire-en|^rin» filktl with mn% and wuter. It wa^ not till towards 
} ckvir of tJje Feloponn^slnii wur tbut pojr wn£ allowed to nil eitijsens whi» 
dttefided wa kmctMf, This -mm the moit etfectutd way of doing the thini^, 

j {^\ It ttti been conjecttireiU that the Committee-men siit on the etone fteps, 

I «rr ilill io txistt'nce, ^u'ound the old marble hiiititj^s ux the Pujx* Tho 

\%% the Ofiginsil, howui^er^ whit'h m{?an» not merely n bcnch^ but n mmaknk 

det-idve thiit they did not * tmle^ indeed, the Ath^niiais hud 

I made of stgne, it* we hiivo mile-ntaDCi nmde of inm. 


And liate the town, and long for my own parish, 

Which never said, " Buy vinegar ! buy charcoal ! 

" Buy oil !" Nor did I know such words as " buy ;" 35 

For it produced me every tiling but buy-words. 

So now I'm come fully prepared to bawl, 

To interrupt, and to abuse the speakers. 

If they discourse of any thing but peace. 

Scene II. The Same, 

Enter the Committee-men, Crier, Amphitheus, and 



See ! here is the Committee, now 'tis noon ! 40 

Did I not say so ? Just what I foretold ! 
Each man is jostling for the foremost seat. 


Come to the front, come to the front, I say. 
That you may be within the cleansing-offering ! " 


Has any one spoken yet ? 


Who wants to harangue ? 45 

(10) At every Aseembly it w?i8 usiuil to »lay a young porker, and sprinkle a 
portion tif its blood in a circle around the Pnyx. This was considered to 
purify all the parties enclosed. It must be confeswed that the holy water of the 
Roman Catholics is a far more cleanly thing to use for such a purpose, and no 
doubt equally ciHcacious. 



I do. 


Your name ? 




Wliat, a god ? 


Yes, I'm immortal : for Amphitheiis 

Was son of Ceres and Triptolemus ; 

And Celeijs son of Amphitheiis^ 

Which Celeiis espoused Phaenarete 

My grandmother, from whom was horn Lycinus, 

From whom I claim my immortality, 50 

Being his son." To me the gods have granted 

I^ave to make peace with Sparta hy myself. 

But, though I am immortal, gentlemen, 

Tve got no money for the journey there ; 

For the Committee will not give me any. 


Constahles there ! 

(11) The word Amphitheiis means ** a god on both sides." Hence the 
V"*ioii of the Crier. 

(12) This long genealogy, the Greek note tells us, was intended to ridicule 
tt equally absurd one which commences a play of Euripides still extant : — 

" Tantilian J* elopt, having reached (klr Pisa 

" In Mwift-paced chariot, weds (EndmaUa* child ; 

" From whom sprung Atreus ; and firom Atretis rote 

*' Great Menel&ils, and the mighty king, 

" Imperial Agamemnon, who hegat 

" Me, whom mankind Iphigenia call, 

" The daughter of the maid of Tyndarus." {Iph. Tanr. 1. 1 . ) 



Triptolemus and CeleiiSy 55 

Will you allow me to be treated thus ? 


Committee-men, you wrong the Assembly much. 

If you attempt to eject the man who wants 

To make a peace for us, and hang our shields up. 

[Amphitheus is ejected by force. 


Sit down, and hold your tongue. 


Not I, by Phoebus, 
Unless you put the question about peace. 60 


The Ambassadors returned from the King of Persia ! 


Pshaw ! I am weary of Ambassadors, 
And peacocks,^' and such pompous fooleries ! 

Enter Ambassadors in most magnificent costume, 


Be quiet ! 

(13) Peacocks were yery scarce in Athens, and had probably been recently 
imported from the east by some of these Ambassadors. Being such strange- 
looking creatures, they seem to have considered them not to come uider 
the general term of birds. At least Evilpides asks the Hoopoe, In the play of 
the Birdt^ (L 102,) " Whether he is a bird or a peacockJ" Ck>nversely, th^ 
considered bats as birds. (See the same play, 1. 1296.) The £!nglish custom of 
calling lobsters and crabs JUh is about as rational. But what shall we say of 
the doctrines of the Wateeooans, in the Pacific ? ^ The inhabitants,** says 
Captain Cook, ^ were afraid to come near our cows and horses, nor did they 
** form the least conception of their nature ; but the sheep and goats did not 
" surpass the limits of their ideas ; for they gave us to understand that they 
** knew them to be birds,** 



O Ecbdtana ! " what figures ! 


You sent us, when Euthymenes was Ruler," 05 

To the Great King, and gave us, as our salary. 
Two shillings each per diem. 


Ah ! those shillings ! 


And so we were tormented cruelly 

In travelling through the plains of the Cayster, 

With tents and well-stufied carriages to lie in, 70 

Being half killed. 


Yes ! It was / lived well, 
Who lay on straw to guard the battlements ! 


And being entertained by force, we drank, 
From crystal cups and golden chalices. 
Sweet unmixed wine. 

(14) EcMtaiia waf one of the residences of the Pernan king, the capital of 
Media. The exclamation is just as if an honest Ehiglish rustic were to oill out, 
■pon seeing a nabob dash past in his chariot and four, ^ Pekin and Nankin 

(15) Eatb^enes was Ruler twelve jrears before the representation of this play. 
Howefer, thooflli the time consumed by the Ambassadors was excessive, and 
Cffidoitly moves the bile of Dicaedpolis, he certainly has no right to quarrel with 
the kismeas of the salary. From cij^tpence to a shiUing a day was the pay 
of a bcavy-anned infiuitry soldier amongst the Athenians, finding his own 
pwvaioiis; so that two shillings for an Ambassador does not seem out of the 



Thou city of the rocks ! 75 

Don't you perceive that they are hoaxing you? 


For the barbarians think those only men 
Who can devour and drink a precious deal. 


Aye, but we think them whoremongers and blackguards ! 


In three years' time we got to the King's palace ;; 80 

But he was gone with a great armament .... 

To purge himself, and worshipped Cloacina 

For eight whole months upon the Golden Mountains. 


And how soon was his royal rump relieved ? 
At the full moon ? 


Then he came home again. 
And feasted us, setting before us oxen ■ 85 

Wliole from the oven** — 


Who has ever seen 
Baked oxen ? What a pack of pompous lies ! 

(16) " It is the custom of the Fenians to pay more respect to the di^ on 
** which they were bom than to any other, and to provide a laiger banquet than 
** on any other occasion. The rich men set upon table an ox, a horse, a cameU 
** and an ass, all baked whole in ovens ; the poorer sort content themaelTea with 
** lean sheep." (Her6doius I. 133.) 



Besides a bird, by Jove, three times as big 
As is Clednymus," — whose name was Chouse. 


'Twas thusr you choused us out of your two shillings ! 90 


And now we've brought with us Pseudartabas, 
The Great King's Eye." 


Would god a crow might strike 
At the Ambassador's^ and knock it out ! 

Scene III. The^Same. 
Enter Pseudartabas with attendant Eunvchs, 


The Great King's Eye ! 

(17) This unfortunate individual forms a staniUng-dinh for the readers of 
Aristdphanes. He is described a« a great hulking fellow, who made a point of 
always stuffing himself as full as he could hold, when he was invited to a party, 
and always throwing away his shield and taking to his heels, when he met the 
enemy on the field of battle. We are told also that he pursued the much- 
Tilified trade of an informer, and was not at all scrupulous about doing a little 
in the way of perjury. 

(18) The King of Persia had certain officers who were called "' his Eyes,'* 
•* his Ears,*" " his Feet," and " his Hands.'' " There is something," as 
Mr. Mitchell well observes, " truly oriental and magnificent in this office, 
** which, while it left the monarch secluded like a divinity in his superb palace 
" and domains, represented his eyes as traversing the whole extent of his 
** immense dominions, for the purposes of inspection and superintendence." 
Pseudirtabes makes his appearance on the stage in a ridiculous mask, which 
represented his face as nothing but one huge eye, carved out in the sliape of the 
rowlock of an Athenian galley. This, of course, gives occasion to some 
nautical jokes, which were always peculiarly acceptable to the Athenians — a 
people, like us, devotedly attached to the sea. 



O Hercules ! For god's sake. 
Art looking navies, my good sir, or steering 95 

Around a point in search of a dry-dock ? 
Why, youVe a rowlock-leather round your eye ! 


Come now, Pseudartabas, tell the Athenians 
AVTiat you were sent here by the King to say. 


Him justeynow began to pitchoney 100 



D'ye understand what 'tis he means ? 


Not I, by Phoebus ! 


He declares the King 
Will send us gold. 

{To Pseudartabas.) 

Say " gold " louder and plainer. 

No gettey goldey, charlatan Athenau ! 


Confound the thing, how plain ! 


What does he mean ? 105 


He says you are a charlatan Athenian, 

To promise to get gold from the barbarians. 





Not he I He says hell send chaJdrom of' gold, 


Pshaw ! Chaldrons ! Nonsense ! YouVe a lying braggart [ 
Be off with ye ! 1*11 try him by myself! 110 

Come, answer plainly what I ask, for fear 
I take your measure for a suit of scarlet.*" 
Will the Great King of Persia send us gold ? 

[Pseud ART ABAS and cmnpaniom xhake tfwir keadjs. 
Then are we choused by the Ambassadors? 

[PsEUDABTAaAs and compani(*m nod their heaths 
The feEows nodded Greek 1 They must be Grecians I 115 
And / know who one of the eunuchs is 1 
'Tis Cliathenes,^ Sibyrtias*s son* 

** O thou that own'st a most hot-blooded" rump. 

What, have you come to us dressed as a eunuch, 

•* With such a** beard ** as this, you ugly ape ?**— VM 

But who is t other ? Surely 'tis not Straton ?" 

(]!!) Ttutt tt to ttjr, beat you till your akin i» nothing but ii mam ol red 
wftlfv, fiT |i«diii|iB« Eaj you alive. 

(20) Thii Ctiiithent^ immn to have Keen in as Ijod odour aa CleditjmuA. The 
IMhU pmetice at this period wns to dip the beoLnl ^ Clfsthcne* nnd ft few other 

Htn§ men were t^iiiy of the abomlnatinti of shavinij h with a tosht. Hence 

Llw b conlinutitly sneered ut aft nix efTeininate, benrdlcaa youth, fit only to ply 

tiM ibuttle mnoiigat the women. In the comedy of the Fetkstressts hi- mnkefl 

Nit ftf>fie>tiince on th« sto^e as the close ally jind confidAnt of the ffur sex. Tlic 

two tinai in inverted commiiA are patodiea^ Uic tirot of Euripiilea, the second of 

** O Ihpu, iH»t QVTiVt A moflt hot hlAo^ed Titan ! *" 
** With fluth & rump u thlt* you u^Jy npc." 

(21) Of Straton we know very little, except that he also n-ns ^vMy of 
brtievifi^ ill the«hftving heresy, aj»d was consequently reo^ctl in due fomi in 
tho Hnrrif* of comic «aUre. 




Silence ! Sit down ! The Senators invite 
The Great King's Eye to dine in the Town-hall. 

[Exeunt Pseudartabas, Ambassadors, and attendants. 


Now is not this as bad as any halter ? 125 

/ am to keep on dribbling here forsooth, 
And they 're to find the Town-hall always open 
To feast their friends in ! I will do a deed 
Of dreadful daring. Where's Amphitheiis ? 
Enter Amphitheus. 


See, here am I. 


Take these eight shillings, then, 130 

And go and make a peace with Lacedaemon 
For me alone, my children, and my spouse. 

[Exit Amphitheus. 
Do you, yc gaping fools, continue sending 
Ambassadors ! 

Scene IV. The Same. 


Now let Thedrus enter, 
The envoy come back from Sitalces." 

(22) Thedrus waa a real character, a lickspittle of Cleon^s. He had no doubt 
procured this appointment by the influence of that demagogue. Sitilces was 


Enter TheorUs. 




Now there's a second liar introduced. 135 


We shouldn't have stopped so long a time in Thrace — 


If you'd not had so long a salary. 


If the whole land had not been covered with snow, 

And the rivers frozen, at the very time 

At which Theognis' play was acting here. 140 

So all this while I guzzled with Sitalces, 

Who's quite possessed with an Athenian mania, 

And loves you dearly, actually scribbling 

On the house-walls " The Athenians for ever ! " 

His son, whom we have made a citizen, 1 l-S 

Longed much to taste of one of the blackpuddings 

We eat upon the Apaturian feast, 

King of Thrace, and his son S^ocufi, the Athenian citizen, is mentioned in 
Thocydidea, aa having apprehended some Lacediemunian ambassadors, who 
were travelling through his father's territory to Persia, and delivered them up 
to his adopted countrymen. The Athenians cruelly put them to death to 
retaliate upon the Spartans, who, it seems, had seized upon the crews of esery 
ihip they could get hold of at the beginning of the war, no matter whether 
friends or foes, and murdered them in cold blood. The extent of territory over 
whieh this Sitilces ruled was very great, and his revenues enormous. ** Thu- 
" c^des,** says Mr. Thirlwall, '* remarks as a peculiar feature in the ThiaQiim 
** ciutoma, which distinguished them from those of the Persians, that among the 
** Thnidan tribes it was the fashion for the great to receive, and for their inferiore 
** to pay. To a modem reader the remark must appear more singuUir than the 
"custom.**— //m/. Gr^ere, III. p IGO. 

22 ' THE ACHARNIAN8. ^ [aCT I. 

Aiid begged his father to assist his country. 

On which the monarch poured out a libation. 

And swore that he'd assist it with an army 

So large that the Athenians should cry, 

" What a great lot of locusts coming here T' 150 


Curse me, if I believe a word of all 

That you have said, except about the locusts ! 


And he's now sent you the most warlike tribe 
Amongst the Thracians. 


This is plain, -at last 
Enter Thracians in a strange outlandish dress. 


Come here, you Thracians, that Thedrus brought! 155 


What are these rogues ? 


An Odomantian army. 


Pooh ! Odom^tian ! Tell me what they are. 
How came the Odomantians' noses cropped ? 


If you give these two shillings each per diem, 

They'll overrun Boedtia with their targets. 160 


Two shillings for these paltry, crop-nosed dogs ? 

fiCENE IV.] 



The bold top-oarstncn," who uphold the country? 
Would groan at tiiis ! 

ITke TuRACiANs attack DiCiEOPOLis, mid rob him. 
Consume it^ I'm midone 
curst Odomiintiaits 1 Thej have stolen 
My garlic. Put my garlic down^ you knaves I J(ir> 

(1!3) An Athenian seaman's pny wns from eixpence to a shiLling a dAj, finding 
hiiown provisidrits. Niivnl wan* at thb pcri^>d wero conducM by Jang light 
jriU<J)'Ss which w«re alwajd pTOiHjlied by oaih iilono during an ongaflemeut, 
llM>y ferried a. large si]unrL! ^U, but nf cour6ie from tbeir biiikl could only sail 
with :i vmd cin tbc quarter. The rnwers wcto iirmit^ed in three lunks, not 
i^eitic^ljf man ovet man^ but in a sJ oping direction, thui :— 

Ttuwytlidf^ €3tpw»j*l y luHa ti» that lh« " top-oafitoienr (i- ** those who pulled 
in tbi' hightfsi tier,) had higher wugefi^ ^ ^he work was more ficverti on afcounl 
tenths UTigth nf the oara» Thi* object aimed at wm to drive the buak tnto tht* 
Vimny ind thu^ sink him. The usuaJ number of men in each galley wm 20i]^ 
\mi wo till nriit exaeOy know how many of these rowed, Meihomius takea them 
*i 1 110, Boeckh at \M or 140, I ghonld prefer the former estin>ute, ti» Thn- 
ff^Aminf&rmA ii« that Ihe Athdnian» cfln^idereil the use of any great number 
WlHttuujii cild-failiLoned awd useicM, Of eoursc it need not be 6\ippn**nl that 
^ »fcole IBO were always at their oare when the ship waji rowetl, but ordy 
™t^ir Iti mgngement, when the greateat poeBible Bpced wii* required. At other 
"■•••pirt might be employed in managing the aiiil, &c. The naval wars of the 
™>«tw were carried on in larger gHlleyn of five Ixinksi of ofirs iiiul upu'tLirda. 
^ M Lcfoj- {Mimoireif de rAcademie d#« Inaeriplhni^ T. X X XV 1 1 L p. 567, 
*^ ) hii* iilttsBipted to *how that in these vesweU there was more than nne man 
^' P^^H TOch onr, and that they took the name of Bcven -banked, ten-lwuiked, he. 
^ftmn the mw* of onrji, but from the rows of mt;ii^ I will ju»t mention two 
fjtffli trhicfi disprove hb position, and then leave this question for Ihe 
ot. PoIybiu% in hi^t first book, caleulatea the number of roweo in eitelt 
^*«^b!iftkiHl giiUlcy at 300, oxdudve of the mannen. Now Silius itilieud 
("Oak \, I 33^17) jBijTft that the Curthfietniaa adniirarii ship " i^truck the uea 
•lib 100 ot%n>r Therefore, although tbii* V€*eel HnA, of course, one of the 
^^fpti, ittli it would not Ik; re.icMUinhle tu snupiiose that it hjul more tJian im 
'^•Wltopull llie M¥loj&r» (i. c one-third more than Uw U&ual eomplemenl), 
•«A gtrcf |uit oni? nmn to each oji^r. 



You foolish fellow, don't go up to them, 

When they've been crammed, like fighting-cocks, with garlic." 

Do you permit mc to be treated thus 
In my own land, and by barbarians too ? 
I deprecate the holding an Assembly 

Al)out the Tliracians' pay, and I declare 1 70 

Tliat there's a tempest, and a drop has struck me.f* 


You Thracians must retire. Be here the day 
After to-morrow. The Assembly's over. 
[Exeunt Committee-men, Theorus, Crier, citizens, ^c. 

Scene V. The Same. 


Consmuc it ! wliat an olio I have lost ! 

(24) The Athenians, who were great cock-fighters and quail-fighters, used to 
feed the hirds on garlic to make them more fierce; some English trainen 
administer port-wine for the same purpose. Dodwell gives a curious account of 
the penetrating effects of this plant. ^* As the men began to be heated with 
" rowing, we found ourselves almost overpowered by the nauseous smell of 
" garlic, which they exuded from every pore, so that it infected even our clothes . 
** Nothing is so penetrating and diffusive as the smell of this root. Ifiiu put in 
** the shoes of a person^ the breath is tainted with iiin a short time, and, when 
" eaten, the perspiration, and even the hands, smell strongly of it" {Travels in 
Greece, I. p. 14.) The "olio" mentioned shortly afterwards in the text, was 
always seasoned strongly with garlic. 

(25) The Assemblies being held in the open air, it was always customary to 
bre<ik them up on the approach of a btorm. 



But here's Amphithciis from Lacedaemon. 175 

Enter Ampiiitheus. 
Amphitliciis, how d ye do ? 


Not very well, 
Till I can leave off running. I'm obliged 
To fly from the Achaniians for my life. 


Wliat is the matter ? 


I was hurrj'ing here 
To carry you a peace, when I was nosed 
By some Achamian old men, wiry chaps 
With oaken hearts, tough Marathonian warriors, 180 

And rough as any maple. All of whom 
Bawled out at once — " What ? Are you bringing peace, 
"You scoundrel, when our vines have been cut down?"** 
And picked up stones, and put them in their aprons. 
And so I fled, and they pursued with shouts. 185 


And let them shout. But have you brought the peace ?*' 

{%) Thitt IB an allusion to tlic incurhions of the PeUiponndsians into 'Attics, 
ud the ntRKOB they comniitted. During thcne invatiionis wliich generally 
took place once a year, the Athenians nhut thcnuelves up within their walls, by 
the advice of Pe'ricles, and retaliated by sending out galleys to lay wiistc the 
enemy's coasts. 

(27) The word here translated "peace" literally signifies ** liljations," or 
** pourings-out,'* because it was usual to make a libation when a peace was 
ratified. Hence the " three biiuiplcs" are naturally enough represented by 
three vessels of wine. 



I have — three samples, Tliis is tor Jive years. 
Take it aiid taste it. 




Wliy, what's the matter ? 


I do not like it ; for it smells of tar 
And rigging galleys out. 


Tlien take tliis one, — 190 

Which is for icti, — and taste it. 


This, too, smells 
Most strong of embassies sent to our towns. 
And, as it were, delay amongst the allies. 


But here's a peace for thirtf/ years for you. 
And both by sea and land." 


O feast of Bacchus ! 195 

This smells of nectar and ambrosia, — 
Not of providing rations for three days,^^ — 
-:Vud tells one in the mouth, " Go where you like.'' 

(20) The pence that was actimlly made four years afterwards, Uiough never 
htrii'tly ol)9erve<l, w»w for Jifltf years. 

(*JJ>) When Jin Athuiian anny was sent out, the soldiers were usually 
re(|uircil to meet at a luirticuiar H^mt with pruvisions fur three days. 


This I receive. From this I make libation. 

Tliis I will now drink up, and bid good morning 200 

To the Achamians. I shall go within. 

And, free from wars and evils, celebrate 

Tlie Rural Festival of jolly Bacchus. 

[Exit DiCiEopoLis. 


And I shall run away from the Achamians. 

[Exit Ampiiitheus. 
Enter Chorus hastily. 


Follow, follow, and imravel here 

Where the fugitive is gone, 
Asking every passing traveller 205 

If he's met with such a one. 
We shall serve the state by seizing 

On tliis peace-purveying slave. 
You that know what corner he's in, 

Tell us where to find the knave ! 
But he's fled and got away. 
O my years ! O welladay ! 210 

In my youth, when I kept pace 
With Phayllus in the race,'* 

(90) Pha^Uus WB8 a celebrated runner, who hail gained the prize at the 
Olympuin garnet. The Greek note furnishes us with the following cpignuu 
'Jpon hit prowess :— 

" Fllly-flve feet,— to fill ua 

" With wonder,— were leapt by Phayllufl ; 

" Aye, and (trcmcndoun exploit !) 

" Ninety and-(ive by his quoit." 

WchaTc the authority of Professor Wilson for the fact, that the best modem 


Though I bore a load of black 

Solid charcoal on my back, 215 

He'd not 'scaped so readily, 

Had he been pursued by me ; 

Nor had this peace-bearer then 

Skipped away and gained his den. 

Now, however, that my ankles 

And my shins are stiff and hard, 
And the frost of ages rankles 

In my*legs, my speed is marred, 220 

And he's gone. But we must journey on ! 

Never let him laugh and speak 
Of escaping an Acharnian 

Band, although so old and weak. 
For, ye gods and father Jove, 
He is now on terms of love 225 

With the enemies whom I hate 
For their injuring my estate. 
And shall always do so till, — 
Of revenge to take my fill, — 
1 have pierced the robber-horde 
Like a reed sharp, painful, .... oared," 230 

leapcre can only clear twenty-three or twenty-four feet on level ground. More- 
over, the Greek foot is a trifle longer than the Englit«h. The reader,— if he is 
inclined to be sceptical,— can disbelieve the fact, which is a never-fiiiling remedy 
for etery difficulty ; if otherwise, he must exclaim with the translator,—** Now 
** in those days there were giants ui>on the earth." 

(31) Isaiah xxxvi. C. " Lo, thou trustest in the staff of this broken reed, on 
'' Eg>'pt; whereon if a man lean, it will go into his hand and pierce it So is 
'' Pharaoh, king of £g}l>t, to all that trust in him/* It seems probable that 
the ^ reed'* spoken of in Aristophanes had rows of sharp spikes along its sides, 
like the great American aloe, although neither Theophrltstus nor Dioscdrides 

SCENE v.] 



To deter their serried lines 

From the trampling down my vines. 

Now then make investigation 

For the rascal all around, 
And pursue him from one nation 

To another till he's found, 
Steering straight for Porto Pelto ; 

For I should enjoy his groans 
Wonderftilly, if we fell to 

Pelting him to death with stones. 

mention the ciicumBtance in their descriptions of the plant Ilcnce the epithet 
** oared,** which of course is meant to allude also to the injuries intended to be 
inflicted on the Spartans bj the Athenian galleys. 



Scene I. 

[ Thv side scenes represent a rural rinv, supposed to be the farm of 


Enter DiCiEOPOLis, his Wife, and Daughter, and two 
Slaves, bearing the preparations for the Bacchamlian 


Use no ill-omened, no ill-omened words ! 


Silence all ! Pray did you hear him 

Words of omen good implore ? 
Now at last we have got near him 

Whom we have been looking for. 
This way all, my hearties ! Budge on 

Where we shall not meet his eyes ! 
As it seems the old curmudgeon 

Is come out to sacrifice. 240 


Use no ill-omened, no ill-omened words ! 

SCENE i.] 



You basket-bearer/'' eome a little forwards. 
Let Xinthias raise tlic Phallus" up on high, 


Put down tbe basket^ daughter* and well offer 
The first-fruits. 


Mother J give me up the ladle ! 
I want to pour some porridge o cr the cake* 


All i» most good, O Bacchus, mj dear master, 
May this procession be agreeable to you, 
And may 1 sacrifiee with my domestics^ 
And celebrate thy Rural Feast ivith luckj 
Having got rid of war ! And may the peace 
For thirty twelvemonths turn out well with me t 


Comci pretty daughter, bear tlie basket prettily, 
And with a country damsel's look. How happy 
Will be the man who weds yoii, and begets 
Upon your body other little pussies. 
To caterwaul like you at break of day ! — 



(T2} The fiiir^l und noblc^ AthifniAn Trnvidens wer« ■electpd to pcrTnriii lTi« 
>ffic« iif heorijtg the holj b&etet at public eocri6c€»* The coloiaal itattjc *if the 
aCemi^ pnaorvod in the vcfltihuli.' of the public tihiai? ni Camhntl^^ 
I the gjoddotf with such a banket on her head. 
I Th« Pballus wai the ttijTBtenous emblem of ncUvc product! veitcffi 
lamofpi ih« ancients WhAtever we^ with our fiintASticiil mijUcm jdcaa nf 
pn;q^itt7, PMij think of the public eihibUinn of «uch a *.yml«*J, the Ureok« 
mtololjf atturhcd no marc impure idca^ to It, thjiii EutjUidiincJi da to the; 
^4Nr« foside \^ the fyumni^ el tfa« ICaMBu Opem, 



[act iU 

Go on, and pray bo careful in the crowd, 
That no one nibbles at your golden trinkets/^ 



You, too, good Xiinthias, mind and hold the Phallus 
Upright hehind the basket-hearer's back. _..-■ £60 

III follow you, and sing the Phallic hymn. \^ 
You, wife, must act spectator from the rodL** 
[Sings f and during the Song^ exeunt Wife, ^c* in solemn 
procession »^ 

Phales, Bacchus' Mend, with whom 

1 love to stray about at gloom 
Of night, in drunken revels ! 

Thou fornicator ! Thou gallant ! S65 

At last 1 sing thj jovial chant 

After six yeara of evils- 
I've got to my own farm-houae doors, 

And made a separate peace for us 
Alone, and rid myself of wars. 

And woes, and men like Lamachus,** £70 

(34) This certainly does not spiifik much in favour of the poHce of the Attic 
t^ublic* The couHtiihlea seem to have Iteen pretty nearly m monoj^ile aa 
QUI ondent watchmen, if we may jud)3fe from a specirocn of the corfis who will 
be prcfltiutcd to our notice in tlio Femtrexntif. 

(35) This custom of having the roofs of houaea flat, and pawing a godd deal 
of their time upon ihtim iti tha open air, still pfevaik very ext42n^vely in 
GreMc and other parts of the Levant. 

(36) Liin)nchu4 was il brave sohlicr, who was aflerwtjrdfl otve of the thwe 
p^nerolii in the expedition against Sicily, where he perished* fi^htinji; coii- 
mgeoualy, in mi a^Aiiult mudu during the «ie^ of Syracuse. ll«^ ih u,ttacked 
by the poet sm belonging to the Wfir partyt and mnkea hi» iippeiwiince in a 
eiifliciontly riilicuioua plight in the latter part of thiis play. See hi» chamt!tef 
sketched in Tliirlwailji HuL Grgee^ III. p. 3Ga 


O Phalcs, Phales ! It is far less sweet 
To stab the flying foeman, than to meet 
Friend StrymodcSrus s young Thracian maid 
Filching some wood from Phelleus'" holy glade, 
And then to catch her by the waist, 
Lift her, and throw her down, and taste — 
O Phales, Phales! — her plump charms. 
Clasped in the melting damsel's arms. 275 

If you will drink with me, when your head's torn 
With racking pains, dear Phales, the next morn, 
m give ye a good bowl .... of peace to sup ; 
And 'midst the sparks well hang my buckler up. 

Scene II. The Same. 

CHORUS {coming forward). 
There's the rogue for whom we ask all ! 280 

Pelt him, pelt him, pelt him, pelt him ! 
Strike, O strike the precious rascal ! 
He shall have a floorer dealt him ! 

[Th^y peh him. 


What's the matter ? Why so hot ? 
You will smash this earthen pot." 

(87) Leake suppoeet that this mountain " was probably no other than the 
** hif^ieit ridge of the hilU which extend from the pbiin of M&rathon to that 
'"of Ordput.** — Diuertation on the Demi of Attica^ p. 118. 

(38) The Greek note sajs, that the worthy fanner makes himself extremely 
nving here, by leaving his head unguarded, and appearing anxious only to 
praCect the pot from the stones which the Achtoiians shower on him. 




You scoundrelly knave, spare your breath ! 

We will stone you directly to death. 285 


Why ? — I shall not try to blarney, — 
O ye old men of Achamse ! 


Can you ask the thing you have ? 

Impudent, abandoned knave ! 

You Ve betrayed your country, and 

Are the only man i' the land, 290 

Blest with peace ; and yet you now 

Stare at me with shameless brow. 


But you do not know, I fear me, 
Why I made the peace. So hear me. 


What ? Hear you ? We'll break your bones, 
Covering you with heaps of stones. 295 


Don't, O don't, until you've heard me ! 
Stop a bit, before you beard me ! 


Stop I'll not. So do not prate 

Any longer ; for I hate 

Even Cleon less than you — 300 

Cleon, that rapscallion true. 


Whom 111 cut up, liver and lights, 
Into shoe-soles for the Knights." 
Ill not hear you say by heart a 

Lengthy speech that you have writ. 
You have made a peace with Sparta, 

And 111 punish you for it. 


Leave poor Sparta altogether 

Out o' the question, my good blade ; 305 

And attend and judge of whether 

You approve the peace IVe made. 


Why about approval palter. 

When you've made a peace, we find. 

With a set whom neither altar. 

Pledge, nor solemn oath can bind?" 


Sure I am, that even the Spartan 

Nation, which we cry down so. 
Did not meddle or take part in 

Certain causes of our woe. 310 

(89) This imange evidently indicates that the poet had his comedy of the 
KmgkU already upon the stocks. It was represented just one year afterwards. 
Cleon is to be cut up into thoe-toleiy because he was a tanner and currier ; the 
reader will hate plenty more of this kind of wit hereafter. 

(40) The Athtoians and the Spartans, like the Carthaginians and the Romans, 
and, in more modem times, the English and the French, were perpetually 
■eenBng one another of a want of political honesty. The real truth might be 
dbottlj c x p ic n o d in the vulgar proverb,—"' There*s just six of one, and half a 
I of the other.** 




Did not meddle ? O you scoundrel ! 

Dare ye openly avow 
Things like this, and think they sound droll ? 

Shall I spare your carcase now ? 

DiCiEOPOLis {loudly). 
Did not meddle ! Did not meddle ! — 

Nay, I'll prove before your face 
We have heaped upon its head ill 

Treatment in a lot of ways. 


You'll inflame my indignation 

Soon, and make my stomach rise, 315 

If you dare speak an oration 

To defend our enemies. 


But, — in case you find this said peace 

All ideas of justice shock, — 
I will speak, sir, with my head-piece 

On a butcher's chopping-block. 


Why not pelt his 4)ate and crack it ? 

Why not quickly stone the brute ? 
Let us go and dust his jacket. . . . 

Till it turns a scarlet suit." 320 

(41) See Note 19. 



How the smouldering coal — O dear ! — then 
Hissed and blazed up in your heart ! 

Won't you hear then, won't you hear then, 
Sweet Aclmrnians, jokes apart ? 


No, we will not hear ye, lad. 


Then you'll treat me very bad. 


May I perish if I do ! 


Dear Acharnians, don't say so. 


We are going to kill ye now. 


Then I'll serve ye out, I vow. 325 

To revenge my life and lost age, 

I will kill your dearest dear. 
Whom I've seized on as a hostage. 

Yes, 111 take and slay him here." 

(42) We are told in the Greek note that this Hcenc is a parody on one in the 
THephyt of 'i&chylus, where the hero is represented as seizing on the youthful 
Or64ea, the ton of Agamemnon, in order that he may obtain from the fears of 
the king what his compassion had denied him. In the Feastretses there is 
mnother fling at the same tragc<ly. Mnesilochutt, who is consigned to death by 
the infuriate ladies, snatches an infant out of one of their arms, with which he 
reCraats to the altar. After threatening to slaughter it, if they will not release 
him unharmed, and finding that the enemy remains anmovcd, he proceeds to 
atrip the child in order to execute vengeance ; when, lo and behold ! it turns 
out to be nothing but a wine->>ag, which they have brought with them to carouse 
on. disguised as a hahy. The denouement is about as groteM|ue in the prewnt 



What's this vengeance that he threatens ? 

Has he got in some stronghold 
Any child of ours — to fret one's 

Heart ? or why is he so bold ? 330 


Stone nie, sirs ! and all is over 

With your pet ; I will not spare. 
We shall very soon discover 

Which of you for ... . charcoal care. 
[Produces a /tamper of cluircoal, dressed up as a baby. 


We are done for ! For that hamper 

Is my fellow-parishioner. 
Do not kill him, pray, nor tamper 

With my feelings, dearest sir ! 


Know that I will kill your dear. 

Bawl away ! I will not hear. 335 


You murderer, will ye then end 
The days of my charcoally firiend ? 


Yes. For I too just now could not 
Meet with mercy. Hear you would not. 


Well, then, go on at your ease. 
And assert whate'er you please. 
Praising Sparta, for as long 
As you fancy, right or wrong. 


For I never will expose 

This poor hamper to his foes. 340 


• First of all, — your faith to sound, sirs, — 
Throw your stones upon the ground, sirs. 


Look ! they all of them are floored ; 
So do you put down your sword. 


Tm afraid s«me small and taper *uns 
Are concealed within your aprons. 


They are emptied on the ground. 

See ! we're shaking them around ! 

Therefore, pray, sir, no excuse ! 345 

Put your weapon down, you goose ! 

As we nimbly dance about. 

All the stones are shaken out. 


So, then, you all just now were going to shake. . . . 

Shouts at my head, and some Pamesian^ charcoal 

Was nearly put to death, all through the folly 

Of his own loving fellow-parishioners. 

The hamper was in such a mortal fright. 

That he evacuated in my hands 350 

A lot of ashes, like a cuttle-fish.*^ 

(43) Mount Fames was close to the paritth of Ach^rne, and supplied the 
wood for the manufiicture of charcoal. 

(44) The power which the cuttle-fish possesses of ejecting a black inky fluid, 
to protect and conceal itself from its enemies, is well known. 


'Tis really terrible for men to have 

Such sour-grape tempers, that they pelt and shout, 

And won't hear any thing .... mixed half-and-half; ** 

For I was willing to recite my speech 

In favour of the Spartans, i^ith my head 355 

Upon a butcher's chopping-block^ and yet 

I love my life as much as any man, 


Why don't you fetch, then, from within 

A chopping-block, and so begini 360 

And speak your all-important speech, — 

Whatever it may be, — poor WTetch ? 

I have a great desire to know 

What are the thoughts you cry up so. 

Bring here the chopping-block and speak the oration ; 

The penalty is fixed by your own arbitration. 365 

[Exit DiCiEOPOLis, and re-enter with a chopping-block ^ ^c, 


Look here ! This is the chopping-block, and this 

The man that is to speak, though small as this. 

By Jove, I will not arm me cap-a-pie. 

But will defend the Spartans as I choose. 

And yet I'm horribly afraid. I know 370 

(46) The Greeks cominoiily drank their wine mixed with water. Half-and- 
half was rtrong tipple ; three parts water to two parts wine was more usuaL 
A drinker of neat wine at Athens was considered as debauched a fellow as a 
drinker of neai brandy in London. Thus we see half-and-half was equivalent 
to what mmmen i*all ii soii'-wtn>ter, that is to Niy, half rum and the rest ntm-and- 


The boors are hugely pleased, when aiiy liar 

Praises the town and them, through thick and thin ; 

And thus they unawares are bought and sold. 

I know the old men look to nothing else, 375 

But how to kill and worry by their verdicts.** 

And then again I know how I myself 

Was mauled for last year's comedy by Cleon.*^ 

The rascal lugged me in the Senate-house, 

And slandered me, and spit out lies at me, 380 

And drowned me with his muddy eloquence. 

And made a jest of me, till I almost 

Was done for by the crafty muddle-business. 

So now allow me, sirs, before I speak. 

To dress myself as a most wretched wight. 


Why do you twist and wriggle, pray. 

And sport these tricks and seek delay ? 385 

(46) A great part of the poorer classes at Athens gained their subsistence by 
sitting on juries in the courts ; the old men were particularly fond of this 
occupation. Every member of an Attic jury — which consisted of an indefinite 
number, generally about .500 — ^hatl sixpence allowed him as his pay. 

(47) Dicsedpolis here identifies himself with his author, Aristdphanes. This 
interchange of individuality is very frequent in the old Greek comedy; shortly 
afterwards we shall find Uie old gentleman three persons at once,— himself, 
Aristdphanes, and T^ephus. The " last year's comedy " in the text was the 
Bdbyloniant^ now unfortunately loist, in which he attacked the officers of state, 
the Senators, and especially the demagogue Cleon. This person, who was not 
to be ridiculed with impunity, summoned him before the Senate ; but it appears 
from a passage in the Wtispt (1. 1284—1201), that he humbled himself in rather 
a degrading manner, or, to U!«e his own phrase, *^ played some apish tricks," and 
was thus reconciled to his adversary. However, if he did knock under then, he 
certainly paid him off his old score, and with interest too, in the bitter satire 
contained in the Knights. 

Ht \4.HA11MANS. [act II. 

? ■-cpentis on us, 

-•rtr u uik Hieronymus" 

1 *'uiu > oasques to wear, 
:ic-*-.-4iacry-niatted-hair ; 390 

laiuiii^ Arts to hit off. 
1 '.iiiir :;iis trial will admit of. 

Scene III. The Same. 


X .1.11 L :.»rvvurt*d a patient spirit ; 
...>^ ^o and sk'o Euripides. — 
..i> M '/it' door o/EuRiPiDEs's house y and knocks. 

^L WE OF EURIPIDES {from withhi). 
\V fio's there ? 


Is Euripides at home ? 395 

Enter Slave. 


V . .s «ia •t'/ at home, if sense is yours.*' 

v.. ^..» *.•* a Iwd writer of Dithymmbic poetry, and he had 
. .^^»-.\*..%'x ^> ift^-uring his hair of an extravagant length. The 
'«. . ».,.v ^ii«tK'**\l to eonfer invisibility ; hence the Ghonw bids the 
^^ iv» .w4;^» -nui tt»r a head-dresB, which, like his own shaggy, trailing 
. . ...*<k ^ojivttil the countenance. Long compound words were 
. ^v,*v. ». iw l>iihyrambic poets, and are frequently introduced in 

, ^, ..•» Nfc ucuhirly fond of this kind of seeming contradiction ; 



How can he be at home, yet not at home ? «- 


Vm right, old man. His mind, which is collecting 

Small verselets out of doors, is not at home ; 

But he himself is writing tragedy 

With feet reposed on couch, and is at home. 400 


Thrice-blest Euripides, when e'en thy slave 
Explains so wisely ! — But go call him out ! 


But 'tis impossible. 


But still you must ; 
For I Will not be off, but keep on knocking. — 
Euripides ! Eurippy ! 

Attend to me, if ever you attended 405 

To any man. 'Tis Dicaedpolis, 
Of parish Chollidae, who's calling you. 

Scene IV. The Same. 

EURIPIDES (from within). 
But I've no time. 


But let them wheel you round. ^ 

" Itnut my mother and distnut her too."— {Pkan. 297.) 

" She both exiita and yet exists no more.**— (ilfo. 521.) 

** Yon may pronounce her both alive and dead."— <il/c. 139.) 

'*He bein« willing and unwilling too."— (^m. 964.) 

'* My woes have made me die before I'm dead."— (^m. 431.) 

(.iO) '*To wheel-round*" had a technical meaning on the Attic stage. It 
signified to make the'front of a house turn upon hinges in such a way, that the 



But 'tis impossible. 


But still you must. 


But I will let them wheel me round ; for IVe 
No time to leave my couch. 

[Euripides appears, lying on a sofa, with sundry stiits 
of rags, S^c. suspended in various parts of the room. 


liuripides ! 


What sayest tliou ? 


D ye write with feet reposed 410 

On couch, when you might put them on the ground ? 
'Tis not without good cause you sing lame men." . 
But why these tragic rags, this sad attire ? 
'Tis not without good cause you sing of beggars. — 
Euripides, for god's sake, I entreat, 

floor of the interior apartment, with every thing on it, was exposed to the view 
of the audience. When the good people indoors were not wanted any more, 
they were " wheeled-iii " again. We have another instance in the Feastre$»es^ 
line 102. I would recommend this very convenient manoeuvre to the serious 
consideration of the managers of our theatres, whether they patronize the legi- 
timate or the illegitimate drama. 

(51) Both Bell^rophon, Philoct^tes, and Ttflephus, in the lost tragedies 
which took their names from them, were represented by Eurfpides as lame ; 
now lame men lay their legs up on so&s, when they have got sofiis to lay them 
on ; therefore, says Dicaedpolis in a mock-serious tone, you are^lpne yourself, 
and that is the reason you sing of lame men. In the next Jtifkiy lines, the 
names of all those tragedies, in which Euripides had intraioMft'^tressed vir- 
gins or old gentlemen in reduced circumstances, arc malifioiisly Jwcounted. 



Give me a raglet out of your old play. 415 

For I have got to speak a lengthy speech 
Before the Chorus, which if I speak badly 
TwHl cause me to be capitally punished. 


What tatters ? Do you ask for those in which 
My CEneus there, the illstarred grandsire, played ? 

[Pointing to his suit of rags. 


Not CEneus's ; a still more wretched man's. 420 


BUnd Phoenix's? 


No, no ! not Phoenix's. 
There was a man more wretched still than Phoenix. 


What shredded garments does the wight require ? 
Mean'st thou the rags of beggar Philoctetes ? 


No. He was far more beggarly than he. 425 


Mean'st thou the robings evilly begrimed, 
Which my Bellerophon out there possessed ? 

[Pointing to his rags, S^c. 


No, not Bellerophon. Though he^ too, was 
Lame, prating, wordy, and a mendicant. 


I know hijj^M^phus. 



Yes, Telephus ! 430 

Give me, I beg of you, his swaddling-clothes. 


Boy," give him Telephus's rags ; they lie 
Above Thyestes's, just on this side 
Of Ino's tatters. 


Take them ! Here they are. 


Thou Jove that see'st both through and o'er the world, 435 

O may I dress me as a wretched wight ! — 

Euripides, youVe granted me one favour ; 

So give me something else to match the rags — 

The Mysian cap to wear upon my head. 

'Tis needful that I seem to-day a beggar — 440 

Be what I am, but don't appear to be ; 

And that the audience know well who it is, 

While all the Chorus stand, like blocklieads, by, 

For me to humbug them with quirks and quibbles.** 


I'll give it ; for you grandly scheme in trifles. 445 

(52) Slaves in 'Attica, like the riders of pOHt-horBes in England, were always 
called " boys," however old they might be. 

" Why, what's the matter, boy T for boy 'tii Jutt 
To call him. though he's old, who geU a thrashing."— ITurpi 1297. 

(53) A Greek Chorus was always polite enough not to hear or see more than 
the author wished it ; just as an English actor never spies out a person who is 
hid, or listens to a speech that is spoken aside, though he must be both as blind 
as a bat, and as deaf as a post, not to do both one and the other. 



" God grant you luck, and Telephus — ^my thoughts ! " " 
Bravo ! How full of quibbles I am getting ! 
But I must ask you for a beggar's staff. 


Take it, and from my stone-built station go. 


My soul, thou see'st I*m driven from the house, 450 

Albeit in want of many articles ! 

So now be obstinate and beg and tease ! — 

Euripides, give me a basket, pray, 

That has a hole burnt through it by a lamp ! 


What need of this possesses thee, poor wretch ? 


No need at all ; but still I want to get it. 455 


Know thou art wearisome, and leave the house. 



God give you luck, as once he did your mother ! ** 

(54) The^Greek note quotes a line from the TUephui of Euripides :— 

** HeaTen wild me luck, and T6Iephas— mj thoughti." 

that is to saj, all the ill-luck which I wish him privilj in my heart There 
certainlj does not seem much force in the parody, unlew there is some by-play 
connected with it, of which we ore now ignorant The previous verse, as well 
as a great deal of what follows, seems to come from some Euripid^n tragedy* ; 
it has all the characteristics of that poet's style. 

(&5) Euripides*s mother, as wc learn from several passages of our poet, sold 
witer-cresses at Athens. The aristocrat Aristophanes is always particularly 
unmerciful upon low-lived, vulgar people, who are base enough to li\-e by their 
boDCit induatiy. See, fbr instance, below, lines 853 — 859. 

witn Its lip brofeeii- * 


Take it, and go hang ! 
Know thou art troublous to the house. 

^^H By Jove, 

W You see not yet what miscliief you are doing 
^^lTo your own self I — My sweet Euripides, — 
^^^^This is my last request ; — give me a pipkin 
I That has a hole in't stuffed up with a sponge !j 


Fellow, you'll steal my tragedies piece-meal ' 
Take it, and get you gone 



I now am going, — 
And yet what shall 1 dot I want one thing, 
Which if I do not get, I am done up* — 
Hear me, my sweetest friend Euripides I ^M 
When IVe got iAw, Til go and come no more. 
Give me some withered stalks and leaves to pu 
Into my basket* 



For I perceive Fm very troublesome, 

" Albeit not thought >o hate the chieftainry." " — 

Confound it ! I am doii« for ! I forgot 

The thing on which my wbole success depends. — 

My sweetest, dearest, darling love, Eurippy, 475 

Deuce take me if I ask anotl^pr favour. 

Except this single one, this i^e, this one ! 

Give me the water-cress your fiother left you ! 


The man insults me ! Shut the palace fastenings ! 

[Euripides disi^pears, and exit Slave. 


My soul, we must proceed sans watei*-cress ! " 4*80 

Know'st thou how great's the cause thou soon wilt plead, 
By speaking in defence of Spartan men ? — 
Now forwards, soul ! Here is the starting-place ! — 
Dost thou stand still ? — Advance ! Thou hast devoured 
Euripides ! — That's excellent ! — Come on, "^ 485 

My wretched heart, and walk out there, and then 
Present your head and say whate'er you choose ! 
Go ! Venture ! March ! — What a courageous heart ! 

(56) This is from the (Enetu of Eurfpides^-Gr^itr note. 

(57) The following speech of Dicaedpolis is a parody, and bj no means a 
gnMS one, on some absurd lines in Euripides, which, however, with all their 
afanrditj, one cannot help admiring ; that is to saj, in the original. Thej 
occur where Med6i is about to slaughter her own children ; those who have 
witneved the classicallj elegant performance of this character bj Madame 
pMta, will have a very good idea of the spirit of the Greek model : — 

" Do not, my muI ; oh do not act like this I 
** Leave them alone, you wretch, and spare the cbildrrn ! 
" They'll live with ui abroad and pleaie thee much.— 
** By the infernal Furies of the Grave, 


What ivill you say ? ^-t hat is your 

Thou art a shameless, ! 'on, man, 

To offer to the citizens i!^y neck, 

And with thy single vckce against them 


He's not afraid nor out of heart. — 
Since you yourseff desire it, start ! 


" Do not be angry," ^ gentlemen spectators, 
'* Though I a beggar" am about to speak 
Amongst the Athenians about state-matters 



" It utall not be, that I my babe* give up 

" To be insulted bjr my bitter foes t ^^-iUed. 105S— 105] 

• • • • 

*' Haste, arm thee, heart ! For why do we delay 
" To do the terrible necessity r 

" Come, wretched hand of mine, take, take, the sword ; 
*' Approach the miserable goal of life ; 
" And do not yield, nor recollect thy babes, 
*' How loTed they were, and how thon brooght'st them 
" But for this brief, brief; day forget thy children, 
" And weep them afterwards. Though thou shalt slay 
•* Yet were they dear,~aad I a wretched woman I •*— (1 

Hew w« >i«w w~i-« -^ • ' . . 


In comic language. Even comedy 

Well knows what's just, and what I*m going to say 500 

Is sad, but just For surely now at least 

Cleon will not accuse me of abusing 

My country when the foreigners are present." 

We're by ourselves, at the Lensean feast, 

Nor are the foreigners as yet arrived ; 

And neither is the tribute nor the troops 505 

Come from the towns, but we are all alone 

At present — husked and shelled ; for I should call 

The Sojourners*® the chaff o' the Citizens. 

Now I, sirs, hate the Spartans bitterly. 

And may Taenarian Neptune send an earthquake, 510 

And overwhelm them all beneath their houses ; " 

For they cut down my vines as well as yours. 

Still, — ^none but friends are present now to hear me, — 

(59) One main point upon which Cleon re^^ted hin accusation against AiisUS- 
phanea, was the &ct of the BabyUniaiu having been produced, not at the 
Leni^ feast, but at the great festival of Bacchus, when the theatre was 
crowded with strangers, and the scan. mag. was likely to have a wide circula- 
tion throughout all Greece. 

(60) The " Sojourners** were aliens, resident in Athens, but not naturalized. 
There were greaf numbers of them, as the mild spirit of the Athenian law 
offered them great advantages, which were not possessed in other states, except 
by the native citizens. Many of them, who falsely assumed the full rights of 
cstiienahip, are reviled on that account by the poet. — See ten lines below. 

(61) ** The Lacedsmdnians formerly dragged some suppliant Helots from 
** the temple cS Teenibian Neptune, and took them away and put them to death ; 
** and it 10 on this account that they themselves believe that the great earthquake 
** at Sparta happened to them."— < ThueytUdes I. 12a ) There were great num- 
ben of sUgbt earthquakes just about the beginning of the Peloponn^sian war, 
aa we learn from the same author, which gives a natural occasion to Dicsadpo- 
1]B*8 with. The ** great earthquake," Paustoias tells us, did not leave a single 
bouie upright in Laceds^mon.— See Thirlwall*s Hittory qf Greece, voL III. 

E 2 


r.rji>:i^j- [act II. 

:.::s -i>- for this ? 
rr ?ci:e. 515 

. ... >-.. ^ulsely-coined, 
_-^ iisrd to inform 

,- • -iL-^e cloaks at M^Kam. As the poet 

p. • -.i..i !od to the l*eIoiK)nnwian war, and 

Ks.n.-J and Athens, it may ])e as well to 

^ .'ic<ion, drawn from the great contem- 

. :••«» .Xlhtfnian alliance, having revolted 

t. Corinthians made war upon them con- 

j O^ir territory. And the Athenians 

i? the Corinthian culfj. with a garrison/' 

iiitn place shortly after 4'm li.C. 

". Kulxca rcvoUe<l from the Athenians ; 

over into it with an army, word van 

.... !K<i. and the Peloponncfsians are going to 

M-» i**n ffarrhon has bt'en put to the strard by 

, .• w/ racttpptt to Xiadn : and that the 

• '.' iutnuhu-iiiLr a party of Corinthians, 

■- ^ 

« •t.zr'S natiimlly expect that the Athenians 
^j^^ ic»i'»"»t the murclerers of their countrymen, 

i^< T.uie a decree to j^rohihit any Meg^rian 
% rfv 'f w.*" harl)our within the Atlic'nian empire." 
* ss*rwn!» rei>nmche<l them with the severity of 
^ft^ w proliably the true motive, hut accused 
_.«t2ie holy hind, and receiving some runaway 
^^^ ,«*iaveo'." (M39.) The decree continued 

* ^ ^.^'ift! of *' informinL'" against the Meg-irian 

.*.o««^ 10 1h? offeretl for sjile in 'Attica, and were 

' ]|^ -iv.» *»*"? found. 

^^•^" • *** n '^•'•'^ ^ **"* "*^*' "*"^'^ ^" *^^® **^^*' about AspAsia 

'' * ' ^ «.|AShe quarrel iK-tween Athens and Sparta, we 

*• ' '^ ^.^ «« shall find, however, that the poet gives an 

^ -*«.•'•• ,^ „<ttutfeof the war in the Peace (1. ()05— Gil), 

•*»-■ ■**'■•* ^ jKtiB<^ t'* attribute much weight to the idea. 

4Pk -**•"" ^ Mt««^ ^^ Athenians and Mcgurians certainly 

w»- * * ^ :He Athenian garrison by the Lacedwmilnian 

* • •*** .^1^ tBcunu<)»i* were made at least twice *f\cty 


And if they saw a cucumber, or hare, 520 

Or pig, or garlic-head, or salt in lumps. 

They were Megarian, and were confiscated, 

And sold that very day. And these, indeed, 

Were trifles, and the custom of the country. 

But then, besides, some drunken-gambling youths 

Purloined from Megara the whore Sima&tha ; 525 

And the Megarians, blistered with vexation. 

Stole, in revenge, two of Aspasia's whores ; 

And thus rose matter for a war between 

All Greece, just through a leash of prostitutes. 

Then, in a rage, the Olympian Pericles 530 

Lightened and thimdered,** and mixed up all Greece, 

And carried laws, worded like drinking-songs, 

" That the Megarians shall neither haunt 

" Market, nor earth, nor sea, nor dry land either."" 

jeur during the war into the territory of the latter republic by their victorious 
neighbouTB, for the cruel purpose of destroying their crops in a green state, 
and hewing down their fruit-trees. — Thuc. IV. 66. 

(63) The burning oratory of Pericles is here eloquently compared to the 
thunder and lightning of the Ol^pian Jlipiter. There is a speech of his 
reported in Thuc^dides, as the historian tells us^ not written/or him, like the 
rest in that author, which certainly gives us a very high idea of his powers. 

(64) The drinking-song alluded to was by Timdcreon of Rhodes, and runs os 
follows :— 

" O that, Wealth, you haunted neitlier 
" Earth, nor sea, nor dry land either ; 
*' But had dwelt in T&rtanis, 

" Or the Aeher6ntian river ! 
" All the evils felt by us 

" Rise ftom thee, thou blind deceiver !" 

Some wicked Athenian wags seem to have laughed at the poorRh(5dian bard for 
repeating the same idea twice over. ** Neither earth, nor sea, nor dry land** is 
the same as if one were to say, " Neither town, nor country, nor London.** 





Then the Megarians, when tliey waxed hungry 

Step after step, requested of the Spartans, 

That the decree made throug"h the prostitutes 

Might he reversed; and though they irequeBtly 

Implored it, we would not consent to this. 

And tlien arose a clattering of sliields* 

You*]! saj — ^*twas wrong. But just saj what was right. 540 

Come J if a SparUin sailor had informed 

Against a puppy -dog of the Seriphians,** 

And sold it; would you have sat still at home ? 

Far from it ! You would certahily have launched 

Forthwith three hundred galleys, and the town 

Would have been fuU of hustle with the troops. 

Shoutings ahout the captains of the ships. 

Pay heiug issuedt figure»]ieads regilding, 

Piazzas groaning, victuals meusurhig, 

Wine^skins, oar-leathers, purchasers of jars 

For liquor, garlic, olives, nets of onions. 

Garlands, sprats, piping- women .... and black eyes. 

The dock-yard, too, would have been crammed with spar» 

Cutting to oars, pins sounding, leathers putting 

To bottom-oars,** pipes, boatswains, calls, and whistles. 



Ariitdphfinea faofl oot Mled to trmisfcr tbt* absurdity to the sjjcwb he jmt» intu 
Ibe moaU) of the honest fnmicr. The eanie mug h again purodied in the 
Knighk (1.61)^); and there is thf! fiame'rcdirndDot doquetice again U\ be 
Observed, though in a different fonti. We there huve^ *' Kor deqii, nor land, 
*^ nor ita" instead of *' Neither enrth, nor sfa^ nor drj-land/' Thii kind of 
phnkSGology tem'imU one— 1 quote Lord Byron's words from meiDorj— xif 
ChAT-Iey Incledon's usual exordium, when people came into the tavern to hear 
him sing, without payinf^ their shju-e of the reckouiugi *' If a uion^ or ony 
*' mOTi, or ony otht-^r tunn," &c. 

{B5) Seriphuft woaa small t**!ftnd In the yEg^iin iea, alwajft ttihjcei to Athins. 

tfi*») See nftU" ^X The ♦* oar- leather " was a strap by whieh the o«r Wa* 


I know you would have done sa " And d'ye think .... 
" That Telephus will not ? Your sense is gone."" 556 


Are you in earnest, you accursed rascal ? 
Do you, a beggar, dare say this of us. 
And throw a few informers in our teeth ? 


Yes, by great Neptune. Every thing he says 560 

Is just, and not a word of it is false. 


Suppose 'twere just. Ought he to mention it ? 
But he shan't say this with impunity. 


Where are you running ? Stop ! For if you strike 

The man, you shall yourself soon get a fall." 565 


Holloa there ! Lamachus ! O thou 
That lookest lightnings from thy brow,. 
Succour us quick at our behest, ^ 

Great hero of the Gorgon crest ; 

frstened to the rowlock to prevent its slipping out-board ; it is still used, espe- 
cialljr in gun-boAts, in the Mediterranean. The same purpose is answered in 
riTer oars, bj what is technically termed ** the button." A very clear delinea- 
tkxi of the contrivance may be seen in the Ionian ArUiquiiiett vol. IL plate 53. 
As the bottom-oars were the smallest, they would be soonest finished, and 
ready for the leather. 

(67) Tliis is another quotation from the Ttiephus^ and of course was 
delivered by the actor with abundance of grotesque buffoonery, in order to put 
the audience into a good humour after so much dry politics. 

(€8) Athletic exercises forming a principal part of the education of every 
Gicek, and a wrestler or boxer, who had gained the prize at the Public Game^ 
being looked upon as an ornament and an honour to his country ; it is not 
mrprising that we find perpetual allusions to '' the noble art of self-<lofence " in 
the Greek writers. We have another instance ten lines afterwards. 


Holloa there ! Help me, if you can, 

My friend, my fellow-county-man ! — 

And let each general and captain, 

And every mortal that is apt in 570 

Defending walls, assist in liaste ; 

For I am grappled round the waist. 

Scene VI. The Same. 

Enter Lamachus from his house, with an enormous crest on 
his helmety a shield with a terrible Gorgons head on 
it, S^c. ^c, and followed by Attendants, 

Lamachus {much in the vein of Ancient Pistol). 
Whence comes the warlike clamour that I hear? 
Where must I carry aid ? Where strike confusion ? 
Who roused the Gorgon from my buckler-case ? 

dicjEOPOLIs {affecting terror). 
Heroic Lamachus, what crests and cohorts ! 675 


Oh, Lamachus! our country's been abused 
By that cunnudgeon for this Ions: time back. 


Sirrah, do you, a beggar, dare talk thus ? 


Heroic Lamachus, pray pardon me, 

If I, although a beggar, spoke and prated. 


Wliat said you of us ? Speak ! 



I know not yet ; 580 

I*m giddy with alarm at all these arms. 
But, I entreat you, take away the bugbear. 



[Lamachus turns away the shield from him. 


Now, then, place it upside down before me. 


There ! 

[Lamachus futs the shield upside down hefare him, 


Grive me now the plume out of your helmet. 


Here is the feather. 


Now, then, hold my head, 585 

That I may spew ; the crests have turned my stdlnach. 


What are you at ? D ye mean to use the feather 
To make you puke ? 


What ? Is it, then, a feather ? 
Tell me, what bird's ? Is it a braggart-bladder's ? 


I'll kill you! 


God forbid, dear Lamachus ! 690 


*N\oaiii }ye beneath your strength ! And if you're strong. . . . 
\V !i\ don't you circumcise me ? You're well armed. 


Do vuu, a beggar, talk thus to the general ? 


Wluit, am I then a beggar? 


Then what are ye ? 


A virtuous citizen, no seek-commander, 595 

But, smce the war began, an army-fighter; 
And you, since it began, a pay-commander. 


Yes, for I was elected — 


By three cuckoos ! 
So Fve made peace firom hatred of such things, 
Seeing old grey-haired men stUl in the ranks, 600 

While striplings, such as you, have run away ; 
Some with three shillings salary to Thrace, 
PvtTious Tisiimenus-Phaenippus'es, 
Aiul r\>g\u*-nipparchides'es, — some to Chares, — 
Siuuo to Chaonia, Diomean-boasters 
Aud CU^rt*»-Theod6rus'es, — and others 605 

'IV (. nmarina, Naxus,"....aye and Taxns. 


\v*«» t\xr thfv were elected. 

vii^> th^ Wt iilluid<in in to u squadron of twenty ffallej?, which was at the 
.>«.< -aJits-j'^. under tht» ctmimand of Laches, whom we shall afterwards find 



What's the reason 
That you are always going somewhere or other 
With salaries, and never one of these? 
Hast thou, Marilades/® old as thou art, 
Been on an embassy as yet, in which — ? 610 

[Touches his pocket significantly. 
He shakes his head, and yet he is discreet 
And diligent. Then has Euphorides, 
Or has Dracyllus, or has Prinides ? 
Has one oi you been to Ecbatana, 
Or the Chaonians ? They answer no. 
It is the son of Co6syra'* that has. 
And Lamachus ; who some short time ago 
Were so involved by dinner-clubs and debts, 615 

That all their friends, — as if 'twas night, and they 
Were pouring dirty water out of window, — 
Called out to them, " Stand off, or you will catch it." 


Thou great democracy, can this be borne ? 


No, not if Lamachus receives no pay. 

introduced in the Wa$ps in the character of a dog. Of the names in the pre- 
ceding lines history tells us nothing. 

(70) Dicaedpolis here addresses individuals in the Chorus bj fictitious names, 
whidi, like all Greek names, had a meaning. Marflades, Euphdrides, Dra- 
cf lias, and Prfnides, come respectivelj fh>m words which denote — ** ashes," ** a 
**' good carrier," " a spiei^out," and ^' an eveigreen-oak." 

(71) Who this son of Ccesyra was is not very clear; the Greek note- writer 
tells us that it was M^gacles, to which Elmslej objects that he was an elderly 
man, while the person alluded to is evidently a youth. All that we know is, 
tbat there was a Ccfeqrra notorious for her luxury, who lived about a hundred 
yeant before this period, and who was an ancestress of M^gacles ; and as Greek 



I'll fi^ht with all the Peloponnesians . 620 

For ever, and annoy them everywhere 

With fleets and armies with my utmost strength* 


And ril let all the Peloponnesians 
And the Megarians and Boeotians too 
C\>me liwly to my house to buy and bargain ; 
But l^imachus I won't. This I proclaim. 625 

[Exeunt omnes. 


The man has his terrible foe on the hip, 

And his speech in defence of the peace takes 

With the pet^ple. But now let us instantly strip 
And bi^n the loud anapa&stics." 


Fnnn the time that our poet first brought on the stage 

Uis comic pnHluciions, he never 
lias nuulc his address assert that he's sage, 

And his writings luv witty and clever. 
But boinjr accused by his foes, among 

You Athenians famous for hasty 6S0 

Decisions, of wagging a scurrilous tongue 

To ridicule, Imnter, and baste ve ; " 

imnu'si rnn in familiM, it is luaet probablr the son of some kinswoman of his, 
who i!« hcn> nimiHi at. (Sco Chwl*. 1. 46.) Periiaps the reader will think this 
laiyi^ note on a little hit of Athenian scandal might very well have been spared. 

(rj) The Chorus put oft' their upper garments in several of the other pl«jB, 
in onler to dance with greater vigour. The metre in which these venes aiw 
written, is called '* anapiestic/* and it i^ generally used in the ** Addrxss.** 

(7;t) Another allusion to the comedy of the Babjflonians^ and the scnpe the 
p(H*t got into « ith Clcon. 


He wants to defend himself now, before 

You Athenians famous for fickle 
Decisions, and says you must lay to his door 

That you're in such excellent pickle. 
It is he who prevents you from being cajoled 

By each alien's eloquent story, 
And from liking the flattering lies you are told, 

And from being pufled up with vain-glory. 635 

The envoys sent from the to\^Tis all around 

Before this, in order to cheat your 
Assemblies, would call you all ** violet-crowned ;" 

And as ofl as some impudent creature 
Repeated the phrase to you poor silly clowns. 

In the course of his cunningly-lipped tale. 
You became so delighted, so vain of the " crowns," 

That you sat all the time upon tip-tail. 
But if he called Athens " anointed," with art 

In sycophant language unerring. 
His "anointed" would grant him the wish of his heart 

For receiving the praise of a herring.'* 640 

(74) 'Attica was a rock j country, and bj no means fertile in com ; but as the 
olive-tree flourished there, the natives consoled themselves bj boasting of their 
«^ instead of their .^Icmr. As it was usual to besmear the whole body in these 
dajB, nothing could be more natural than to call Athens and the Athenians 
** anointed.** We have a ftagment of one of Pindar's Dithyrambic Odes 
femaining: — 

** Violet-crowned, anointed Athens !** 
and another. — 

" Athens I fair anointed town t 

*' Whom the Muses never cease 

** Loudly hymning! prop of Greece ! " 

for which the hard is said to have been fined by his countrymen, the Tliehans 
who considered that he would have been better employed in singing the fei^ 


By all this the poet has served you, he knows, 

And by laying aside hypocrisy, 
And showing you clearly, how great are the woes 

Your allies undergo from democracy. 
The very envoys who'll dome from your towns 

To cash up the tribute they owe at 
The Exchequer, will knit up their brows into frowns, 

If they don't see the excellent poet. 
Who in spite of all dangers has dared to make known 

What is rightful and just to the nation. 645 

To such a great distance already has flown 

The feme of his bold desperation. 
Nay, even the Persian king, when he tasked 

His wits to acquire a notion 
Of the Greeks from the Spartan ambassadors, asked, 

First, which were the lords of the ocean,** 
And secondly, which were often reproved 

By this poet for wicked behaviour ; 
For these, as he said, must have surely been moved 

To become much better and braver, 660 

And would have by a deal the best of the flght. 

With the bard as a faithftil adviser. 

tilitj and power of his own country. The Athenians, however, much to their 
credit, not only sent him double the sum in which he was mulcted, but set up 
a bronze statue of him in their dty. The story unfortunately is rather apocry- 
phal, which is the only objection, being found in some spurious epistles attri- 
buted to the orator '.^^hines. 

(75) *" The naiveii of this question must not a little have amused the audi- 
" cnce. It is somewhat as if the present Schah had inquired of Sir Haxibrd 
" Jones Brydges, which river in England had the greatest number of Te 
" upon it ; the Thames, the Isis, or the Cam."" — MUchelL 


And this is the reason the Spartans invite 

A peace, now their rulers are wiser, 
And demand back JEgina, ; '* not that they care 

One straw for the island — I know it 
Is merely contrived to empower them to tear 

From his Athens this excellent poet 
But never do you give him up ; for as long 

As you're true to the jovial chap, he 
Will tell you what's just in his comedy song, 655 

And instruct you, and render you happy ; 
Not fawning, nor throwing out hints about pays, 

Nor daring to cheat and desert you. 
Nor tricking, nor daubing you over with praise, 

But teaching you every virtue. 
And therefore let Cleon exhibit his spite, 
And contrive what he pleases against me ; for right 660 
And justice and goodness will be my allies. 
To defend me from cunning assault and surprise. 
And ne'er will the dire accusation be found real. 
That / am, aa he is, a, cowardly scoundrel. 


Vigorous Achamian Muse, 
Come to us and give fiill loose 

(76) The Ath^iaoB had divided the lands and tenements of JS^xia amongst 
t certain number of their citizens.— (Thirl wall's Iliti. Greece^ III. p. 129.) 
Arirt4^hanes was one of those who had thus obtained a settlement in the island. 
We know from Thucf dides, that the Spartans demanded before the war, that 
Athens should give up all claim to ./^^gina, an one of the conditions of the 
conthmanoe of peace. (1. 139.) 


To thy burning blazing ire, .^^ 

Armed with all the strength of fire. 665 ^ 

Let thy song be made of stuff 

Fierce and loud and rude and rough. 

As the sparks which upward start 

From the charcoal's oaken heart, 

Roused by bellows' stormy blast, 

When the fish have just been placed, — J 

Dressed for the coals with many a crumb, — «! 

By the brasier's side ; and some 670 

In the rush-girt flask xfixh joy 

Mix die greasy TJuisian «ay, 

Some on rolls their hands employ. ) 675 

• / 

K- - ■ 

We old fellows think we're cheated . 

By the country ; foy we ought 
To be nursed and kindly treated 

For the naval fights we've fought. "V 

Yet, instead of this, you lug us 

Into trials, and permit 
Stripling orators to drug us 

With their rude insulting wit ; 680 

Though we've now lost all conception 

Of such matters, and are deaf 
And un-mouthpieced, and our Neptune 

The Preserver .... is a staff. 
At the Bar we stand up, mumbling 

Nonsense at an old man's pace, 
Blind as bats, and dully fumbling 

At the shadow of the case. 


m Whilst the youth, who's learnt a myriad 

Of the tricks of a barrister, 685 

Strikes the prisoner quick with period 

Rounded off and joined with care." 
Then he drags him up, propounding - '' 

Questions put by way of trap, 
Tearing, wearing, and confounding 

The infirm old worn-out chap ; 
Who's so aged that he slobbers 

As he speaks, and when he's found 
" Guilty," goes an^^bs and blubbers 

To his jGriendi, ^^lo ftaliA around 690 

Waiting fi»;^^^ i^fl^ ^^^^^^^9 

Aad ezx^dnA.irim pitamis whine — 
." WidKlf.Fd ^rei, to buy a coffin, 

.f f I BdMt nknd to pay my fine ! " 


Is it right or just, in short, 

Thus to drag before a court 

Aged men with hoary hair. 

That you may undo them there ? 

They have often toiled with you. 

Wiping oflf the manly dew 695 

From their brows, nor would they yield 

On the Marathonian field. 

When we were at Marathon, 

fFe made prisoners every one ; 



Now weVe prisoners curse hex ^ 
Made so by abandoned elves > 
And must pay our ransoms too* 
Who can say this is not tme ? 
BabbLing MarpsiaBj can you ? ' 

[act ir. 


Ought a man as old as Thuc^dides/' 
Aye, and back-bowed, to be sued 

And abused to deaths and chid at ease 
By that '• Scytl\ian solitude," 

Talkative Cephisodemus, 
The abandoned barriBter ? ^ 


(77) Mfirpsiaa wfl* n qtmtfelgome, tHflmg* and noisj nT&ioT.^Creek note. 

(78) The Thuc^didf^s here njeont ii j\<A the celebrated hiiiionaTi^ butanolher 
person of that name, who belonged to the Juident ariHtocraticail party, and wbb 
" ostracised " or aent into honourable banishment for teti years, hj the moans 
or hi* opponent P^ricle*, n. c, 444. Mr. Thirl wall coticludea, that the banished 
statesman muet have returned to Athens a liltte before the Ml term of his exile 
was expired, because a Thucfdides, who could not have verj well been the his- 
torian himself, h mentioned by his name-sake, the historiim, as eommanding 
certain gaJieys at the aiege of Samo!^ n. c, 440, The Greek note on this passage, 
however, as well a* that on the WiupE, L 947, enumerates a third Athenian of 
the name^ who belonged to the parish Ontgtfttns; and there Beema no reaaon 
why we should not suppose that he waa the person who commanded the ^lejiu 
Thuc^dides the historian was not a Garg^ttian, but a Halimijaian* as he is de- 
scribed in the epitaph contained in bis tif^ by MarcelHnus. ThQCjfdidea, the 
statesman, was an Alopcc6nBian, as the Greek note on the Waspt, above re- 
ferred to, informs us. There waa also another Athenian named Thuc^didiii, % 
poetf who waftitn A<^hcrdiisian ; but as he flourished during the latterhalf of the 
Peloponmbian war, we have nothing to do with him here. He m mentioned tn 
Mapcell. Life Thue. in Leipzig ed. Thuc. II. p. 726.— Compare Thirlwairs HUi, 
Gtmie, HL p. 45, and 1(1. p. 53, Note L 

(79) We know nothing about this worthy gentleman, except from this p«a- 
Sflge. He appeare to have had some Scythian blood in his veins. The corps 
of '"constables'" (or rather ^e»« d'armes) at Athens, was composed of Scythian 
and Thracian staves purdiaaed and maintaiiuHl by the state; hence Cephiso- 




Oft I thoti^ht it did*n't beseem us 

To maintain so ^-ile a cur, ! 

When I saw a scoundrel constable 

Making a poor old man*s knees 
Quake, — whose tottering limhs ware once stable, 

When ha was Thucydidee, 
And who would not then, by Cares, 

Have knocked under at a word » 

Even to Ceres ; ten such deer a^ 

Rogue Evathlus*' first he*d floored, 7lf , 

And with his vociferatioiis 

Made three thousand constables tramp. 
And be-constabled the relations 

Of the father of this scamp. — 
As the old endure denials 

Of repose and sleep from you, 
Paas a law that all the Trials 

Shall be put in classes two •, 
That the old man*s prosecutor 

May be old, with grinders none; 715 

d^tODB hmnelf b consideii^ aa a BcjlhiAn, and a ** Bcotinilrei coiutable," And 
iJie corp* of conrtables iire called '*the relatioaa of the father ni this scamp-" 
•'Scjihian ■oUtude'* «tiii a proTerbial pxprtefijon for "esttremo defitjlution*** 

■diftVD from the tmI desert plftins^ or tteppe* of Scytliia— the modem TartBij'; 

^te« AnstdplMaet haa him again for the odious crime of'belng a poor mui. 

(60) £Tillili]fl wia a fnwnmg demagogue^ who waa aho accused by the poeif 

fat alort eomedjf, of having rather too close a connexion with the **constabl€«." 

In a dtj like Athes^ where the rigKtt of citiaenahip wct« «o jealoiuly watctted, 

It k not lurpridng that the leaat flaw in a i>oor wreteh's genealogy should \m 

kcuvfufly fio«ed ouL Accordinglj we find ntiinberlewi instances in our author 

^ of p«tioui accUBed of being aiieua — not in reLigioa aad iti Uiigunge, but iimpl/ 

F ^ 


And the young man's one — astuter 

E'en than Clinias's son.*' 
Thus you'll banish bad and bold men, 

And teach cowards wholesome truths" — 
Old men by the means of old men. 

Young men by the means of youths. 

(81) The celebrated Alciblades— whom the Romans decided to be the 
cleverest Greek who had ever lived. 

(82) An action for desertion and cowardice was a very common one at 
Athens. Where no distinction was made between the law of the land and 
martial law, of course this is what we should expect. 



Scene I. The Same. 
Enter DiCiEOPOLis /rom his home. 


These are the boundaries of my market-place. 

Here I allow the Peloponnesians 720 

And the Megarians and the Boeotians 

To bai^ain, on condition that they sell 

Their goods to me ; but Lamachus I don't 

The Clerks o' the Market are by lot " decided 

To be. . . . these three good thongs from leprous oxen." 

Here let no base informer dare to come, 725 

(83) The memben of the Athdiiaii Senate, as well as many other public 
ftioctioDariea, were chosen 6yfo/ from the mass of the citizens. This may seem 
sftiange at first sig^it to us, who are accustomed to a Tery different method of 
election, in the case of our House of Commons, than that of leaving the affidr 
to be decided by mere chance ; but if we look at the constitution of our Upper 
House, we shall find the Teiy same principle prevailing there, except so fiir as 
tlie chance of birth difibn from the chance of the ballot. An EngUsh heredi- 
taiy legislator is certainly, as fiir as mere theoiy goes, as anomalous a being as 
an Ath^ian lottery Senator. 

(84) ** The hides of leprous oxen are said to be particularly 8trong.".-^fv«ir 



[act mi 

Nor any other man from Qmhbkftyrd. — 

Now then I'll go and fetch the marble column, 

On which the terms of peace have been engraved, 

And set it up within my market-plaae. [Emt Dic.«qpol!s* 

Scene IL The Same, 

Enter from below a Mega Ri an Piq-JobbeRi with his two 
tfoun^ Daughters, 

Guid momm* to ye, dear Athenian market, 
Luved by Megarians." By the Jove o' Friendship, 
I greetit for ye, as ye'd been my mither. 730 

Unhappy bairns o' a maist luckless father^ 
Gang up and speir an ye can hae some bonnocks, 
Tak tent now, an" to a' I say gie ... , wame ; 
Will ye be sell't awa, or wiB ye starve ?" 

(S5) In Ihe origmal, the Megixtan, a» well «a the {kedtioni who u aflerwofdv 
introd^ccdt talks in a very broad provincial diatect I bare ventured to make 
use of ^*guld braid Lallans" in my tiaoBlatioii, to supply iti place, becati§e that 
is the on] J dialect of the English latiguage which haj aisuined a petmonent 
IJtemiy existence. While the poetry of Bums, and the pTos* of the Scotch 
novels and the Noctefl Ambroeian^ e^st, an Englishman who has not ma*^ 
teped the peculiarities of the Northern idiom, must bo either verj %nomiit, or 
very indolent^^or both. 

(Bfi) The reader has been already pailly infonned of the miierahle state of 
deatitutioQ, to which Mi^ra was reduo^ by the persevering enmity of Athene 
The present ecene, though full of the moit laughable bumourf yet occidonaUy 
gives us such touching and pathetic glimpi«s of the condition of this unfortu* 
aate people, — mixed up at the Euime time with the drollest buffoonery r*-that 
one hardly knows whether to be merry or tuid. Tho vein which runii throiigh 
the whole of it, reminds one forcibly of that inimitable piece of acting— the 
Story of Monsieur Mallet, by the late Mr. Matthews. 



SeU'tawa! SeU'tawa! 735 


An' I agree wi' ye. But wha's sae doylt 

As to buy yoUf wha'd bring mair scaith nor gain ? 

But, hoolie ! Fve a douce M^arian plan. 

Fse dress ye up as pigs, and say 'tis pigs 

I bring to selL Pit on your nieves thae cloots, 740 

An' seem the baimtime o' a buirdly sow ! 

For by the meikle deil, m ye gai\g hame, 

Fient haet a bit o' bread ye'se hae to eat 

An' pit upon your gruntles too thae snouts ; 

Syne gang into the sack, like cannie weans. 745 

An' tak guid heed ye grumph and say, '' Koi' ! " 

An' raise sic noises as the haly pigs 

Bred to be kill't i' the Muckle Mysteries. — 

Now I'se mak proclamation to ^d out 

Whare's Dicaeopolis. — Dicseopolis! 

Scene III. The Same. 
Enter Dic^opglis. 


Hae ye a min' to buy a wheen sma' pigs ? 


What do you want, Meg&rian ? 


My guid chiel, 750 

We're come to niffer. 



How do you get on ? 


We sit by the inglenside a' day .... an' starve. 


By Jove, that's jolly work to the sound of music ! 
What else are you Megarians at just now ? 


What else ? When I left hame a gran' committee 

Were takin' counsel for the town, to find .... 755 

What gate we'd gang the quickest to the deil. 


Then you will soon get rid of all your troubles 1 


Weel, sir? 


And what's the news at Megara ? 
What is the price of com ? 


Wi' us the com 
Is like a man's ain life — 'tis unco dear. 


Do you bring salt, then, with you? 


Hootawa! 760 

Hae ye not got the saut-pans at commaun' ? ^ 


Nor garlic either ? 


Garlic ! Haith, indeed. 


When ye invade our countra, like feal-mice^ 
You howk up a' the roots o't wi' a preen. 


What do you bring then ? 


Pigs to sacrifice 
r the Muckle Mysteries. 


Bravo ! Let's see them ! 


They're maist braw pigs. Just baud it up to ettle 765 
The weight o't 'Tis a grushie, bonnie pig. 


^Vhat's this concern here ? 


Haith^ sir, 'tis a pig. 


What's that you say ? What countryman's this pig ? 


Of Megara. What, isna this a pig ? 


To me at least it does not look like one. 


This is maist shamcfu* ! What an infidel 770 

He is ! He says this is nae pig ava ! 

Weel, an ye like, I'se wad some thymit saut. 

That this wee thing is ca'd a pig in Grreek. 


Yes, 'tis a human creature's pig, I know. 



Aye, firien', 'tis mine. Wliase did ye think it was ? 776 
Hae ye a min' to hear their voices ? 


For god's sake, yes. 


Quick, pig, and mak a noise ! 
Deil tak ye baith, ye maunna hand your tongues ; 
Haith, an ye do, I'se tak ye hame again. 


Koi! Koi! 780 


Quid sir, is this a pig? 


It seems one now ; 
But in five years 'twill grow into a woman. 


It will be unco like its mither, firien'. 


This pig's not such as can be sacrificed. 


Weel, sir, and wharefore no? 


It has no tail. 785 


It is too young. As soon 's it gets a sow, 
'Twill hae a muckle ane, lang, red, and grushie. 
So, gin ye choose 't, here's a braw pig for ye. 



How much they're like each other in all parts ! 


They're firae ae mither and ae father too. 790 

When they've grow't grushie and gat towzie coats. 
They'll be braw pigs to offer up to Venus. 


But pigs are never offered up to Venus. 


What? No a pig to Venus? 'Tis to her 

Alane o' a' the deities they're offered. 

An', wow ! the meat o' thae wee chuffie pigs 795 

It unco gusty when 'tis on the spit. 


But can they eat without their mother yet ? 


Haith, yes, sir, and without their daddie too. 

What do they eat? 

Your ainsel at them. 


Whate'er ye gie thenu Speir 




.Kor,Kor! 800 


Can you eat tares ? 



Koi', Koi', Koi! 


What, and dried figs ? 


Koi', Koi', Koi! 


What, and can you eat figs ? 


Koi', Koi! 


How loud you call out, when I talk of figs ! 

Let some one step within, and fetch some figs 805 

To feed the little pigs.*' 

[Some figs are brought out and scattered amongst 
the people. 

Now will they eat them ? — 

Hercules ! Good gracious, what a smacking 

They kick up with their jaws ! Where were they bom ? 

1 think it must have been at Eton^ friend! 
But they have not yet eaten all the figs. 


Nae, nae ; for I claught up this single ane. 810 

(87) It WB8 a common method of securing the &vour of an Athenian audience 
to scatter fruit and nuts amongst them from the stage. We have several other 
instances in our poet In an English theatre, on the contrary, instead of the 
acton pelting the people with oranges and apples, the people veiy often take 
the liberty of pelting the actors. 



By Jove, the beasts are very well-behaved. 
What must I give you for your pigs ? "Just say. 


For ane o' them a single rape o* garlic ; 
For tither, an ye like, a pint o* saut** 


ni buy them. Stop you here. 


I'se do sae, firien'. 816 

[Eoeit Dic^opoLis. 
Thou Mercury o* merchants, may I sell 
My wife this gate, and my ain mither too ! 

Scene IV. The Same. 
Enter an Informer. 


What is your countfy, sirrah ? 

(88) " The MeglUrian both wittily and pathetically asks the very articles of 
** Dicctfpoiis, with which his countiymen used formerly to supply other nations/' 
-Greek note. 

(89) We have now a new character introduced, on which the brawny arm of 
AristdphaiMS delighted to inflict the scourge. Informers, like usurers, have 
ben hdd up to popular odium in almost eveiy countiy and eveiy age. The 
•lisiird prejudices against the former class of men are now pretty well exploded ; 
bat the latter are still as obnoxious as ever. Now the parties, who inflame and 
eaipefate this feeling, ought to reflect, that wherever informers become a 
BsisBnce, it is the fiiult of the government for enacting foolish laws, not of the 
inlbrmer for puttiqg them into execution ; and that in very many cases they 
■le of the most essential service to the community. Who would take the 

^^^^^B 7S THE ACHAEKlANi, 

[act III. 



^^^^H Megara; 


^^^^H Fm a puir fallow come to sell thae pigs. 




^^^^^B Then Fll inform against these pig9 and yoUi 


^^^^V For being our enemies. 


^^^^H The vera thing i 


^^^^^H He*s playin* us the pHskie owre again, 

^^^^H Which was the origin o* a* our dool i 

^^^^^1 INFORMBR* 

^^^^^^H rU serve you out for taking up the cause 

^^^^H Of Megara ! Sirrah, let go the sack ! 


^^^^B Dicseopolls, Dic^opolis^ 

^^^^H I am informed against by some doure ehiel 1 

^^^^B Enter DiCiCOFOLis. 

^^^^f DIC^DFOLIS. 

^^^B Who is the man ? Clerks of the Market there. 


^^^^^H Why do you let informers come in here ? — 

825 1 

^^^^H [Takes up the thongs and beats him, , 

I^^^^H How can you think of lodging informatiom 

angering tho 

^^^^^H trouble to pn^ae^ute the propii^toit of public con?ejaiic«i, fot mid 

^^^^^H Urea of pttvengen by oLrrying more than their licensed tiumlwr. 

if the offic* 

^^^^^H were left to that moet inddl^t M]ow^ Mr. Anifttodif 9 The teft] 

reason why 

^^^^^1 informers hAve stunk in the no&trib of every nation, le that every nation has 

^^^^^H been addicted, more or }&^ to otf?r-]€|p«lBlion. En^^tmenta me i 

made, which 

^^^^^H cannot fyOBBtbly be obeerved ; and when tmdesznen are teamed and 

aanoved by , 

^^^^^H ve^tioua informationB, they very natumllj lay the blame upon the immedl^n i 

^^^^^B aulhoT of the nui«nnce, instead of ascending at once to ita ultimate soiuoe— the | 

^^^^^H busybody, meddling spirit of the legialatuie. 


Against jour neighbours, when on every subject 
You are yourself entirely unmf armed? 


What ? shall I not inform against the foe ? 


Youll catch ity if you do, unless you seek 
Some other place, and play the informer there. 

[Exit Informer. 


What muckle scaith thae creaturs cause at Athens ! 


Cheer up, Megarian ! Here's the salt and garlic, 830 

For which you sold your pigs. So fere ye well. 


What ? / fere weel ? 'Tis no our countra's custom. 


Then may god grant, for my impertinence. 
The ** farewell" may return to me and mine! 


My bonnie pigs, ye now maun try and learn. 
An ye can get a ferl, to dip it down 
Into the saut, withoutten your auld fether. 835 

[Exeunt amnes. 


O happy fellow ! Don't you trace 

The progress of your measure? 
Youll squat down in your market-place, 
Enjoying every pleasure. 



And if base Ctesias" cornea in, 
Or any otber %ile and wretched 

Informer, to create a din, 
Hell certainly catch it ! 

[act 111 


You won^t be balked of dainties nice 

By purchoaers anonymous. 
Nor stained by Prepis's** black vice^ 

Nor jostled by Cleonjinusi 
But with your great-coat clean and neat 

You'll tread this scene of sweet attractions ; 
And no Hyberbolus ^ you meet 

Will cram you with actions* 

You will not now be made the butt 

Of Cratinus,"^ prince of quizzers, 
Who wears his hair i* the rakish cut, 

And always cHpped with scissors, 


(90) We know nothing more af ttus iwpectnUe gentleman^ than what we ma 
pick out of thiB paastig?. 

(91) Prcpifl Wft9 a wretch, who TOiuntained htmself by the same Jibomimihle 
tTii4e<, as the celebrated orator 'jEscbifies followed hx his younj^r dajra. 

(92) This pereon wm a tnanu&ctufer of liitiipa, luid succeeded, i^ter Cleon** 
death, to the office of chief dctnagogue of the Athenian moK He was attacked 
by Ei^poHs, tn hia comedy called '* AfdrtciU^"" in the same way aa ClfMin by 
Anstfiphancfl in the Kniphis^ and apparently with cqu&Uy successfVil f^'sults. 
We are told by oui poet, thut he iWAde a large fortune by his poUlical profti- 
gacy — ^but probably the lamp- trade helped* We tia^e had an instance in our 
own dayss of a man'i making use of hiii popularity wtth the lower orders to pro- 
mote the sale of hln matchless hlacking; and there k no reason whf Hyb^r^ 
bolus^'alaiiipA &hoiild tiot have been puffed in the same manner. We shall hear a 
good deal more of him afierwrardSv He eventually fell into the trap which ht 
had prepared &r Akibiadoft and Nici^jr^in the former of whom he was pretty 
certaiu to catch a Tartar, — and was sent into *' honourable banislimenf 

(9i3) The CratinuA here spoken of must be carefully diB^ii^klied from 


Whose soul with every vice is mad, 850 

Whose songs for headlong haste are noted, 

Whose armpits stink as if his dad 
Belonged to St. Goathard, 


Nor will you in your market-place 

Be slanged by blackguard Pauson ;** 
Nor by his parish's disgrace — 

Callistratus ** — that whoreson 855 

Rogue died ingrain in misery, 

Who's cold and starved and lean and dirty, 
Out of each month that passes by, 

Days upwards of thirty.** 

Arutdpbane8*8 great riTal, concerning whom see the Kmghtiy (1. 526.) He 
VHs an obscure writer of songs, and, like some modem poets, a little too much 
addicted to dandjism to please the severe taste of our author. Hence he is 
■elected below (L 1173) by the Chorus, as the mark for a very unsavory kind of 
missile, which would be peculiarly offensive to a man of his delicacy and refine- 

(94) The characters of these two individuals seem to have been very similar. 
They were both low-lived, ungentlemanly fellows, and both most wretchedly 
poor. Of the latter, we have an anecdote in the Watju, (I. 787) :— 


" That wag 
" Lyiistratus played me a scurvy trick :— 
" We had a shilling given us between us 
" The other day, and so we went to change it 
" In the Fish-market for some silver pennies; 
" And there he palmed six mullet's scales upon me. 
** I put them in my month, thinking them pence ; 
" But — scenting them— I spit them out half-sick, 
*' And collared him. 


•< And what said he to this? 


" He said, I had the gizurd of a cock ; 

" ' For you digest hard money quick i' says he." 

(95) The wit is the same as if one were to say of a very studious person, that 
be read twenty-five hours a day. 




Scene I. The same. 

Enter a Bceotian Market-man, with his slave Ismenias, 
both bearing various kinds of birds, beasts, fish, 8fc. 
They are followed by a troop of noisy Pipers, 


'Fore Hercules ! My shouther's sair forjesket! 860 

Pit down the penny-royal cannilie, 

Ismenias ! An' a' you croonin' pipers, 

Wha come frae Thebes, may hand awa to hell. 

An' blaw the droddum o' the meikle deil. 

Enter Dic^opolis. 


Deuce take you, stop ! Get from my doors, you wasps ! 
Where do these cursed humming-piper sons 865 

Of ChsBris** come from, who have flown up here ? 

[Drives them away unmerdfutty. 


By lolaiis, ye're a sonsie chiel ! 

Thae fallows hae been blawin' at my curpin 

{%) See Note 6. 


A' the hale gate frae Tliohcs, and dirrt the flowers 

0' my bravv penny-royal on the groun\ 

But, an ye like, buy ony o' the things 870 

I bring ; I*ve haith how-towdies, frien', and locusts.'' 

(ST) Dodweil tell* ua, " tlml Lebad^F^t *n Bteiitlm U9 weU ns most pttrte of 
*' Grw*^ IB mJ««t«d by locitelft, which destroj great pmt of the produii? of ihe 
'* bnd.**— rrowii. Vol, 1. p. 213. The follow mg illuntiiition* of the use of thtM? 
dfstnictJre insect* at ait ortide of food, fire from Ktrbj and Spence^fi Ent^- 
Mi%y, I. p. 34 :— 

** H «aRelc|uijBt wail infortnfMl, thnt at l^lccca, when there wom a ncnrcity of 
" ram, us a tubstitute for flaur, the/ would gruid locnsU m their hitnd-niillii, 
"or ^oytid them in rtooe luoftarn; ihat they mixed this flour with wator into 
** tt dmtgh, Atid miuio their cakc?» of it, which they baked like their other bread* 
*' He add«, lb At it ia not utiiiAiial for them to eat IocubIh w^hcn there h ho 
" fiusine ; hut then they boil them first n gwA while in water» tind nfUrwards 
** rt«v th^tn wiUi butter into a kind of friciuMH? of no tiful flavour ... Sparrman 

Hi u* that the HottenttT*i are highly rejoiced at the arrival of the locuita 
'* In their country, allhuugh they destroy all ita verdure., eatiof^ them iti nueh 
"* fi'^'i^Jtie^ a* to m.i \ isibly iktter than l>t?fofe^ and making of their c^op a 
" hrown ut eoflfee-colourefl soup^... They appear even to have bt'cn an article 
" fji ftKKi offered for sale in the markets of Greece; and oti a i^ubjeet *o well 
to quoti^ no other writers* Jackion observe*, that waen he wn« in 
r m ITftJl, dij^hes of loeuits were gBneraUy aerveti up at the prijictpid 

f Ami erteemed a great delicacy. ITicy are pitf erred by the Mooi^ to 

lit; tind a peivon may eat a plateful of two or three huindred without 
* ft^UnfT any ill effecti. They usually boii them in water half aa hour^ (having 
** llimwn Hway the head, win^ and legs*) then sprinkle them with (*alt and 

f, iin d f r>' t hera , add i a |? a Utile v i neMor. * From th h sX rin g of authorities, 
"pm wm rtadily «ce how idle wm the controversy eonceming the lottusto 
" whirh frimiftl part of the nustenanee of John the Baptiit, agreeing with 
"' llajBeli]ui!*t, that they eould be nothijjg but the animal lociut, ao common a 
'^^i la the Ko^^t; and how apt evea learned men are to perplex a pkin 
" i|ii( *tio[i, from ignorance of the eutNiom*! of other couninc&'' 

Whsii^vor we mjif think of the i^xnte of the Moori. in preferring Ihe^e insecti 
In |il0aim% it b eeftaiu that tho Greeki eoniidered thfm a very indifliefeiit kind 
ft food. Thvy are mentiofi^d, tnwards the end of thi<» play, (I, 111*)) aa the 
ftnttfMdai to thniihn, ii gre/U delicaey tHTtli amnng^ the Athenians and the 
ftomafm, and h^hly eitet-metl by the cscperienced English schoolbfjy, a* the 
Tnuwlator can te«ttry from hi& own Juvenile reeolleetionj<. 

t %h* max hnw frcwnttnfnrtrfl, (»iil}< tahitttuting biitU't fbr vlnp|iar. uut JIbtntd th#m 



[act IV. 

O how d je doj my little bonnock-eating 
Boeotian ! What d ye bring along with you ? 


A' the guid things Boedtia can produce :■ — 

There^s marjoram, penny-royal, mattrasses. 

Wicks, deuks, kaes, daker-hens, lang-crestit plivers» 875 

Wrens, didappers^ — 


You've hroMght fowl-tifeath,er with you ! 


Forbye geese, maukins, tods, and moudi worts, 
Hurcheons, cats, brocks, ottersj Loch-Copae eels** — 

(96) FiJih wert paiticularly admired by the Athfniiut gourmands, and^ 
omoivgirt fiih eeK mid amongst eeU those which ciune from the Lake of Copae, 
in BcKStia^ The following passage from Mr. llughea, shows that they stUl 
retaiti Iheir atitjent reputation : — '' Thu weather beitip at ihh time very mM, 
^* I felt my health improved hy the mmhle^ and was able at dinner to paJiake 
" of some fine cela of an extrnordbmrj aiie, whii h had been fient ua by the 
*' Greek primates of the city* thoy were caught in the Lake CopdL!^ which, liAin 
'* ancient times still supplies the country anmnd with fifh and wild-fowl, Oae 
"^ of these eeb weighed seven pounds, though they are ofle« caught aa heavy as 
** twelve or fourteen. They 4ire firm in fletsh, and of a delicious flavour. Greitt 
** quantities t\re ssalted, and find a ready sale at Constantinople and other mam 
** of Greece-'* — Traveh in Grttece^ ^t?. Vol L p. 33. Thi» excellent person^ 
iatimate acquaintance with Greece and Greek seems to hare betrayed liim 
Into a very classical idiom in the last sentence. " Constantinople and tiiher 
^* marts of Greece*' is just like Xeuophon's '* 1,000 slavia, 2,000 oxen, and 
" ] 0,000 other sheep/' wfuch aforesaid sheep must certainly have been Iruk 
tmltu. (P. 31BJ. 18, ed. Basih) To return once more to thes* Tery celebmteil 
fish ;— ** The monks of Skripij artfully aware of the eicelleiice of tho*e celi, 
** so renowned among the ancient Athrfniana, which they describe »s large, 
** white, of delicate flavour, and light of digestion. They are taken in consi- 
" derahk fiumhers by the peopk of Topiilia, in the permanent part of the 
^^ lake near that town, from whence, cither fbesh or salted, they are carried for 
" sale throughout the surrou tiding country, etpeeially in the time of Lent. 
** W^hcn both ^Attica and Bttotja were rich and populous^ the Cephuadg, and 
*' other lakes of Bteotm, furnished tJje people of this province *i-ith the meatii^ 



thou that hring'st a fish most sweet to men, 
Let me address the eels, if eels thou briiig'st ! 


Brawest o' fifty virgin Cdpaids !•* 

Gang out o' the creel to sair the sonsie birkie ! 


Beloved damsel, long desired by me, 885 

Thou com'st acceptable to comic actors, 
And dear to Morychus ! "® What ho, attendants ! 
Bring out the brasicr and the bellows here ! 

Enter Slaves. 
Behold, my boys, the admirable eel. 

Lost for six years to us, but come at last ! 890 

Speak to her, children ! I will furnish you 

** a ooiutant and advantageous traffic with 'Attica, which poBsesses not a single 
** trout itreani, nor a lake, except that of Marathon, which in the summer is 
** reduced to such small dimensions, that a Bcedtian eel could hardly exist in 
"it"— Leake's Travels in Northern Greece^ Vol. II. p. 157. — " Agathirchides 
** MjR, in his Sixth Book on Europe, that the BoHitians cro^n the higKost of the 
*• Lake Cops eels, just as if they were victims, and praying over them, and 
"throwing barley upon them, sacrifice them to the gotls; nnd that if a stranger 
** is puzzled at the absurdity of the usage, and inquires the cause of it, the 
" BoNStians will reply that they only know one thing, and say that they are 
** bound to retain the customs of their ancestors, and that they are not re(|uircd 
* to defend them to the rest of mankind." — Athemfus, p. 297. There are other 
I>eople besides the Boc<;tians, who have made use of this convenient method of 
bringing the absurdities of their grandfuthers to excuse their own. 

(99) A parody on a line of 'jEschylus, as we learn from the Greek note— 

•< Mbtres* of fifty banded N^rcYdH !" 

(100) Mdrychus was a great gastronomist, and specially fond of these eels. 
We find him mentioned in connexion with them again in the Peace. He was 
also, we are informed in the Greek note, a composer of tragedies, but this is 

'VS. [act IV. 

^ - . "isol's sake. 

-: \'ii when (lead, — 
*:tli beet-root garnished! '' ' 
. * iith the ecl^ in mock pomp. 


. -.j: for the lish! 81),") 

. - vroLis. 
. ■• . '.Vuirket dues. — 
■ .'ther goods ? 
.yon AX. 


For how much jiioney ? 
. vr cargo hack ? 

RdlOTl AN. 

• .';; tliat you Athenians 
».v»>tians haena got. f)00 


■ V. some sprats from Port Plialerum, 
V s.. ry ? 


Sprats or crockery ? Nae ! 
M \\\ At liame. I maun tak something 
..V \vi' us and rout hie liere. 

■V . V 

. .'*•* >i»ecch is a (|uiz upon the tragic writtrs: the con- 
,..»^ ^^'. mmi tlic Alrtstia of Eiiripidi^. 1. .S74 : — 
■• Nr'iT may I. -rVn wJumi ili-ad. — 
'v. \H oltlit'f. my only f;iithful fririid I" 



I have it ! You shall pack up an informer, 

Like crockery, and take him off to Thebes ! 905 


By the twa gods,"* I'se do't ! For, an I tak him, 

I'se get a pickle siller by the beastie, 

By shawin' him like some wanchancie ape. 


By Jove, here comes Nicarchus to inform ! *®^ 


He s sma' ! 


But all there is of him is bad. 

Scene II. The Same. 
Enter Nicarchus. 


Whose goods are these ? 


'Fore Jove, lad, they are mine, 910 
An' come frae Thebes. 

(102) **The two gods" in the mouth of a Bcedtian mean Amphion and 
Z^thus, the founders of Thebes ; in that of a Lacedsmdnian, Castor and Pollux, 
tbe tutelary divinities of Sparta. 

(103) Respecting Niciirchus the Greek note merely tells us that he is 
tttirized as an informer, which we knew already. 



Then I inform against them» 
As being our enemies'. 


How hae they scaithed ye, 
That ye maun war and feeht wi* wee bit burdies ? 


And I intend to inform against you too. 


How hae I wranged ye ? 


ril explain to you 
For the bystanders' sake. You're smuggling in 915 

Wicks from the enemy. 


So then, forsooth, 
You are informing on account of wicks f 


This wick might set the Dock-yard all on fire. 


A wick a dock-yard ? 


Yes, it might. 


And how ? 


A Boeotian rogue might stick it in a cock-roach,*"* 920 

(104) The Translator must ask pardon of any American lady, into whose 
hands this book may by chance fall, for making use of so vulgar a term. 


Light it, and send the insect up a drain 
Into tlie Dock-yard, when the wind was high. 
And if the ships once caught a light, they'd be 
In a blaze directly. 


What, you cursed rogue, 
In a blaze by means of a cock-roach and a wick ? 925 

[Seizes upon him, 


I call you all to witness ! 


Stop his mouth ! 
Give me some straw that I may pack him up 
Like crockery, and have him carried thus, 
For fear he should get broken on the journey. 

[Proceeds to stow him away. 


My dearest fellow, pray be wise, 
And pack the stranger's merchandise 930 

With care, for fear he break it 


Leave that to me ; I see it rings 

[Gives him a hearty kick. 
With a harsh jar, like fire-cracked things, 
And gods and men forsake it. 

" Cock-ronches " in the United States^ as we are told by one of the numeroiw 
English travellers through that country, are atwaye called " roaches " by the 
^r sex, for t)ie sake of euphony. 



Ill what way will lie use it ? 935 


Ill many, if he ehoose it. 

'Twill be a niler '''... of the rich, 

A poker ... of an action, 
Snuffers ... to scent a legal hitch, 

A spoon ... to stir up faction. 


How could one ever use a vase 040 

With confidence at Iiome, which jars 

[DiCiEOPOLis kicks him. 
With such discordant croaking ? 


Its strength, good sir, is most complete. 
And if 'tis hung up by the feet, OW 

Head down, it can't be broken. 

[NiCARCHUS being noto completely packed up^ 
DiCiEOPOLis suits the action to the word, 


Well, now you need not fear, sir. 


I'se soon hae routh o' gear, sir. 

(105) Our author here plays upon the difference between the strictly gram- 
matical, and the vulgar and colloquial sense, of certain words. Some English 
purists maintain most fiercely, that the person who rules a line is the nder^ 
and the instrument he makes use of to direct his pen is the r»le. By parity of 
reasoning the person who pokes the fire is the poker y and the iron rod is the 
poke; and we ought to talk of nut-cmcks., dusts^ snvffg^ &c. instead of iitfl- 
crackersy dustert, snufferM, and so on. 



With this ally, where'er thou go'st, 

Thou need'st not fear to storm or 
Blockade, my dearest sir, the most 950 

Impregnable informer.*** 


I had hard work to pack the cursed rogue up. 
Take off your crockery, my good BcecJtian ! 


My wee Ismenias, gang and pit your shouther 

Beneath the creel. I rede ye weel be tentie, 

An' carry hame the load wi' muckle caution. 955 


You'll take a precious shakey bit of goods — 
But never mind. For if you make a gain 
By your fine merchandise, you'll live in clover 
As far as base informers are concenied. 

[Exeunt Bceotian and Slave with Nicarchus. 

Scene III. The Sam£. 

Enter Lamachus's Slave. 

Hoy! Dicasdpolis 

{106) Sdcratas recommended a wealthy friend of his, who was much annoyed 
by frivolous prosecutions brought ugainst him for the sake of extorting money, 
to take a regular informer into his pay, and employ him to frighten away all 
others, as a dog frightens away the wolves. The idea seems pretty nearly the 
' in this passage, and again six lines below. 



What is the matter ? 
Why ajre you bawling for me ? 


Requests youll let liim have for this one shilling 960 

Some of your thrushes for the feast of Gallons/"' 
And for these three a Lake of Copa* eeL 


Wiat L^macbus is that who wants the eel I 


The dreadful, the euduruig one, who shakes 

The Goirgon, brandishing three shadowy crests* 9(i5 


He should not have it^ even for his shield. 
Let him go shake his crests against salt-fish*'** 


(107) Tbe B^ond day of the Leniean feiti^al of Bacchus w^ to t^ed» 
becauge it wa« part of the spurt!} of the oc'casion to f\l\ gnUoci m^iaiins with 
wine iiJid w&ter, and try which couid get to the bottom of his cup the fiwt It 
nxtul be ctm&«ed^ however, m justice to the characters of the degenerate 
topera of those modem times, that the Greek gullwn wiis less ihaii vnn by 
mther more than a pint We ahall find, at the end of this piny, that Dica?dpolis 
boasts of filling his with ttnmired wine, and fldonng it at a drmu^^ht ; but that I 
take toh€ one of those operations vrbieh an> so often accomplished on thestage^ 
and to veiy seldom in real life. We get a sufficiently magnificent idea of the 
capacity of the Greek iitomAch, when we believe that it could contain con- 
siderably more tlian three EnRliah quarts, without saying any thiii^ of the 
natUTe of the liquor. The following paaiage is (juoted from Alhena'm : — 
** TimKuB gays that the tynuit Diony«iu» proposed a golden crown us a re want 
** for him who drank up his gallon firat at the feast of the Gallon^ and thut the 
** sacce«fiful party wm the philosopher Xendcrates." This lage was aflerwrardi 
bend of the Fiatdnic tchool. 

(lOS) Salt-fish was the&re of the vulgar; it was biought in great quaal]ti«' 
to Athens from the Bkick Sea. 


If he should squall and bawl and raise a bustle, 
111 make the Clerks o* the Market turn him out. 
I shall take in these goods all for myself, 
To the time of thrushes' wings and blackbirds' pinions. 970 

[Exeunt omnes. 


Did you view, O did you view, — 
Citizens, I speak to you, — 
The delicious merchandise, 
For the which this man so wise 
Is enabled now to trade 
By the peace that he has made ? 
Part is useful in the house,*®* 975 

And on part he will carouse. 
All the goods of life, in short, 
He obtains, unasked, unsought. 
Never will I entertain 
Horrid War at home again ; 
Never at my board shall he 
Sing Harmodius's glee."" 980 

(109) That is to say, the mattrasses and wicks. 

(UO) This well-known song mny be translated as follows : 

•• With myrtle wreathed I'll wear my tword, 
" As when ye slew the tyrant lord, 
" And made Athenian freedom brighten ; 
*' UaTm6dlu« and Aristogiton ! 

" Thou art not dead— It is confessed— 
" But haant'st the Islands of the Blest,— 
*' Beloved Harm6dius I— where Pelides, 
" The swift-heeled, dwells, and brave TydSdes. 



For he is a drunken rake, 

Thus to venture to attack, 

In his revelling roaming mood, 

Men possessed of every good. 

And to do them every harm, 

Fill their minds with dire alarm. 

Knock them down on their own floors. 

Turn them coolly out of doors. 

Fight them if they don't obey, 

And although they beg and pray — 

" Come, sit down and drink, and take 

" This one glass for friendships sake!" — 985 


" With myrtle wreathed I'll wear my Kword, 
" Aa when ye kIcw the tjTant lord 
" HippArchus, Pallas' festal ni^ht nn ; 
" Harmodius and Aristogiton ! 

" BeoauRe ye slew the tyrant, and 
•* Gave Athens freedom, through the land 
" Your tlashing fame Khali ever lighten : 
" Hanr6dius and Aristogiton ! 

It waji probubly thifi Hong which gave rise to the vulpir l>elief alluded to bj 
Thuc^dides, that Hippirc-hus was tyrant of AthenH when lie wa» assaainated 
bj the patriot pair. The real facts were, that they intended to have Blain 
Hfppiaa, the elder brother of llippurchus, who had succeeded his father Piris- 
tratus in tlie tyranny, but suspecting that he had been informed of the plot, 
attacked the younger of the two, more especially as it was he who had given 
them tlie private and personal offense, which impelled them to take up the 
affair on public and patriotic grounds. They accomplished their attempt* 
but were both of them shortly afterwards slain by the adherents of Hippiaa. 
Instead, however, of tyranny being abolished in consequence of the conspiracy, 
it was not till more than three years afterwards, that democracy in its pure 
form was re-established at AtheiL<i. 


Burn their stakes so much the quicker 
III the fire, and spill the wine, — 

Much as they wish to save the liquor, — 
From each mantling, sparkling .... vine. 

Did you view the happy man 
Rouse him to arrange the plan 
Of his dinner, and display 
How superb is his array, 
Casting out before liis doors, — 
As a sample of the stores 
Spent in jollity and sheer 
Luxury, — these feathers here?*" 
Truce, O Truce, fair Venus' friend, 
Whom the Graces aye attend, 
What a lovely face thou'st got, 
Tliough before I knew it not ! S)90 

Would to heaven some little Love, 
With his garland and liis dove. 
Like the pictured god we see,"* 
Joined together you and me ! 

(Hi) A beautiful courtezan now nmkeft her appearance on the Btage, in the 
■^^orical character of Truce, but, as was always the case in the Grecian 
*^re with the fair sex, merely acts in dumb show. We have several other 
•^mples of this practice in our poet ; for instance, in the Peace, where three 
**iie8e damsels come on as Peace, Spectacle, and Harvest. We have retained 
^ ciutom, I believe, in England, but the ladies now claim the privilege of 
^■nig their tongues. 

(H2) The painter Zeuxis had painted a mo8t beautiful picture of Cupid 
•^'^^ned with roses in the temple of Venus at Athens. — Greek note. 


Or would jou perhaps look cold, 
Thinking I aiTi far too old ? 
If I gained you as my bride, 
I should gain three things beside. 
First, rd plant a long, long Une 
Of the cuttings of the \ine ; 
Secondly some tender twigs 
Of tlie tree that bears us figs ; 
Tliirdly, though so old, Pd poke 
In the trench a shoot of oak ; 
Placing round the garden olivess 

So that you and I, at worst, 
Might anoint us, for our whole lives, 

Once a month, upon the 1st/'* 

[act IV. 


Scene IV, The Same, 
Enter Crier and Dic^opolis, tmth Slaves^ ^^. 


O yesj O yes ! The people are to drink 


(113) The Ach^mrnn old getitlemnji'e id*™* seem to coincide pretty cloaelj' j 
on tlie subject of certiiin little domejitic armngements with llioseof Mr. Shandj'.l 
— ^^ My fiitlier was, I belbve, one nf the moat regular men in evejy thing he 
** did, whether Hwaa matter of busjocKS or matter of amtiBemertt, that ev& , 
" lived, A» II small upecimen of this extreme exactne«i of his, to which he i 
** in truth a sljive, he had mode it n rule for Jimny jearB of his Dfe, on the fintl 
** SundftjT ni^fht of every month throughout the whole jcar, — as certain as ever 
" the Syjidajr riighl came,— to wind up a large house clocks which we liad 
*' sttanding on the bacltntaJrB* head, with hie own hand» t and being somewhere 
*■ between fifty and mxtj jeaw of age at the time 1 have been speaking of, 
" he had Ilk t* wise gradually brought some other little family concemmenta t^ < 
** the (lame period, in order, sis. he would ofien say to my uncle Toby, to f^ | 
*■*■ them all out of the way at one time, and he no more plagued and p«i4iOP 
" with them the rest of the month:"— Triiftf am Shatidg^ Book I. chi^ 4, 

SC£?IE IV,] 




Tlie gallons, when they hear the trumpet sound, 
Aceordiiig to the cub torn s of their fathers* 
And he who first of all drinks up his gfallou, 
Shall gain the wine-bag^^**..*of fat CtesiphonJ" 


Did you not hear, children and women all ? 
What are you doing ? Don*t you hear the Crier t 
Stew ! Roast \ and turn ! Take off the hares ! 

garlands ! 
Bring ine the spits, that I may spit the thrushes I 

[He proceeds lo officiate as a cook ou the aluge, 


How happy are you in your skill ! 
But happier in the banquet still, 

Of which you now are boasting! 1010 


What will you say then, when your eyes 
Have gassed with liquorish surprint* 
Upon these thrushes roasting ? 

()U) The cusloin of proaervin^ wine in ha«i made oTgoat-ikini \% lUll veiy 

5<^iinfMi in Greece and the adjoiding countries. Mfjrt teadefm muat re^qUect 

♦^n Quixote'fl ludicrcms eneouuter with the"(e ^orl>elHetl jnantfl^ and with what 

^■Mlii^i^Qn to himself and diacotnfort to hia worthy host he spilt their blood r»n 

*^^ iooT of his £^iirtet. It ift well known that the word which is translated 

iMttlea"' in tlie following parage of tho English New Testament ought to be 

«ni»>bigi," or "^ wine-skins :"'—'* Nor do men put new wine into old bottles ; 

^ if B0t, the bottle arc buraL, and the wine is wpTlt^ nud the bottles perish ; 

- bttltlkCJ put Dew wine into new bottler, Jind both ane preaerved."— ^f(*/Miw 

'*^t, 17, An esceeUent representntion of a Bacchanal drinking out of what is 

i^^^eBalljr the neck of one of Ihese goat-akini filled with wine, may be seen in 

Qiti'f PHntureA de4 Viuex Anli^rt^ VoL IL pUite KS. 

(lis) Ct^phon was a worthj Athenian gentlemfini who^from being addicted 
^1^ ple«suree of the table^ had thronTi out a verj magnificent bow- window in 
Ri Hejiee his paunch, from being kept constantlj full of good liquor, ii 
p called a wine^bsg. 




I quite agree with you in this. 

Who then could paint your state of bliss ? 


Go poke the fire, my beauties ! 


Did'st hear with how much wit and glee, 1015 
How cookishly, how dinnerly, 
He manages his duties ? 

Scene V. The Same. 
Enter a Farmer, tvringing his hands, %c. 


Alas, alas ! 


O Hercules! Who's this? 


A man of woe. 


Then keep it to yourself. 


My dearest sir, you are the only person 1020 

Possessed of peace ; so measure me a little, 
Though only for five years. 


What is the matter ? 


I'm ruined ; for IVe lost my pair of oxen. 



VVhere>om ? 


The Boeotians took them off from Phyle — 

DiCiEOPOLis (ironically). 
Poor wretched soul ! Why are you not in black ? 


Although, by Jove, I was maintained by them 1025 

In the enjoyment of all kinds of . . . . dung. 


Then what do you want now ? 


I've spoilt a pair 
Of eyes by weeping for a pair of oxen ; 
So if youVe any regard for Dercetes 
Of Phyle, quick anoint these balls with peace. 


You rascal, I am not the public surgeon ! *" 1030 


Pray do ! Perhaps I may get back my oxen. 

(116) It WW the custom in Grecian towns to hixe a sui^f^n at the public 
expense to attend anj citizen who might require his services. The celebrated 
Hippdcrates, who flourished about the time of AristtSphanes, is said to have 
been engaged in this capacity by the Athenians. Democ^des, who lived about 
A century before, had '300/. a year at his native place Croton, 500/. at Athens, 
and afterwards 600il from Pol^crates, the tyrant of Samos. We find complaints 
made in one of our Authors later productions— the Wealth — that both the 
acience of physic and the pay of the physician had already grievously declined. 
However, we learn, from recent travellers in Greece, that the plan of paying 
the gentlemen of the lancet by the great, is still continued there in all its ancient 
vigoar. — See Dodu/eU and Hughes, In the countries of western Europe the 
system is transferred firom the physicians of the body to the physicians of the 

H 2 

• a;-h\rmaxs. [act IV. 

rif;- roroLis. 
;;.v.{ blubber 


■ .• i;s* single drop of peace 


N .\ not one single atom. 

. ^ I'uT'Sclt'. 


Alas, alas, 1035 

^.v .. vUMi*. little farming oxen ! 

[ICxit Farmer blubherhig, 


■i: I'KMurs discovered by his schemes 
io»v Nwoet is peace, and as it seems 
W ill give a bit to no man. 


\i»\*, Uo\\ be ready at your post ! 
\Kii Uoiwy on the tripe, and toast 1040 

I'ho cuttlefish'" below, man ! 
*>a\ Jul \i>u hear the lofty note 
V»*jn^ in thunders from his throat ? 

■K ^'k i'»v ?"■»* «"»* **»*' vnmlotish con>ititute a chief part of the 

^ v.'sVAs .iu»ii< MU'h of ihoir t:i*t.t as prei^lude them from eating 

s.. ..^KokWv.'^i .Mul bKHKilo:«* ttnimaK*'--llol>house's Trails in 



Now set the eels a-firying ! 


You'll make me die of hunger, and 
Those neighbours who live close at hand 104-5 
Of smells and noisy crying. 

Scene VI. The Sanw, 
Enter Bridesman and Bridesmaid. 


Fry them, and take great care to brown them well. 

Dear Dicajopolis ! 


Who's that? Who's that? 

This meat is sent you by a bridegroom from 
The wedding-feast. 


I'm much obliged to him, 1050 

Whoever he may be. 


And he requests. 
That in return youll pour one gill of peace 
Into this gallipot, that he mayn't have 
To go on service, but may stay at home 
And kiss liis wife. 



Away, away with it ! 
.' loi want your gift. You should not have 
ui i^ill K}( peace even for five hundred pounds ! 1055 

hii \*ho's tliis girl ? 


The bridesmaid ; and she wants 
Vo iii\t' you a message from the bride in private. 


Loiiio, come ; what is it? {mumpers with the Bridesmaid.) 

How absurd, good heavens, 
The favour is, which the bride begs of me 
So oaniestly, in order to keep at home 
Ihe source of all her chaste connubial pleasures ! — 1()60 
Iking me the peace ! I'll give to her alone ; 
tor she's a woman, and unworthy war. — 
Hold out your perftime-pot ! This way, my dear ! 
I )\o know how you must use it ? Tell the bride. 
When they're recruiting, she's to pour by night 10(>5 

V drop of this into her bridegroom's breeches. — 

[Exeunt Bridesman and Bridesmaid. 
lit uiovc the peace ! — Bring me the ladle here ! 
I il liiko S(.>nie wine and put it in the gallons. 


■^ui Iwiv cunies some one >vith uplifted brows,'" 

' luii\mg, its if to bring some dreadftil news. 1070 

s I'fK iir«i'iL'« consitlcrcd the habit of carrying the e3'c-bro¥r8 raised a 
. .i^a(^lKilK'««.->^v «/«/iu« PoUhjc^ 11. 49. 


Scene VI I. The Same. 
Enter a Messenger. 

FIRST messenger. 

toils and fights and Lamachus'es bold ! 

Enter Lamachus pompously y with attendants, 


Who round my brass-accoutred dwelling sounds ? 


The Generals bid you take immediately 

Your crests and cohorts, and march out to-day, 

And in despite of snow-storms guard the defiles. 1075 

Word has been brought to them that some Boeotians 

Mean to invade the land in search of plunder 

During the feasts of Gallons and of Pots."' 


Generals more numerous than brave ! 1080 


Tis a great shame I can't even hold a feast ! 
battle-fighting Lamachaic troops ! 


Confound it ! Are you making game of me ? 

(119) The feast of Pots was celebrated the day after the feast of Gallons. It 
«u so named from certain pots of vegetables which were offered up to the In- 
fernal Mercury. Perhaps a diligent antiquarian might discover some connexion 
between the jovial rites of this day, and certain mys^rious orgies annuaUy cele- 
brated at Cambridge during the Pot-fiur. 




D*ye want to fight with a four-crested giant ? 

[Shews him a locust in derision ^^ 


Alas, alas ! 

What a (lire message did the Crier bring me ! 


Alas, alas! 

What message is he running here to bring me ? 

[Enter another Messenger. 


O Dicaeopolis ! 


What is the matter? 1085 


Take up your meat-box and your Gallon, sir,"* 

And come to dinner quick. The priest of Bacchus 

Requests your company. So stir your stumps. 

The dinner has been staid for you this long time ; 

For every tiling, excepting you, is ready. 

We Ve sofas, tables, pillows, bedding, garlands, 1090 

( 120) The locust, like the rest of the grasshopper tribe, which are furnished 
with wings nt all, has four of them. Bj exhibiting one of these insects in a 
ridiculous position, Dicaedpolis takes occasion to ridicule the triple crest of 
Laniachu«*s helmet. 

( 121 ) A gentleman, who gave a dinner party at Athens, was not exi>ected to 
provide the meat or the wine. These articles were brought bjr the guests, so 
that the feast in some respects resembled a modern pic-nic. In order to convey 
the different dishes, they made umc of a box, which was sometimes heated by a 
pan of charcoal underneath it. Of what the host vms expected to furnish we 
shall have a very copious* list presently. 

?V1I.] THE ACHARNIAf4;«. 105 

Scents, nuts and fruits, the courtezans are tliercj^^* 
Cakes of bruised vvlieati pies, sesauie-puddiiigs, short-bread, 
Fair dancing-girls' Hann6dius*s fancy i'^ 
So pray make haste, 


How harshly am I punished ! 


Tia your own fault ; the indictment you yourself 

Have dt'aw H t,.^,niiou yoinr shield is a grim Gorgon. 1095 

Shut up my meat-hox ! Get my dinner ready ! 


Boy, boy I Bring out my knapsack from the house ! 


Boy, hoy ! Bring out my meat-hox from the house ! 


Bring some thyrae-flavoured salt and onionsp boy 1 

^^^Hfipily prevofi more or \es» m every counlrjr, nhere the modest port of the 
«i in leeluiled fmm geaeral society. The comprmy of woman is naturuHj so 
detirable In mitn, tKai, rather than be deprived of it altogether^ he witl accept 
ibe htiMt^ ore a» a eul>!!it]tiit« tor the pure virgin gold. We have insUiic^at 
mtiugh in Aristdphiiiiea of the prevalence of thi* practice. My friend, Mr, 
Pmhley^ wboec very Learned and entertaining 7^ ravels in Crete are now io the 
pinii iEtfbmii me that it continues ifi the Lciant to the present momenL On 
in (MxaiaifJti when the Bishop rjf Gorlyna in Crete had invitpd a large party, both 
lay and clerieal, to hi* palace* part of the antUM^ments of the day coasiited of a 
dance of pn>etitute9. If the reader will take the trouble to refer lo & curima 
Luin ttotein Rosens Lift qfl^oJi.^ (Vol. T, DiS«ertation, p. 11,) he will iind, 
thit e*en pope» have bcffuile*! their leisure Kaurv by certain fttrange exhihitionn 
Bade by women of this deicHption. 

123) llib evidently alludt^ to u^mie rtory of HartmyiiiJ^'A fondncs* for thia 

of fi;malcf^ who bore about the same ehamcter ifi Greece a» thi^ ^iies 

^9p*m m England. Whatever it might have been, we know nothlEig about it 



Some tish for me ! I hate the smell of onions. 11 00 


Bring me a slice, boy, of decayed salt-fish. 


And me a slice, boy : I will roast it there. 


Fetch me out here the two plumes of my helmet. 


Fetch me out here the turtles and the thrushes. 


This ostrich-plume is beautiful and white. 11 05 


This turtle's flesh is beautiful and brown. 


Fellow, leave off laughing at my equipments. 


Fellow, you'd best not stare so at the thrushes. 


Bring out the case that holds the triple crest — 


Bring out for me the dish of roasted hare — 1110 


Unless the moths have eaten up my crest. 


Unless I eat the giblets before dinner. 


Fellow, you'd best leave off addressing me. 


Nay, but the slave and I have been disputing 


This long time back. {To slave.) D'ye choose to stake your 

And let brave Lamachus determine whether 1115 

Locusts or thrushes are the sweeter food ? 


What insolence ! 

DiCi£OPOLis (To the slave). 

Locusts by far, he says. 


Boy, boy ! Take down iny spear and bring it out. 


Boy, boy ! Take off the tripe and bring it out. 


Come, let me pull the casing off my spear. 1 120 

Lay hold of it ! 

DiCi£OPOLis {To his slave). 

Do you lay hold of this. {Offering the spit.) 


Bring me the easel that supports my shield. 


Bring me the biscuit that supports my paunch. 


Fetch out my Gorgon-mounted rounded shield. 


And me, boy, my cheese-mounted rounded cake. 1 125 


Would not this taunt be found by all men bitter ? 


Would not this cake be found by all men sweet ? 



[act i^ 


Pour out the oil- I see upon my shield 
An old man wholl be sued for cowardice. 

[Preterith to see th^ reaction af DicjiopoLiS 
in the aurfuce of the uiL 

Dic.^opoLis {To slave). 
Pour out tlie honey ! 

^Points to Uw cake and burksques Lamachus's ffmtures. 

Here too may he seen 11^ 

An old man bidding Laniachus the son .... 

Of Gorgasus "* to go and hang hiuiseLf 


Come, bring out here my warrior breastplate, boy. 


Take up the Gallon as my breastplate, boy, 


In this ril arm against the enemy, 


In this m ann against the company, "* 1 135 

(124) Th^ real name of LiTnat'hu»*» fiithcr WM Xetit^hanes; he ia liere 
ealleti the son of Gorgasus by ^'HV of a joko upon his Gorg4>ii ihield. This 
Metna TCiy poor inde^l to us* !M?eJiiisc it requires explanation* and, as the 
Fnmtfhman said, no one kugha If it ia net'cas^iy to telJ hi in first why he ought 
to kugh, 

(125) There h &n alJuBtoti here to a bit of Athenian slang. When a tnan was 
tipsy — or, to use the corretpond^ng modem phrafte^ " concerned in liquors,"' he 
wa* aaid *Mo huve his breaf^tplnte on/^ Th<?iie secttiB no iubject on which the 
wit o# 1h& vulgar has been more often employed. The folio vring list of phrases 
le taken fh>iii Ray's PrQverhi^ (p^ ^^ e«J^ 176B0 aU of which denote that a man 
11 drunk. "He is diagvuseiL He has got a piece of bread and chelae in his 
" bead* He has drunk more thrm he has bled. He hti» be^n ia the sun. He 
^* has a JAvt or load. He ha^ got a dish. He has got a cup too much. He in 
" ome and thirty. He ii digged. He has cut his leg. He is afflicted. He is 
** top-he<ivy. The malt is above the water. As drunk as a wheelbarrow. He 
** makes indenture!! with his tefus. He's well to live, lie is about to caAt up 
" hii reckoning or aceouai«. He has made aa example. 1:1 e it L'oneemed. 



Boy, go and tie my bedclothes to the shield. 
ni take my knapsack up and carry it 


Boy, go and tie my dinner to the box. 


Now, boy, take up my shield and walk along. 


I shall take up my coat and walk along. 11 40 


It snows ! Good gracious ! 'Tis a stormy job ! 


Take up the dinner. Tis a merry job ! [Exeunt omnes. 


My fortune attend, as you leave your abodes ! 

You are marching, but oh ! on what different roads ! 

The former to shiver and watch at all hours 1 145 

Protecting a mountainous pass ; 
The latter to drink with a garland of flowers. 

And to sleep with a lovely young lass. 


Antimachus, son of Drop, '*• 1 150 

The scribbler of prose and of songs. 
Will be sent to the devil, I hope ; 

To the devil he surely belongs. 

** He IB aa drunk as DaTid*B sow. He has stolen a manchet out of the brewer^s 
**■ basket He*B raddled. He is verj wearj. He drank till he gave up his 
** halfpenny, t. e. Tomited.'* 

(126) Antimachus was a mean, disreputable fellow, who had a trick of sputter- 
ing in the &cefl of the persons he conversed with, whence he was nicknamed 



[act IV- 

For on Baxxhus*s feast-d&y tlie sinner, 
Though Provider, would give me no dinner* 

I trust I still may see htm leer 
At some fried smells, and that the dish 

May coast the salt-#eUtr and steer 
To him, brimfuU of hissing fish ; 

And as he s going to take them. Tray 

May seize them all and run away ! 




May this be one lesson hes taught ! 

May he meet with a second by night 1 
As he goes, with an ague he*s caught. 

To his home from a Knights' sham-fight, 
May a stout oaken cudgel his crest teaze 
In the hands of the raving Orestes j ^" 

And as he gropes all in the dark 
To find a atone, may Providence 

Send to the hand of this fine spark 
A newly-bom sir-reverence ; 

And with this jewel may his highness 

Both miss his mark.... and hit Cratinus/" 



** Drop." Having once been called upon to diBchiwge the office of Theatrical 
Fmviderf h9 ihAbbilj refused to fiirniali Ihe uauol dinner for the c^om* after the 
piajf was oTer* Tliifl of course exciteo t3ie bUe of the worth j danoets. 

(127) TbU niim ii not to be confounded with the son of Agamemnon, wha 
lived ia the time of the Trojan war, and went mad after having filaln hh 
mother, Clyt^emn^tra, to avenge his father's detith. lliete is, howcTeff an cvj* 
deat allusion to the heroic Orates in the cpitliet "^ raving." The loodeni was 
a notorinui fool-pail at Athenti., and ii mentiane<! m two other p^ffiai^ of oui" 
poet, in one of which he m called a '* hero" for the same reason, 

(12B) See Note m 



Scene I. 

Enter a Messenger hnstily, and knocks at Lamachus*s 


Attendants In the house of Lamachus, 
Go heat, go heat, some water in a pot ! "• 11 75 

Prepare lint, plaister, greasy wool, and splents 
To bind his ancle up ! A stake has wounded 
The man, as he was jumping o er a ditch, 
And with a backward wrench he has squashed his ancle, 
And broke his head by tumbling on a stone, 11 80 

And roused the sleeping Gorgon from his shield. 
And the great Braggart-bladder's feather falling 
Upon the rocks, he uttered dreadful notes — 
** Illustrious object ! How that I have looked 

(129) The whole of this speech is a manifest quiz on the long orations of the 
Messeagen in Grecian Tragedy. 


vii thee for the hist, last time of all ; 

.Oiive this glare of day, I am no more." 11 80 

laviiiftf Slid this, he rises from the ditch, 
Vila lueotiiig with some robber runaways, 
le cha^s them, and routs them with his spear."* 
!Uii here's the man himself. Open the door! 

Scene II. 

Enter Lamaciius wounded^ limping^ and supported by 

Alas ! Alas ! O sorrows great ! 1190 

Mine is a ghastly horrid fate. 
I'm racked to death — O dear ! O dear ! — 
By blow received from hostile spear. 
But this is my chiefest misery, 

For which I weep, for which I sigh — 11 95 

That scoundrel Dic8E^6polis 

Will sec me lame and wounded brought here, 
Vnd in the midst of all his bliss 

VV ill crack his jests upon my torture. 

, V) V 'u»i*io oivuiMition for an Athenian general! An English ArisU^ 
.>^KA ^vHilii i\»|»n'*t*nt the Duke of Wellington as personally engaged in 
., ,..\.v*uS»»m wMMO |»iK-stcA]en during the battle of Waterloo. 


nter DiCiEOPOLls half tipsy , with a lady " nothing loath " 
on each arm, 


Alas ! Alas ! When shall I rest ? 

How hard and downy is this breast ! 

You little golden things, let's try 1200 

And mix soft humid kisses — shall one ? 
Give me a sweet one, dear, for I 

Was the first man that floored his gallon. 

[Kisses the l<idies very lovingly. 


Alas, the miserable state 

In which I am ! Alas, the fate 

That showered these grievous wounds on us ! 1205 


How are you, mighty Lamachus ? 


I'm a poor wretch ! 


I'm a poor wight ! 
[Kisses him with affected commiseration. 


Why do you kiss ? 

[Snaps at him with his teeth. 


Why do you bite ? 


Alas, the club that gave this rub 

With cruel iron talons! 1210 


[act v. 


D ye Jnean to say that any C/^tf6"' 
Dines on the Day of Gallons ? 

O Vmmit Pffian 1 Thee 1 pray I 

The i'tniat of Ptpaii*s not to-day, 

take me by the leg— make hiiste, 
Dearest boys!^ — to ease the Kumrt, 

And tlo you take me by the waist — 
Dearest girls ! — to ease my lieart. 


My head is giddy with tlie blow 

I received ; my thoughts are swimming. 





And to the King"* and Judges^" us. 

The wine-bag, I beseech, sirs ! 1225 

[He receives ity and reJiUs his gallon. 


My aching bones are pierced and split 
By lance as keen as Boreas. 


Look here ! You see Fve emptied it ! 
Hurrah ! I am victorious ! 


Hurrah ! then, if you say that you 
Have beat the enemy hollow. 


Yes ; and I filled with neat wine too, 
And gulped it at a swallow."* 


Hurrah, my hearty ! March, and bring 
Your bag — that prize so glorious. 1230 

(132) The second of the nine officers called Rulen was denominated the 
King, because it was his duty to preside in certain religious ceremonies. In 
olden times the King of a Grecian tribe was also the High-priest, just as the 
King of EngUnd (or the Queen as it may be) is the head of the English Pro- 
leiUnt Church. 

(133) " Ostensibly the judges of the prize of drinking; covertly, I suspect, 
** the judges of the theatrical prize. For undisguised addresses to these arbi- 
'*teT^ see Ciouds.l 1115, Birdt, 1. 1102, Debatrettet, 1. 1154."— 3fr. MitcheU, 

(134) The ancients had a trick, which 1 believe is unfortunately lost in these 
4i^ of innovation, of pouring wine in a continuous stream down their throats, 
without taking separate gulps. Horace calls this a Thracian custom. Athe- 
Bcus mentions a fellow who was nicknamed '* Funnel,** from a practice he had 
<f sticking a funnel in his jaws, and allowing his companions to pour liquor into 
him, as if he had been a cask. 

I 2 



Follow along with me, and sing 
" Hurrah ! He is victorious ! " 


For your sake, then, we will not lag, 
But sing, with shouts uproarious. 
In praise of you and of your bag — 
" Hurrah ! They are victorious ! " 
[The Chorus leaves the Orchestra, and exeunt omnes. 




tiM, *nt in l$U amoMfiBi the txtfiin CLAttici. nn<i mr in 1 930 •» the Pn%tM 

L» $.] The ScboJiaiC re^ds soke i stickily in the pastage from the TtUfhutt 
tcmau^ 6ktnT* ^' A^mtf yap 'EA\<iSi« 
Wadtjf ftubitiiutes oXoimf^, bj an oversigbt, although of course lie inii»t 
hire been avrare that the 2d aor» act. of this verb is not in use ; and, if it 
w^rfr^ cDutd not very well bear a neuter sense* I should myself propose to 
rtfsd JAdit" Sp*' and have translated the line accordingly. 

L. J3,] I hfl¥e preferred making ^(txo* a proper nume^ contrary t^ the 
(»}rioion of BentJey in hh BiMMtrtaikm on (He EphthM of PhaiaHit p. 170 (245). 
hu Because " the calf,*' in familiar Attic Greek, would be t^ t^Ux^t *n«i 
not simply ^^ax^i^ ; just aj, for instance, they would say t^y^x* r^f dpurrtiutf, 
then there was only one priie, not $Tvxtv mpt(rT§iQf¥. 2d]y. Because it is 
ibturd to imagine that in theae modern rimes a cfl{/' would have been offered 
st « prize to a successful musician, whatever might have been the case 
Ibrmerly. We know tliat tht? gmt^ kom which Tragedy is supposed to have 
derived its n£ime, had long ago given place to a more portable recompense ; 
SDd it is hut reasonable to conclude that pipers and harpers were remu- 
sermtcd in the Kirae convenient way* No doubt, some two thousand years 
l»ence, the grammariaQS will discover, that a successful author at Coven t 
Garden was rewarded with a wagon -load of cabbages. 

t*. 68*] Read 4rpvx^^*^a. 8ii KaStrrpltav HtBlrnvt or, with the PxL Seen* 
hfii^6fA€ff0a irapd Ka^rrpuuf TlfBiov. Uapd cannot be used with a genitive, 
utilcH with names of persons* 

t*. 93.] Bead with Bekker, and the Pott. Setn. wariioM rif yw tr V< 

L* Ua] Ri'ad iitv^pdyt with Bekker* The iupAvf orrasor, could scarcely 
W spplied to the wpoutrh^ Instead of being ilitpiffJvns^ it was usually 

7 A xdroi S* dip44*i¥. — P§Qtift§H$i L 21£, 
L ^1.] Insert a comma after a/j^mu-. 



ht. WM>} Hhe Ant interprcE^tioii which the S^^holiost ^ves of the upctt^ 

it Mflfitfeidy incorrect; for lUen tbe wot-d itaTiii^dAcfn-a \s fniirety oCiQae. 
t^ triM nkcftnliig ii contained in the last explanation— KaTa0Aj^fAt» AmA 
M4i«i^ufuf Tttif "^fyipTtfr* The i*rm U nearly eqinvalenl in ito veine to 
^sKwnctf'f u'l «hich Hi^iGe* tLtet-ally ^' to squash out the grattia of a pooie- 
** granate," a* Kwrayryaprt^tiy dor* ** to squeeze out the p^ps of a grape;.** 

L. 3iJS.} Head iis diroKTtv^. «r^Kpax^* ^J^ J^ k* t.. K. *ttn^, or fOlIM 
iuch word| is to be understood hefore dt- So Medea^ 1. 60 9 * &f «<» H^avfAm 
Tmt^4 ff9i Td TrAfWo, where sec the other passageji indicated by Elnuley* 

L. 328^] I much prefer the readings of [he edition of 1825 ; 
iAAd tniv Ttti Kiy\ tt iroi ihittl, r6v rt Aftif*- 
hm^Aoif^v mhoy o tx t^ Tp<jir^ atoJittI ^Iaqv' 
After avT^, the word A»7< ii to be supplied from the preceding clatue. il 
woutJ not be lutBcicnt to tell DiccpopoUs that he was allowed to say '* that 
** the Spartans were agreeable to his ideaa and habits'* (5ti t^ Tp^Jr^ tfcJ^ri 
^lAos) I he re<(uireft permission to say a great deal mare in defence of them ; 
and^ in fact^ " whatever was agreeable to hifl mode of thinking on the sub- 
** ject" {X Tj T^ TpefirY in?^4rrt ipi>siiv). The metre too would icarrely allow of 
a abort syllable being made long in the tniddle of a word — Autre — on aocount 
of the termination of the verse. 

I*. 3i7J I cannot asaent to Elmsley'a interpretation of this line — " I 
•* iktmght I should make you hold your tongues I^-^for four reasoua. 1st. 
When fUxXm is used in this sense, it is alwaysi aa far as I recollect, in the 
first v>enoti£ ai in the Citmdt^ K ISOl, ^tvyta ; l^fAA^i^ a a^ jcinfir«tr l^ef. 
2dly. dnuTf/v means ** to brandish in a threatening manner/* and cannot 
p<»ssibly b« considered e^ui talent to ^vtij/ttl in the Peace^ L SIS* 3dly, In 
familiar Attic Greek ^t would require the article, as we haTe it in the pns- 
aagp Irora the Ptoct. ichly. Overruling these objections, the line makes 
rank nonsense with the context, when translated in this way—** 1 knew I 
*' should make you hold your tongues, 8n<l some Pamesian charcoal wga 
*' almost destroyed**^ which is as if one were to say, " I knew I should 
'* get safe to Lotidon, and 1 was almost upset on the road*" The Greek 
language would require dAAd instead of rt to connect the two Iloesi, if they 
had this meaning. 

Theii»«<rfffu^ appesfi t£» refer to the words |«cff^(f*urrai — ^tii^^ov — ^tyrth 
'—in the priced ing «ong. The lines are pronounced with a sort of bitter irony 
** So then, my fine fellows, you were going all of you," &c, Hermann pro* 
|Hi<es to read 4^* dra^^vrti in the Preface to his (Edipiis Coloneuat p« ^ 
which does not appear to remove the difficulty. 

L.i72.] t have taken Dindorfa reading of a. n. lS2^,ni} loxmrye Kotpir^vt 
4-vyy§tt, for that of the MSS. the PoeU Scm. and Mr Mitchellj av ^nvv ft* 
H.fHtdmvi iTTiryftr. Those words could not very well bear the meatiing which 
\|r. ^Iiichdl gives to them — " Not considering that great lords cannot pm 
' lAp witli m«*" The proper signiJication of the verb Bottm is ** I Bcem ;*' It is 



nl to the Latin *' video?," But in the wme way ai Bixai&f cl^r 
^ Tj ji frequently put for ^tKm6y iffriv ifd wotuv tj^ (v. Matih. Gk* Gr. 
I tM)i m occasionjiJIy, initead of BwtT fnot yiif$ff0ai *i, they say Banw 
Ti. For instance, 

^p<u^.— Watpij I. ItS. 
It i« «m)y m caMe» like these, where SgkS Admits of being reiolvcd into iLf; 
iin|i«n<Mi£il form, that it can be tranilateii " [ think." In the cabc in the text 
It would be expounded by iirtl od w^ltrraTai fi&ij not by iwtl o^ Ivxtt f^i^ in 
the lenie which crausi be given to it| if we rend /if. Hence tlie necessity of 
the eiiiendiition, 
L. 5 Id.] Strike out the comtna after y4i^ with Bekker und the Po$i. Se€H* 
L- 55i,] Insert a comma after oAhmv, otberwjie the whole rhythm of tho 
bne i* ruined* 

L. 610,] Both the intci^rctation of the SchoJinBt Ik ^ for tv % S^tt, and tUo 
emendation of Brunek tv ^ dJ^n, appeair to me bad Greek ; Ibi: poet would 
hive said ^tW, not 1^, to agree with wpttr0flair understood in -itrwpiif&tvKat* 
Elmxley'a reading, which is atso that of the i^v$t* Scen^t w&Mhs &¥ ; ivX^ ia 
mtirely without any authority, aft there ia no such word as ivX it»t'd in&tcad of 
jfrU tb*f originil of the Latin £n* Hoepfner*! conjecture ia icarcely worth 
Doticing — ^ 8 ij I'fTp^rfif vffoj cnJ woXt^t ^w Mru There remains Hermann^s 
iaterpreiaiion, iroAiii ^v rri?; "thou who wilt be hoary ^headed the day after 
■* to-morrow V* Wc oug^ht at dl events to read *Frit or Iftje, which is the form 
of DvAolreiiff , I T9S ; but to put that out of the qucfition, as well as (he harsh 
UK of ^r for i(r<v4fi^t— the sense seems to show that this couM not have 
beoi the author'i meaning, '* Thou who wUt he hoary-headed the day after 
** ea* morrow/' has no force here, miless it can be shown that the Greeks 
rrer u*ed ** the day after " to-morrow *' to tignify " in a short titiie," 

It would be nuh to force my nostrum down the throat of a patient, who 
WatiecD created unsuccessfully by so many and such sktlfu] physicians i but 
if t may be allowed to ofier a conjecture for the consideration of the learned^ 
t would propose to read iv J— with a break in the ienas after the pronoun, 
and interpret ss m tlie translation ; or if any one should prefer It, we may 
suppoK that a line has been lose < nd supply its place in some such way as 
the fotlowtng: — 

^^ wwrpiffBfititas r^ wvAwi wr, ir f 

The smtlarity of the beginnings of the two verse« nay have led the copyist 

Into the errof of omitting the second. 

L 646.] Read OCrwf , < . . ^Ktu with Elmtk-y, 

L 734.] Read rah Xax^mai t9V(t^\ limprmi itt Ktiffmv^ with Ik-kher, 

U 74i.i Read ^m«i^raA[^|fira.^,-And in the neil line ^unm^ttAt^ 4 ^^i* ^itb 




Bekker aod tbe Poei. Sten. The constru^don is wbat ig genendly cslte 
Aeiic; ltiBt^quivaleIlt to ijw Zm ifiifvfw %w^ [f<a ??] AiKiufirffAif-. 

h. 7S0.] Eipungi! ttif! note of interragauon after tU with th« edidn 
of IS25. 

L, 75 S.] Place n (;) after ufa 5l|f» with Bekker. 

L. S79J Notic of iKe old writ«r9 supply uh with th« leait hint u to 1 
Knitnal denoted hy the word mmuTfi \ but from the mernimg of the tenn 
'* a femaJe boxer* ^ — and Erom the eompany the Udy here keeps, it ix not 
improbably a " brock'" or " badger,*' There l»^ I belie ve^ no other Greek 
word for this quadruped^ which U an additional argument in favour of the 

h. 8B0,] Exputige the cotnma after tifriBor, with Brunck, and Dindorf's 
edition of 1&25| so that the two words tWrBoj iv^Zp&t niay mean ** aquabc 
** weasels'" or " otters/* which are still eaten on fasl-davs in Roman Catholic 
countfiee. Nobody, who had ever g<jne throy|fh the dUgusting talk of 
skinning a weasel or a Etont, coutd ever imagine that an animal of that familjj 
would be eaten by any but the inhabitanta of a be&ieged town. 
L. 982.] Insert a comma after ipipti^, 
L. ^S^.] Read with ihe PmL Seen.. 

iAA' OfMiS' 

H&y Tom xt0dp^i ay my rh ^prioif, 
i^iu/io*^4r«u irvK€t(payT<£v y' oiivixeu 
L. 9S80 Two cretic9 are wanting at the beginning of thii anliatrophet u> 
make it csorrespond exactly with the strophe. The Ravenna MS. reads, 
ToL T 4-rl tA Bf2iri^0v S^. I have translated as if the poet had written tBtr* 
oZrt ii% ^pral t* M t3 Suwmv ifM, which woi^d supply the deficiency both in 
the metre and In the aense, aa will be seen at once* 
Sirophe, cfBff tt^ e7B«f £ woura -wSAu roi' <pp6ytfisv avtpfL, tAv uir^»cr«ip<>|r, 

at* fx** ^rwiurd^ims ipLiropiKii jiynjjiiffra BitfiwoK^ i 
AnfittTopht. fISf T oZv, m it^proi t' ^1 t^ JU rfrf^air o^io, jcol fi^yi^m ^ ^p^th | 
ToD j9low iT 4i4$akf Sfi^^a rd^ xd wrf/wi *p^ raiv BvpMf j 
L. ^94.] Read wpofhoSt*^ with Rebke. 

L. 1126,] All the commentators take ttAotvi to mean '* Broad;*' as it tv' 
opposed to yKuKlt, it would he more rational that it should signify " bracklib** 
at *• bitter*'* It ii opposed in the «ame way in Aristotle. Forthia use of the 
wordaee Casaubon on AthenieuB, II. 4, and Wesaelingon Herodotus, II, 108, 
the former of whom ingenioufily conjecturea that it aroie from a fidae interpre- 
tation of the Homeric -wkarvt 'EAAifdnroi^TOf. 

L, 1128.] Put the full atop after TufiAawF instead of xo^^Vi with Elwsley 
and the PoeL Sent. 

L. 1136—11*0.] These verses ought to be arranged according to the beat 
MSS. in the following order, as Bekker exhibits them— 1, 3, 2, 5, 4. I have 
tranalated accordingly- ^M 

L. 1187.] Read with Bekker, (uvoitt^ Bpswirats Ajtirrtus dkav^wy. The^ 
cotistruction is the same as 1. 686. ^i rdxas ^a.ltt trut^wrar arftayyT^Koit toIj 
^ftmrt, the verb fighting for a dative and the participle for an accuaatire, and 
the former getting the best of it. 



TiRST Slave, intended to represent D£m68TH£N£s, theAth^ian 

Second Slave, intended to represeni^iciASy another Athenian 

A Black pudding-Seller,* whose name turns out to be 

A Hide-Seller or Tanner, intended to represent Cleon the 

Athenian Demagoffue. 
Chorus of Ath^ian Knights. 
People, an old fellow who personifies the Athenian People. 

(1) As this worthy has been genemllj called " a sausage-seller,'* it may be 
proper to state why he now makes his appearance in a different profession. 
If the reader will turn to line 208, he will find that the things which he manu- 
fittturea, are said " to drink blood.** Now, since this could not be predicated of 
laasiiges, there seemed a manifest necessity for changing the appellation of the 
dish in which he dealt (See also the Greek note on 1. 198.) As the trans- 
lator once conversed with a young English nobleman, who had never either 
tilted, seen, heard cl, or read of, such an article of food as ** black puddings,** 
it will be as well to mention, that they are made by stuffing a mixture of 
gmti, chopped bacon, hog*s blood, spices, &c into the intestines of a hog, 
whence they are frequently called ** blood puddings** in the West of England. 
Altogether they have veiy much the i^peazance of a corpulent sausage in 



The demagogue Cleon, as has been already mentioned,' 

had been satirized by Aristophanes in the Comedy of the 

Babylonians^ in common with the leading statesmen of tlie 

day, and had revenged himself upon the poet by sunmion- 

ing him before Ae Senate, on a charge of bringing the 

contempt and hatred of the whole Grecian nation upon his 

country. But our author was not a man to be attacked 

with impunity. Before twelve months had elapsed^ we 

llive seen him expressing his determination to cut up his 

Qemy — 

** Into iho^ao]^ for the Knighta,**' 

and exactly one year after that, the play upon which we 
are now about to enter* was brought on the stage — perhaps 
the most daring, the most witty, and the most virulent pieec 
of political writing, that has ever made its appearance 
in the world. 

At the period in question, in consequence of certain 
^Tents to be now narratedj Cleon had risen to a degree 
of importance, both as a statesman and as a soldier, which 
he liimself could scarcely have expected to attain. In the 
Course of some operationsj which had been carried on during 
the previous summer by an Athenian fleet under the orders 
of Demosthenes, a body of Lacedaemonians, many of whom 

( I ) AehArmant^ note 47. 

(2) AtMtninm. I SOI. 



were Spartans of the first families, had been shut up in a 
small island, which lies opposite to Pylus, the modem 
Navarino, on the western coa^^t of Messenia.* But, from 
the mountain o6s and woody character of the ground, there 
occurred a most vexatious and unexpected delay in the 
process of bringing these troops to tenns. At lengthy 
by a lucky accident, nearly all the thickets wMch formed 
the main obstacle to any direct attack, were burnt down ; 
and| to the great delight of the army, the numbers of the 
Lacedsemonians were seen to be far more considerable than 
had been expected. Demosthenes immediately deter- 
mined upon making a descent on the island, hut was 
probably delayed for some time by the want of light troops, 
which were essentially necessary in so hilly a country. At 
this crisis, an Assembly being held at Athens to consider 
the state of affairs, we are told by Thucydides, that Cleon 
made a violent attack upon NJcias, one of the ten generals, 
and sneeringly remarked, " that it would be an easy matte 
" if the generals were men^ to sail to the island, and seize 
" upon the Spartans ; and that he himself, if he had been 
'^ in office, would have done so*** The conclusion of 
dispute had better be related in the words of the 
contemporary historian. 

** On the Atheniims raising a murmur against Cleon 
** not offering to sail himself, if he thought it so easy \ 
** matter, Nicias, feeling the sneering reproaches that had 
'* been thrown out, bade him take whatever force he 
" pleased, as &r as the generals were concerned, and make 

(3) For a fiiU acctniut of lh«we proc^dlng^ see Thirl wall** iiht, \ 
III. 23a — ^244. The Dem<Ssthene!i here montmncd ta\x^t not beconfuiindfi 
with the celehmted ormlOT, who wns not bom ttll marG ihan foitj y^n i 
mu^ Wti rnvfl B spirited mid tuletited gftftiemK mtcl perished in tho Hicdijl 


*• the attempt* To this proposiil CIcon assented at first, 

** thinking that he did not mean what he said ; but after- 

** wards, when it became clear that the offer was made in 

•* earnest, drew back, aiid said that it was not he, but the 

** other, who was general ; for by this time he had got in 

*' a fright, as he never thought that his adversary would 

" yiehi the point to him, Nicias then again bade him 

** mnke the experiment, and vacated his command as far 

** as regarded Pylus, and called the Athenians te lie 

** witiiesses of the act And the more Cleon endeavoured 

** to avoid the voyage, and drew back out of what he had 

^* said, the more did the people, (as usually happens with 

•' tumultuous assemblages,) encourage Nicias to deliver up 

** Ids office, and shout out to the other to put to sea. Thus, 

*' not having any possible means of getting out of what he 

^* had asserted, he undertakes the voyage, and, coming 

*' forward, says that he is not afraid of the Lace- 

*' djaemonlans, and will sail without taking with him any 

*' dtizeus, but merely those Lemnians and Imbrians who 

** happened to be at Athens, and some jEnian targeteersj 

** and 4€0 bowmen of other tribes ; and with this force, 

** in addition to tlie army at Pylus, that he wiU, within 

'* twenty days, either bring the Lacedaemonians alive to 

Athens, or slay them in the island. The Athenians 

eould not help laughing at his absurd vanity ; but still 

the moderate party were pleased with the plan. For 

they reckoned that they were eertaiu of obtaining one of 

two good things— namely, that they should either get rid 

«f Qeon, which they rather expected, or if tliis opinion 

should turn out wrong, that he would master the Lace* 

dbmonians for them* 

** Wien the necessary formalities htid been gone tlu-ough 
in the Assembly, and the Athenians had passed a decree 


*' that Cleon should sail, and he had chosen Demosthenes, 
" one of the generals at Pylus, as his colleague, he put to 
" sea immediately- His motive for selecting this person, was 
** because he had heard that he contemplated the descent 
" on the island ; for the soldiery were distressed by tlie 
" difficulties of the place, and were rather the besieged than 
** the besieging party, and so were inclined to risk a battle^ 
** and moreover the burning of the thickets on the island 
** had strengthened his hands."* 

The second day after the demagogue's arrival at Pylus^ 
a completely successifld attack was made on the Lace- 
dsemonian forces; 29^ prisoners were taken, of whom 1^ 
were of noble birth, aiidj as the historian remarks, ** Cleon*s 
" promise, though that of a madman, came about ; for» as 
** he engaged, he brought the men home within twenty 

I think it is tolerably clear from the facts related in this 
account, leaidng the imputed motives to sliift for them- 
selves, that Cleon's conduct dl through the affair was 
guided by the deepest cunning ; and that, when he entered 
the Assembly^ he had previously made up his mind to pro- 
cure for himself the credit of the great victory, which 
any body, with his means of information^ must have seen 
was about to be so cheaply and easily gained. 

We are expressly told by Thucydides that, at the time of 
the Assembly being held, Cleon was aware of Demosthcnes's 
intention of attacking the island j and he must conseqvientlj 
have been likewise aware, both of the fortunate circum- 

(4) Thticyd. IV. 23,21*. 

{5) Thucyd. IV. 39. There ia g^jod reason for thinking that Thucfdidjct i 
banLshed hiA country through the nmchlnatioits of CltHtti ; and therefore, in ^It 
of hiiDRelf, he must tmve felt a. dlHpOBJtJon to view the thuracter of the dcnut- 
gcgne mther on the unfavnumble wde th.aiv other wiite, 


stance upon which that intention was founded, and of the 
greatly increased probability which it afforded of the at- 
tempt's succeeding, and also of the splendid and unexpected 
prize which would be certain to fall into the hands of the 
victors* Nothing, therefore, appears more likely, than that 
he should have thought of turning the course of events to 
his own advantage^ and coming in for a large share in that 
harvest of glory, which he saw^ was just ripe and ready for 
the sickle. This view of Cleon's character seems quite 
in accordance with what we are told of him in the earlier 
part of this play, (1* 74—76), 

^* But ncmght ctm 'scape the Mogabikin^a notice. 
^ He Inoki to eveiy tiling MmBetf, and pknts 
" One leg at Pylua, t'other in the AssemUy,'* £cc. 

for is it possible to conceive, that a man so utterly devoid of 
^lent, as some writers have chosen to represent him, could 
liave maintained the commanding influence which he did 
a^aongst that intellectual people, the Athenians. In all the 
oases where we have the means of forming a judgment from 
^eir existing remains, the Athenian demagogues may be 
ttkown to have been men, many of them utterly devoid of 
principle, but all possessed of a most superabundant 
«hare of the national aeuteness. That Cleon was a cold- 
bl oodedt heiur tless politi cian, is proved by the bloody 
decree wiijcn he CRfrled 'through in the debate eoneern- 
ing the punisbment of the Mitylenians," That he was 
accessible t4> bribes, we have already seen, on the au- 
thority of Theopompus/ That be wm both a vile pol- 
troon, and entirely devoid of military talent, may Ud leafnt" 
from the concluding scene of his life — the defeat before 
Amphipolis,* That his father was guilty of the atrocious 

m Thiflwall*B //ijt Greece, IH. p, 107. {7) Aehdmiong, Note 4. 

(8) T1iirJ#aira Hut. Greeet, pp. 303, 304, 



crime of keeping a tanner's yard, and that he himself 
early life had had something to do with the business, 
agreed by all authorities on the subject. But that he wi 
a ranting braggadocio, indebted to mere chance for the 
briHiaiit sucoeijii which be met with ou one occasion, and 
guided in political life by notliiiig but the impulse of the 
moment, cannot, I think, be concluded firom any historical 
facts with which we are acquaintct^ His having chosen 
the very kind of troops in the Assembly, which were 
principally needed, and afterwards became of the most es- 
sentjal service, — his fixing a definite period for the accom- 
plishment of Ids undertaking, j^, "f *^^^ m^*"^ f!fln€T*^rcaift 
things possible for any prophet to attempt to do off-hand, — 
and his selecting Demosthenes as his colleague in the com- 
mand, unquestionably the very ablest officer he could 
possibly have named, — all tend to show, that when he 
commenced his attack upon Nician, he had already con- 
cocted the whole of this deep-laid scheme in his mind. 
The affected reluctance which he exhibited, may be very 
well accounted for, from Iiis vrish to strengthen the determina- 
tion of the people by a little opportune coquetting. Had 
he been in too great a hurry to close finally with the pro- 
posal, he might perhaps have been disappointed in tlie 
great object of all his manoeuvring. Thus, by skilfully 
playing with the passions of the midtitude, he managed to 
acquire the glory of an enterprise, which must have ap- 
peared to have entirely baffled the abilities of his coad- 
jutor ; for as it was accomplished as soon as Cleon 
arrived at Pylus, the vulgar, who generally confound tlie 
after with the became^ would naturally conclude, that it 
was on account of his superior abilities, and his indefatigable 
activity, that success attended tlieir arms. 

It would seem, at first sight, that such unparalleled good 




fortune must have so strengthened the <lema|(«gue s pewfTj 
as to render it a most imprudent st^p to attack him. But 
our author thought otherwise. The very point which his 
adversary no doubt considered as his securest stronghold, 
he seized u]K>n by a bold coup-de-maiu^ and converted 
mto a most effective means of itisult and aiuioyance. In- 
stead of avoiding the affair of Pylusj as a subject which waa 
too much to the credit of Cleon to be touched upon, he 
conceived the idea of attributing the whole ^lory of the 
day to Demosthenesj and representing his coadjutor as a 
base interloper, who had unjustly filched away the credit of 
an enterprise both concocted and carried into effect by 
another. The reader will meet with this thought thromi 
into so many different lights in the coiirse of the Comedy, 
that he will perhaps scarcely know which to wonder at most 
— ^the patience of the audience, or the perseverance of the 

The plot may be thus* detailed- People is the Athenian 
John Bull 5 but instead of being, like his British successor, 
a good-tempered, good-natured j jovial farmer, with his 
pocket full of money, and his head full of imiocence, he is 
represented as a crabbed, sour, superstitious, peevish old 
eitisen, feelingly alive to e\ery encroachment ou liis corn- 
Forts, and only to be prevailed upon to forego the indul- 
gence of his iU-humour by ministering to the grossest of 
Ills sensual pleasures* That an Attic audience, nearly 
identical as it then was with the Attic people and the 
«Attic government, should not only have pemjitted such a 
Jiersoniiication of the national character, but liave actually 
^tfwnrded the author of it with the liighest token of its 
fipprobation, which it was in its power to bestow, is the 
Very best answ^er that could possibly have been given to the 
truth of the satire* No other species of government that 




ever existed — whetlier tyranny ^ limited monarchy, or oli-i 
garehy — either could or would have allowed of so uitolerahly 
witty an attack upon its little peculiarities and failinga^^f 
Nor can any tjiing prove more strongly the attachment 
felt by the great mass of the Athenian nation towards their 
Constitution, than the circumstance of their having been 
whle to admit such a Ubel on democracy upon the public 
stage, without the slightest ill effect arising from iu But 
to return. Old father People^ we are told, is entirely un- 
der the dominion of a fawning* flattering, lying, cheating 
slave of his, who, as many of that miserable class were 
accustomed to do at Athens for the benefit of their master 
exercises a lucrative trade— that of a currier or tamier* 
is observable, altliough the poet evidently means to per^ 
sonify Cleon under the character of this low WTetch^ yc 
that Cleon's name is only met with once in the whole Comedy? 
and that in a song of the Chorus (!• 976), which, accordi ng 
to the rules of the Greek drama, might just as well hav^H 
been inserted in any other play. His father Clesenetus 
is also once mentioned by name^ in order to point an 
attack at his son ; but that too occurs in another chorus 
(1, 574)j to which the same remark vrill apply. The obvioi^f 
explanation of this, is that the poet was more afraid of the 
demagogue than of the demagogue's master ; and w^e sliall 
find from a circumstance which comes out in the course of 
the play (L ^1), that his fears were participated by th^^ 
theatrical artists* None of the persons who supplied the 
portrait-masks, wliich were always worn by real characters, 
dared to imitate the features of Cleon; and it is re- 
corded that Aristophanes himself was compelled to tak^f 
the part with his face smeared with vermilion or wine-lee^^ 
The first scene introduces to our notice two other slaves o£ 
People's, the former of whom is manifestly meant fi 



Demosthenes," and the latter probably for Nicias/* both no 
dcmbt wearing masks which were true and faitliM portraits* 
^hia worthy pair, tired of the excesses of their brother 
ti% the tanner, determme to steal some treastired 
omcles of his. Having examined these, they find it pre- 
dicted, that the Hide-Sejjjiil is to be supplanted at 
lengths ill the Sections of People, by a still greater 
blackguard, a certain Blackpubding- Seller; when, 
of course, a gentleman of tliis respectable profession, 
whose name afterwards turns out to be Agoracbitus,'* is 
immediately introduced upon the stage, and as immediately 
recognised by the two conspirators as the individual fore- 
told in the prophecy. The greatar part of the rest of tlie 
play is* occupied in a ludicrous contest l>etween the dealer 
in leather and the dealer in puddings, each striving to con- 
quer the other by proving himself the most unprincipled 
rascal and the most fawning sycophant- The tanner at 
length yields, nearly at the end of the fourth act, — the black- 
pudding-man is installed in the office of chief coniidant and 
favourite of People, — and, as usualj we are presented with 
ft icene or two to develop the happy effects of the Mnmie- 
tii#fil of the plot. 

The Chorus of this play is composed of a body of the 
ICnights of Athens; but as they merely take a subordinate 
part, it was not thought necessarj^ to mention them before. 
The cla^lcal student need not be told that the Athe- 
nians were divided by Solon into four claisses, according to 
their property. The first consisted of those whose land 

(9) Who coramBtided the force* at Pylna. 8ee ahmfo, 

(IW) Who periBhed in the commiuid of tlic Sicilian exp»ditioti, mA involved 
Ihc peat gencnil DemdMhcnes in his (ote, entirolj ihrough his own viictllrtiittM 
«ftd jmulc behoTriour* 

(II) A Hetitjoti*) uppoUation like DicAjSi'OLiSf iignifying " ii seeker of MiiU 
^ in the njarketpLace,** See L m?- 



brought them iii a net yetuly income of 500 bushels ^* of 
dry or liquid produce. The second, of those whose yearly 
income was 300 bushels ; which last were called Kjiigbts, 
or horsemen, because they were considered able to keep a 
horse for the defence of the state. The third class, as 
Boeekh has well shown, was composed of men whose 
revenue was only 150 bushels, and not £00, as had been gene- 
rally supposed ; and the fourth, of the remaining multi- 
tude,*^ In more recent times, when the custom of paying 
the soldiery was introduced, such of the Knights as were 
eaUed out by the state, received a regular yearly salary." 
They formed a very wealthy and respectable l>ody at Athens^ 
and, as we shall read below (1, ^25), were about a thousand 
xji number. Like the gentry in most countries, their poli- 
tical principles tended rather towards oligarchy than demo- 
cracy, and they are therefore appropriately introduced as 
the assistants of Cleon's antagonist. 

This Comedy was represented in the name of the poet 
himself (see I 512 — 519) February, b-c, 434, and is re- 
corded to have obtained the first prize, Cratinus and 
Aristomenes severally gaining the second and third. 

tI2) The Greek bushel is generally reekonetl greater thim the Ejigbih oite bj 
1.9S112, or very atFarly two, imperiai quarta ■ but Boeekh, following IdtOer, baa 
made the excoBs as large as IviWJO, or not quite Ui, imperiai ijuarts. (/*«A/, 
£w». AtheHi, L p. 135,) The old drjr meaatur, or Wincheater, btmhebii pecJci, 
&4i., are rechictxl to imperial hualiela, pe«ka, ht. by tnultiplytng bj .S69447. S^e 
Maccullocb'n /Kr^Mw«<ry nf Commerce^ art Bttsnu.* 

(13) Sec Thiflwairs Hiu, Gftem, 11. pp. 37— Sfl. Boeckh^i J»i»4/. Bctm, 
^fAwu. 11. p. 251L-^2. 

(14) BoeckU'i PubL £cm. Athem, h p. 334-.437. 



Scene L Athens. 

[^The great do&r in the centre represents the dwelling of Peoplb, and one 
of the side-doors that of the Blackpuddino-Seller, and the movable 
scenes may be considered to give an idea of part of the town,"] 

Enter Demosthenes and Nicias from the house of People. 


Alas for our misfortunes ! Oh, oh, oh ! 
The devil take that newly-purchased plague, 
The Magabasan,' and his schemings too ! 

(1) Migaba was a mountain in Paphlagdnia, where the Gauli were defeated 
forthe second time by the ConBolMinliuB. (SeeLtoy, XXXVIIL 19.) The 
Ath^iani, it is well known, obtained a great part of their slaves from the bar- 
barians on this side of Asia, through the Grecian colonies on the Black Sea. 
But whether Aiistdphanes means to insinuate, that Cleon actually had a little 
more Pkphlagdnian blood in his veins, than was either safe or agreeable in the 
then state of affairs, or whether he alludes to the magging and haranguing 
disposition of the supposed Magabdan, the Greek annotators have not settled 
amongst themselves. Perhaps the latter idea will be found most consistent 
with the fecta. If our author hy any possibility could have picked a hole in 
the demagogue^ genealogical tree, we may depend on it he would never have 
represented both Nicias and Demdsthenes as of equally servile condition with 
the object of his bitter satire. 


For ever since the rogue came to our house. 

He has been getting us poor servants flogged. 5 


The devil take him and his slanders first. 
And then the other Magabsbans also ! 


Poor wretch, how are you ? 


Badly off, like you. 


Come here, and we will tune our pipes, and weep 
In concert in Olympus's' sad strains. 


My, my ! My, m^^ ! My, my ! My, my ! My, my ! 10 


What is the use of whining ? Why not seek 
Some means of safety, and leave off these tears ? 


What can we do ? Just tell me. 


No, do you 
Tell mey for fear we quarrel. 


But I won't. 

(2) Oiympiu was a very ancient pipe-player, who was reported to have beeo 
a pupil of the Satyr Mdrsyas. AlcibiadeB says, in the Drinking-fMrty of Plato, 
that his compositions were of so divine a nature, that whether performed by a 
skilful male, or an unskilful female, they would point out those who were* 
worthy of being admitted to the Holy Mysteries. 


By Phoebus ; so do you speak boldly out. 

And afterwards jTII give you my opinion. 15 


** Would you could say the thing that I must say ! "* 


But I've no " Gee up" in me. Would that I 
Could say it neatly, like Euripides ! 


Don't, don't, oh don't be-watercress my ears ! * 
Invent some country-dance to dance away 
From this sad country ! 


Then do you say " Sert," 20 

Pronouncing it as I do. 


Well, then, " Sert" 


Now add a " de" at the " Sert's" crupper. 


« Sert-de." 


Well done ! And now, like a well-ridden racer. 
Go gently first, and then repeat the " Sert-de" 
Like lightning. 

(3) This is a line ftftm the HippSlpHu of Eurfpidee. It oocun where 
Phadre is going to confees to her nurse her incestuous passion for her son, 

(4) The fiMt of Eurfpides*8 mother having sold waieKtemn has been before 
obsenred.— 43ee Aohdrmans, Note 55. 



Sert-de, sert-de, sert, desert ! S5 


Was it not pleasant ? 


Yes, by Jove, it was ; 
But my hide tingles at your simile. 




Because racers are most soundly flogged. 


Then the best thing that we can do at present, 30 

Is to go supplicate at some god*s shrine. 


Pooh ! Shrine indeed ! D'ye mean to say you really 
Believe in gods ? 


I do. 


What are your reasons ? 


Tm hated by the gods. Have I not cause ? 


'Tis a good proof. 


Let's try some other plan. 35 


Shall I inform the audience of the matter ? 






That's no bad thought* But let ua beg of them 
One single boon — to let ua actors know it, 
If they should like the verses and the plot* 

I will begin then, — We two slaves have got 
-A violent, bean-eating,* touchy master, 
One Father People, of St. Pnyx^s parish," 

_A crosa old man, and somewhat hard of heari ng, 

<I>n the 1st instant,^ this good gentleman 

^^^urchased a slave, a Magabaean currier ; 

^And a most cunning, slanderous rogue he is. 

''^^lien this liide-Magaboean had found out 

TTlie old man's ways, lie cringed before his master, 
^And fawned, and soothed, and flattered, and cajoled him 
"^ith refuse leather-cuttings, saying to him — 
** Good People, when yon ve tried one cause,* go bathe, 50 
* * Stuff, swill, eat, take your siacpence ! Shall I give you 



he methi>d of bollotiag for tbow ofRaen who were elected b^ lot at 
^ («ee AcMmiam, Not& fl3,) whji with beans, a» ia frequently done in 
J tuodem time«. The Senate waa called ^' the Betiuli? choaen hy the Itean,*' 
I it WBA necessary to diatingiuHh it from " the Seaatti of the Hill of Mars," 
BeiLce the alJuaion in the texL 

(C) The Pnjx was the Mmmi {iiajcG of iwscmbly for the dtixenft. (See 
Achdrnim%s, Note 7.) The idea in the mme as if oi^e were to saj that Uio 
Eu^Jiiih Hoii»e of Commons belonged to Si Stephen's pariah. 

(7) On the firat day of eveiy month it was uBual to hold a ewirt of fair for the 
•ile of pljivea, heaslj of burden, &c. — See Waj/pM^ 1. 172- 

{H) The membere of a jury #oro of coura* only paid when they enti*r«d the 
court in this moming, and not at the l>f^nning of every fresh action ; to thai it 
«i» iiianife«tly their interest lo he tlinmiflsed by the preiiding officer ai bcmmi aa 
they had disponed of h t^n^le cuubv. The fee of each juryman, as hziA be«n 
Iwfore hoIicimI, wast uixpeni'L', 



[act f -* 

" Yotur supper ? " Then lie snatches up a disk 

That one of us has taken pains to dress. 

And makes a prei^ent of it to his master. 

'Twas but the other day, when I had kneaded 

A Spartan cake at Pylns, that the knare 55^ 

Snatched it away by some mean cheating trick, 

And offered it himself^ though / had made it." 

If we attempt to wait upon our master^ 

He drives us off, and will not let us do it ; 

And standing near him with a bunch of . - . , leathers 

All dinner-time, he flaps away the Speakers, 60 

And he sings prophecies, till the old man 

GrTows superstitious ; and whene'er he sees 

That he has got him in a spoony humour. 

He has demised this trick — he charges us 

With crimes most grossly false, and then we're flogged ; 

On which he runs about to aU the slaves, 65 

And asksj and fi-ightens, and takes presents, saying — 

** Do not you see that I got Hylas scourged?" 

'* Unless you gain my potent patronage, 

" 111 play the deuce with you this very day." 

And so we give him bribes; for if we don t, 

We're sure to get from the old man directly 

Eight times as many kicks upon the rump. — TO 

(9) TMt tfl the firet» but certainly by no mean* tho last^ alluaion to tho nffiiir 
at Pylus, mentiotied in the ItitrtHJuction. We ahiiU Bnd the subject hunt«d 
moat unmemfully to death hereBftei. 

(to) HyLas> like Xanthifs^, S^ias^ Manea, &c., waa a common slave's name 
at Alhent, and correfljKmdcd to the Cato, Agamemnon, Juba, Pompej, &c. of 
out Tmasathmti^ brethren. 


Now, therefore, let's be quick and think, my boy. 
What road we two must travel, and to whom. 


We'd better go by " Sert-Steeet,'' " my good sir. 


But nought can 'scape the Magabsean's notice. 

He looks to every thing himself, and plants 75 

One leg at Pylus, t'other in the Assembly ; 

And when he's straddled such a stride as this. 

His breech is actually in Chaonia, 

His hands . • . • at Askham, and his mind .... at Stcalwell. 


Then we'd best kill ourselves. Just think a bit, 80 

What 's the most manly way to kill ourselves. 


Let's see, what's the most manly way to do it ? 


Why we had better drink some bullock's blood ;" 
We ought to choose Themistocles's death." 

(11) See above, 1.21— 26. 

(12) There is a fragment of S<5phocle8 quoted in the Greek note— 

" 'Tis best for me to drink the blood of bull ; 
" And be no more calumniated thus." 

(13) This great politician, after being sent into honourable banishment, on 
suspicion of being concerned in the treason of Paus^nias, took refuge in the 
court of the king of Persia, where he attained to great power and influence, 
" and,*^ sajB Thuc^dides, *^ died a natural death ; though some assert that he 
** poisoned himself, because he felt unable to perform his promises to the 
** monarch.** (See Thirlwall's Hist. Greece, II. p. 380—389). We learn from 
Cicero, that the story of his having drank bull's blood was adopted by the 
Greek rhetoricians, for the sake of its drarmUic effect. There is a tale in IlenS- 
dotus, of Psammenftus, the king of Egypt, having been put to death in the 



[act I. 


No, but well drink neat wine and toast Good Luck. S5 
Perhaps we may contrive some usefiil scheme, 


Neat wine? What stuff! — Still your proposal is 
Concerning drink, and so far we agree — 
But how can tipsy men plan useful schemes? 


Are you in earnest ? Conduit-pipkin -fool ! 

D'ye dare to say wine does not whet our wits ? 

Can ye find aught more business-like than wine t 

Lookee, when men are drinking, tlien they're rich, 

They gain their ends, they get the best of trials, 

They*re happy, and they benefit their friends.'* 

Let some one bring out quick a gallon o' wine, ^^-^^ 

That I may soak my soul and say good things. 


Where will your kind of tipple hurry us ! 


Fortune. So fetch it out ; and Til lie down. 
If I get tipsy, I shall cover every thing 
Around me with small schemes and plans and thoughts, lOtJ 
[Exit NiciAs, and re-enter with a gallon of wine utdu 

wame way by order of Cambfttea. The Tmnslator b&a been in formed hy a 
medicid man, of whom he aoked tbc qu««tlon, thitt a draught of buD a blood 
would be nn more likeJy to tauso death than &o much beef- ten, 

(14) Most readers will lecollecl tKe Blorv in the Spectator of the jodd 
Lord Mayor of Londoti* who dni^t}^ bick Charle* I L bj force to r&aew bit 
devoliona at the abrine of the Civic Bgcicbui, e3CC!kIminff> " Tb«^ man that ia 
*^ drunk t« ai great as a ktngt" 



How lucky that I was not caught out stealing 
The wine ! 


Pray what's the Magabsean doing ? 


TTie spiteful rogue's been licking confiscated 
I^ea-soup, and having drank till he got tipsy 
Is snoring, beUy upwards, on his hides. 


OI!ome, froth me out a lot of unmixed wine 105 

TTo drink a toast. 


Take it, and toast Good Luck. 

[Gives him a draught. 
Swig, swig the cup up ... to the Pranmian god ! " 

(15) Pramnian wine wu of a hanb, austere nature, and not agreeable to the 
S«nere] taste of the Ath^iians. 

" For the Athenian people neither love 

** Harsh crabbed bards, nor crabbed Pramnian wines, 

" Which pinch the &oe up and the belly too ; 

" But mild, iweet-smelling, nectar-dropping cupt." 

ArutSphaneM, qnoted in Atktninu I. p. SO. 
^n Homei's days, on the contraiy, it seems to have been hif^j approved of. 
^t is with some curious negus brewed of it that Nestor entertains the disabled 
-oschion, who being a physician, ought to have known better than to drink it 
'^th a green wound in his right shoulder. 

" Straightway the woman divine, 

" Who upon these warriors waited, 
" Mingled some Pramnian wine, 

" And with brasen chcMegrater grated 
" Cheese of the goat on the top, 

'f And sprinliled the meal of the barley ; 
" Then presented the eup, 

'* And bade them to drink and to parley.**— //totf XI. 1. 6S7— 340. 

There leems some personal allusion in the text of our author, which has been 



Bravo, Good Luck ! The scheme is yours, not mine. 


What is it ? Tell me, pray. 


Go in and steal 
The Magabaean's prophecies directly, 1 10 

While he's asleep. 


I will ; but I'm afraid 
The Luck that / shall have will be unlucky. [Exit Ntcias. 


Now I'll apply the gallon to my mouth. 

That I may soak my soul and say good things. 

[He drinks out of the gallon. Re-enter Nicias tcitk 
some scrolls. 


How loud the Magabsban snores and belches ! 115 

T got the sacred prophecy, of which 

He takes such care, without his knowing it. 


How clever ! let me read it ! and make haste 

And pour me out a draught. — Let's see what's in it. 

O oracles ! Give, give me quick the cup ! 120 

missed bjrthe commentators. Perhaps Demdsthencs was remarkable for his 
rough unpolished manners, and the description of wine selected for him by 
Nicias, is intended as a good-humoured hit at this peculiarity. 




Here ! (yives him a draught) But what says the sacred 
prophecy ! 


Quick, pour me out another. 


Do the oracles 
Contain the words " Quick, pour me out another ?" 

[Gives him another draught, 


O Bacis!" 

(16) Bacis was a celebrated BcetStian soothsayer, whose oracles were- in great 
repute all over Greece. If we may judge from some specimens we have of them 
in Herddotus, they seem to have been so correct in their predictions, and so re- 
maikably circumstantial withal, that they must certainly have been made after 
the events, like all the best prophecies in the pro^e historians. The follow- 
ing is his description of the victory of Sdlamis, where we shall see the sack of 
Athens and the localities of the engagement accurately defined, ^ Diibia^s shore^ 
representing Mun^chium, where there was a temple of that goddess, and 
** CynosOra,*" being the eastern promontory of S^lamis. (See ThirlwaU*s Hi^. 
Grteoe, II. p. 305.) 

" When with their ships they shall bridge 

" The goldes-fiakhioned Di&na's 
" Hallowed shore, and the ridge 

*' Cynostirian, and hurry their banners 
" Forward to ravage and sack 

" Fair Athens with mad expectation ; 
** Justice divine shall check 

*' Pride, Wantonness' stalwart creation; 
" Bent though he be to advance, 

" And throw the world in commotion. 
** Lance shall mingle with lance, 

" And gore shall empurple the oeean. 
" Tlten does the broad-browed Jove, 

" And Victory, queen of the nations, 
" Crown with the freedom they love 

" The magnanimous tribes of the Grecians." 

H«K$dotus here takes occasion to observe, that he would neither himself dare to 
eontndlct so clear-spoken a prophet, nor aUow anff bodp else todoeo; so it will 
«ly be flafe to say ai\y thing further on the subject 




What's the matter? 


Quick ! the cup ! 


Bacis, it seems, employed the cup right often ! 

[Gives him another draught. 


So it was this, you Magahs6an rogue, 125 

You have been trying to prevent this long while, 
Dreading the prophecy about yourself! 


What ? 


Here *tis written that he is to fall. 


And how ? 


The prophecy declares expressly, 
That first of all arises a hemp-seUer," 
Wholl be the first to hold the government. 130 


Well, there's one seller. {Counting on his fingers.) What 
comes next ? Go on. 


Tlien after him arises a sheep-seller." 

(17) The Greek commentator tells us that the name of this worth j trades- 
man was Eilicrates. See Note 29. 
K\H) L^cles is the dealer in sheep here alluded to. He is said to have 



Here are two sellers ; what becomes of this one ? 


He rules until there rises up a blackguard 

Still dirtier than he, and then he £sdls ; 135 

And there succeeds a thievish, loud hide-seller, 

The Magabsean with the torrent's voice. 


Must the sheep-seller, then, fall by the hands 
Of a hide-seller ? 


Yes, by Jove. 


Consume it. 
Where can one single seller more arise from? 140 


There's still one more, with a most wondrous trade. 


Who is he ? Pray, pray tell me ! 






The man who'll ruin the hide-seller is — 
A blackpudding-se^ler. 

nuxied Asptfsia after the death of Pericles, and was probably the perBon killed 
m the coiuie of a desoent on the coast of Coria three jean before this period. 
Tkm, UI. 19. 




A blackpudding-seller ? 
O Neptune, what a trade ! Where shall we find him? 145 


Let us go look for him. 


But here he comes 
To market, just as if some god had sent him. 


Thrice best blackpudding-seller, come up here ; 
Thou dearest friend, who hast appeared to save 
The city and us two. 

Scene II. The Same. 

Enter the Blackpudding-man from below^ with a stand 
suspended round hu neck^ on which are laid sundry 
knives, tripes, sausages, hlackpuddlngs, 8fc. 


Why, what's the matter ? 
Why do you call me ? 


Come, and you shall learn 150 
How happy and how fortunate you are. 


Take off his stand, and then inform the man 
Of what is said in the god's prophecy ; 
And I'll go look out for the Magabsean. 

[Exit NiciAS. 



Come, first put down your goods upon the ground ; 155 
Then make thanksgiving to the earth and gods. 

[Takes off his stand. The Blackpuddino-man per- 
forms his devotions. 

WeU! What's the matter? 

DEMOSTHENES {with tragic pomp). 

Blest and wealthy man, 
*' Who now art nobody, but by to-morrow 
" Wilt be most great ! Thou Chief of Athens blest ! ** " 


Good sir, why don't you let me wash my tripes, 160 

And vend my puddings ? You are hoaxing me ! 


Pooh ! Tripes indeed, you fool ! Just look this way. 
IX) you perceive these rows of people ? 

[Pointing to the audience. 




Of all of these you will be autocrat, 

-^nd of the market-place, and of the ports, 

And of the Pnyx.** You'll trample on the Senate, 165 

Snap generals in two, put men in chains. 

Send them to jail, make the Town-hall your brothel** — 

(19) These are clearljr lines from some tnigedj or other. 

(00) See Aehdrmam, Note 7. 

(21) Piefious demagogues had only been able to make the Town-hall their 



What I? 


Yes, you ; nor do you yet see all ; 
Mount up upon this stand, and look around ye 
At all the islands. 


I can see them plainly. 170 


Well — can you see the ports and merchantmen ? " 




Surely then you're a most happy man ! — 
But you've not finished yet. Point your right eye 
At Caria, and the other at Chalcedon.*' 


Shall I be happy if I .get a squint ? 175 


No, but of all these lands youll be the .... seller ; 

dining-room; the Blackpudding-man is promiBed a still more exquisite enjoy- 
ment, which is appropriately adapted to the groesness of his nature. See 
Note 34. 

(22) Trading vessels in ancient times were of very considerable magnitude. 
** Not to quote an extraordinary instance," says Boeckh, ** we find in Dem6- 
" sthenes a vessel of this kind, which, besides the caigo, the slaves, and the ship's 
*^ crew, carried three hundred free inhabitants.** Five years before this period, 
the fate of a naval engagement, in which the Athenians were tremendously out- 
numbered, was turned by an Athenian galley dodging round one of these large 
merchantmen, taking the pursuing enemy amidships, and sending her to the 

(23) The first was at the southern, the last at the northern extremity of Asia 


For, as this prophecy declares, you're getting 
A mighty man. 


And how shall I, a mere 
Blackpudding-seller, ever get a man ? 


It is this very thing that makes you mighty ; 180 

You are a rogue, and bold, and from the market. 


I do not think I'm worthy of great power. 


Confound it, what's the reason that you say 
You are not worthy ? You must surely have 
A lurking consciousness of something good ! 
Are you of well-bom parents ? 


No, by heaven! 185 

Fm of low blackguards. 


Happy, lucky fellow ! 
What an advantage for you as a statesman ! 


But, my good sir, I've had no education, 

Save that I've learnt to write, and that, too, badly^ 


The fiw^ that you can even do it badly 

h the sole thing against you ; for the people 190 

Are now no longer led by gentlemen 

Of education and of virtuous manners. 


But by illiterate blackguards. So don't lose 
What the gods give you in the oracles. 


What does the prophecy say ? 


Good things, by heavens ; 195 
And they're expressed in various learned riddles.** 

[Reads from a scroll with solemn pompoutness. 
" Soon as the Eagle of Hides 

" His crooked-lipped jawbones shall wag on 
" Th' innocent speckled sides 

" Of the wiseacre blood-drinking Dragon ; 
" Then, by commandment divine, 

" To hell gains speedy conveyance, 
" All the begarlicked brine 

" Of the spitefully sharp Magabaeans ; 
" And to the venders of tripe 

" The gods ^ve glory and sudden 200 

** Honours, if they are ripe 

" For leaving off selling blackpudding.** 


What's this to do with me ? Just show me that. 


The Magabsean is the " Eagle of Hides." 


Why is he crooked-lipped? 

(24) Thete oracles are purposely worded in the obscure and allegorical style 
generally affected by divers into fiiturity. 

><cfm: II.] Tin: knk.ihs. ir);j 


The prophet means 
That with his crooked hands he steals and plunders. 205 


What does tlie " Dragon " mean ? 


That's very plain. 
A dragon's long, and a blackpudding's long, 
And dragons and blackpuddings both " drink blood." 
Therefore, he says, tlie " Dragon" soon will conquer 
The " Eagle of Hides," unless by words he's cheated. 210 


I like the oracles. What puzzles me. 
Is how I e'er can rule the commonwealth. 


That's very easy. Do as you do now ; 

Mix up and mince together all affairs 

Of state, and always gain the people to you 215 

By sweetening it with little cookish words. 

You have the other requisites for leading — 

A strong harsh voice, low birth, and market-slang. 

In fact, you're an accomplished politician. 

And both the prophecies and the Delphian shrine 

Tally exactly. So put on the garland, 

And drink the health of the Great Wiseacre ;** 

And mind you battle with the man. 


And who 

(25) That is to say, the Blackpudding.—See line 198. 



[act I* 

Will act as my aUj ? The rich men fear hinv 
And he is funked by all the poorer class. 


But there are Knights^ — ^a thousand valorous souls, — 

Who hate the fellow, and will succour you ; 

And aU the gentlemanly eitizansj 

And every clever man amongst the au(ilence» 

And I, and god himself j will bring assistancep 

And do not fear ; his features are not copied^ 

The maakmakers were so afraid of hiiBj 

They would not copy them. But still, no doubt, 

He will be kaown by such a clever audience. 


Curae it, the Magabsean s coming out ! 


Scene III. Hie Sam^. 

Enter Cleon in a violmtt rage from People's /wtue^ 


By the twelve gods, you shall not go unpunished 
For this conspiracy against the people ! 
What do you do witli this Chalcidian cup ? 
You must be tampering with the Chaleidians,** 


(36) The idea b the mme as if Lord Caatlereogh had a^u^ed Mf . Ckmdng 
of a base dedgn of throwing open the trade vith China^ becauHe ht< happened 
to cutch him one day drinking tea t^ut of a china tup. Tlie Chal(:lUiml^ as it 
turned ont, ftctuaUj did rebel about a year after this play wa* perfarmed. 


) induce them to revolt. You brace of rogues, 
I serve you out for this ! I'll do for you ! 
{^The Blackpudding-man attempts to make his exit in a 


Tiy are you running off? Stop here, and don't 240 

3sert the cause, noble blackpudding-seller ! 
O ye Knights, make haste and flee to us ! 

Now's the very time to bring 
Succours. Simon and Pansetius,'' 

Charge the enemy's right wing I — 
They are coming. Turn and %ht him ! 

I can see the dust they raise. 24^5 

Charge him, beat him, chase him, fright liim. 

Till he yields you up the bays. 

Enter the Chorus of Knights with great vehemence. 


Strike the rapscallion, strike that man o' 

Hatred to the Knights' array. 
That exciseman,** that volcano, 

That Charjrbdis of his prey. 

[27) These were, no doubt, two distinguiflhed Knights who had. held com- 
md over the rest : X^nophon, at the beginning of his TreaHse on Horseman- 
ip, mentions a Simon who had likewise written on the same subject, ** and 
lad had a brazen horse erected near the Eleusinian temple at Athens, and 
lis own exploits sculptured on the pedestal" 

[28) Elxcisemen and custom-house officers were as obnoxious in these days 
thejr are now, and always will be, while the nature of man continues the 
Qe. The word is here used as a simple term of reproach for a greedy 


That rapacallion, that rapscallioii ! 

Many times I'll cidl him so ; 
For he was one, and no small one, 

Many times a day, we know. 
Strike him, chase him, teaze him, bait him, 

Turn him to the riglit about ; 
Hate the rogue as we too hate him ; 

Charge him with a fiirious shout. 
[During this ipeech Cleon U mmt unmerci/uUp beaten 
% Demosthenes and the Blacicpodding-mak. 
But take care you leave no mode by which 

He can 'scape you ; for the man 
Knows the ^*in dings of the road by which 

Eucrates fled to the bran." 


Come, oh come to my assistance, 

Old men of the courts of law, 
Banded brothers, whose subsistence 

Is the sixpence that you draw I 
I it is who feed you, bawling 

To defend you^ wrong or right ; 
Yet a txaitorons troop is mauling 

Your protector out of spite. 


(29) This dewly aJiudes to an riffsir of some kind in which E6cratet liad 
been engaged ; but what were the circutnfitaneea, we are entirely ignQnmt. 
Bmntrk eupposea that he firat of all dealt in herap, and afterwards, a& he got on 
in the world, eet up a flonr-mHl FriUache thinks that he had o tended the 
people by some means or other, and, to conciliate their favour^ treated them to 
a donative of ccarse flour, {Diss^L efef Arisi. BahyL p, 39.) The wordi toem 
mther to jmply, that on wme occaaion or other he was put in mieh bodilj fe^^ 
la to be compelled to hide himftelf under a heap of hi* own bran for vaMj. 
We know froto al™ginent of Aristdphanei< that he wa* also **a brati-itellerJ* 



You deserve it ; for you steal the 

Public goods, and gulp them down ; 
And, like figs, you squeeze and feel the 

Men who've lately served the town, 
Trying which is green or mellow, 

Ripe or barely ripe ; and then, 260 

If you find a gaping fellow 

New to all the ways of men, 
From the peaceful joys of wedlock 

Home he's lugged across the sea ; 
Tlien you seize him at a dead lock, 

Put his head in chancery ,*' 
And just wrenching back his shoulder 

With a sudden jerking roll. 
To the surprise of each beholder .... 

Ope your jaws, and bolt him whole." 
And, in fact, you always task all 

Means to find a citizen 

(30) Prize-fighting in the times of Aristdphancs was considered a very gentle- 
manly piuTBuit, as has been before mentioned, and therefore wc continually 
meet with pugilistic metaphors even in serious compositions. All the odes of 
Hndar that we have remaining, were written to celebrate the victories of drivers, 
riders, runners, wrestlers, boxers, and rough-and-tumble gentlemen. If an}' 
unlearned reader should be ignorant of the meaning of ^ putting the head in 
** chanceiy," let him hereby take notice that " chancery" always signifies an 
awkward position, very unpleasant to remain in, and very difficult to get 

(31 ) The literal meaning of all this, is that Cleon got rich, by bringing actions 
against men who had served in some public capacity abroad, and thus devour- 
ing their substance. Many would be glad to compound by paying a sum down 
beforehand, in order to get rid of the threatened prosecution. Doubtless 
such little arrangenient8 as these are peculiar to democracies. 

1.A wealthy. '«»*"°" 

S-„Wre helping ^^--^^^^"^ 
Sirss yo^ account 

Just ^-«-*J^^ i,,.„t«.n 

'^ ""C which .hould--^"- 
Sottte«einoTi»A effect.^^^ 

,,„, VThat a bootlace'. 
Ho^hecnnges^ But 'tis fruitle«« ; 



at fc»«*" 




What ? Do youy who love to ravage 
This your country, dare to shout ? 


First of all, 111 utterly rout you 

With a cry loud and intense ; 275 

Then I'll chase, and tease, and flout you 

With my wordy impudence. 


If by cries alone you fell him, 

Then the victory is thine ; 
If by impudence you quell him, 

Then the prize is partly mine." 


m inform against the sallies 

That you make, to carry forth 
For the Peloponnesian galleys 

Contraband supplies of . . . . broth. 


Aye, and I'll inform — to crown all — 

Of the many times you've cut 280 

Empty-bellied to the Town-hall, 

And come back with loaded gut.** 

33) Because it was I who inspired you with it by my exhortations ; whereas 
ir loud harsh voice is the gift of nature, and entirely your own. 

34) Those who were considered to have done the state great service, had the 
ril^ge of dining in the Town-hall free of expense, along with the Committee- 
n. Cleon had obtained this right His smuggling food from the table is 
nmne a mere joke, and intended as a parody upon the demagogue's own 



[act I-J 


Yes, by Jove^ and bearing out of it 

Contraband bread, meat, tmd^shf 
Though e*en PericleSj no doubt of it. 

Never got so dear a dish, 

CLEO*i {bawling). 
I will grind yon all to powder ! 


I will bellow three times louder \ ^SS^ 


1 will bawl till I out bawl ye \ 


1 will squall till I outsquall ye ! 


1 will slander you when General ! 


I will hack you like a peimy'roUl 


! will fib till I outflank ye! il^\} 

^CKNi: III.] I'llK KMC:iITS. IGl 


Tm a thief, and 1 avow it ; 
You're a thief, but won't allow it. 


Aye, and swear I am not cribbing, 
Though they see't, and know I'm fibbing. 


Then, I find, the simple fact is, 
You but copy my wise practice. — 
I inform of you, you bear, for 

Having got in your abodes 300 

Certain imtithed.... tripes, which, therefore. 

Fall a forfeit to the gods." 


Rascal ! Blackguard ! Bawling knave ! 

Every shore the billows lave, 305 

(35) Speaking of the payment of tithea, Boeckh says, '* Obligstions of thif 
** nature arofle in great measure from the piety of individuals who dedicated 
** their property to the gods, and thus gave up the right of possession, retaining 
** at the same time the use of it for themselves in consideration of a fixed pay- 
^ ment The temples may also on certain occasions have received the right of 
** tithes by conquest Thus the Greeks promised, that after the fortunate 
** termination of the Persian war, aU states who had afforded any protection to 
** the enemy, should pay a tithe to the Delphian Apdllo ; that is to say, that 
** they would make their lands subject to a tribute. At Athens, moreover, 
** Mindr?a of the Parthenon received the tithe of the plunder, and of captures, 
** and also of certain fines ; while others were paid to the temples without any 
** deduction, together with the tithe either of all or of a laige proportion of con- 
** fiacated property." — Publ. Eecn. Athens^ II. p. 43. It was a common Grecian 
poctioe to offer up the tenth part of the spoil to the gods, after a successful 
engagement Xdnophoii mentions that this was done by the ten thousand 
alter their return from their arduous expedition, and by AgesUius after his two 
brilliant campcugns in Asia. Of course, the idea of tithing tripes is as absurd 
at the story of the boy, who was sent to the tax-gatherer*8 on April fool's day, to 
pay duty fbr his elbows, a<s armoria/ bearinga. 




[act f- 

Every Assembly that we hold. 
Every custom-house that's enrolled. 
Every justiee's offieej and 
Every law-court in the land, 
Has been seen and felt to be 
Full of thy audacity ; 
O thou stirrer up of mud 
In the limpid fishy flood! 
Thou disturber of this whole 
Tranquil state ! Thou restless soul, 
Who hast deafened us by the clang 
Of the noisy loud haranipie, 
Watching for the tribute-monies 

From the Hustings* marble block, 
As the fisher watches tunnies 

From the lofty beetling rock.** 


I know where you got the new soles 
To repair this plot so neat 1 " 


Yes, Myou know nought of shoe-soles, 
/ know nought of sausage-meat ! 



(36) The Bonie pfB4^ico prevails ti> the ptenent day in the MeditertaneaJi. 
AitificLal reflerroir^ are coiratructed, and the entrance of the tunnjrjfiah into them 
m o^ertoined by Rcouta, who are placed either on thi& difb, or, mh^f^ tbet«i« no 
convenience of that kind, on high wooden pillars. 

(37) Glenn here t&lka muicfa in tho vein of Jack Cade> followers; w« iliilt 
have plenty more of these mechanic*' mctaphon in the course of the pby* 

" Ov>ii«i BsvtH.^1 tuU thee, Jack CTade^ the clothier, meam to dfesBlhecoBi- 
" inonwefiltht and turn ti, and set a new nnp upon \U Jotf^ HolLand.^^ h» 
** had need, for'tia thfe^dbare."— Shakspeare, Seemi Pari afffenry P^i, Art 
IV. Se. % 


You — who loved to cheat a clown with the 

Hide of beast diseased and sick, 
Cutting it obliquely down, with the 

View to make it seem more thick ; 
Then, before he'd worn the leather 

For a day, the sole became 
Half a foot bigger with the weather. 


Yes, and I was served the same. 
And got laughed at pretty fisdrish 

By my neighbours for a goose ; 320 

For before I reached my parish, 

I was swimming in my shoes.** 


From the very first, you shone 

In that impudence which alone 

Is the Orator's fiiend and guide, 325 

And in which you now confide, 

When, as leader, you are sucking 

Ripe and juicy foreigners. 
And poor Hippodimus, looking 

Helpless on, dissolves in tears.** 

(88) Tlieq>hr<stus reckons it amongst the chazacteristics of a clownish, tuI- 
^irMlow, to wear shoes that were too big for the foot Human nature is the 
tune in all ages. 

(89) This person dwelt in the Piirfeua, and had a house there, which he gave 
iqi to the uses of the state. It was he who was employed on the lajing out 
QMit port after the Persian invasion. He was much req>ected bjr the AUi^nians. 
{Gfwek note.—^See Thirlwairs Hist, Greece^ II. p. 867.) Hippodimus being a 



But I am happy to say that a dirtier 

Scamp has appeared than we've seen for this thirty year, 

Who will very shortly grass you, 

And no doubt henceforth surpass you 330 

Both in knavery and extreme 

Brass, and every swindling scheme. — 

O thou, who livest in the school 
Where men — of a certain station 

Are formed, now show us what a fool 
Is modest education.** 


If I rehearsed each crime that he 

Has joined in, you'd be staggered. 335 


Let me alone ! 


I won't ! you see 
That I, too, am a blackguard. 


If this don't make him fly pell-mell, 
Say you are sprung firom blackguards. 

Mil6iian bj birth, the allusion becomes more appropriate; bis age at this 
must have been at least eighty. 

(40) " Sir Wisdom's a fool when he's fou, 

" Sir Knave is a fool in a Session ; 
" He's there but a prentice I trow, 

" But I am a fool by profession." 

Bums, tkt Mtfrf^ndmif* Smi^ 



Let me alone ! 


I won't! 


You shall ! 


I won't ; for now you lack guards. 
Nay, I will even battle first 
For the first word, to firet you. 


Consume the scoundrel, I shall burst ! 340 


Nay, but I will not let you. 


Yes, let him burst ! In pity spare ! 
For god's sake, let me rule you. 


What do you trust to, that you dare 
Reply to me, you fool, you ? 


Because I can address a mob .... 
And make a good Bologna. 


Address indeed ! A pretty job 

You'd make, you tedious droner, 
If you took up a fierce debate 

All raw, and torn, and mangled ! — 345 


A Sojourner, ^J peecl»^tmgH 

Your friends, yo" .he^aytoba*^ 
r i» vou knew *e w J 

^^^^ ._^*«terry, 

rU lock those generals' rumps who fought 
At Pylus to a jeUy» 


And /j when Fve devouredj in shorty 
A cow's-pauneh and pigVbelly, 

And without washing e er a Imnd*^ 
I>rank down tlie broth delicious^ 



(43) It was aJwaya uAuat to wash tbe hands IrefoTf! and after dinner ; the wime 
CUBtom IK etill imhefpml in the LevnntH The reaiioti of course i^ plain. Where 
k»ive^ were seldom^ anj forks never uaed^ and the |^e«t* help«tl themselve* out 
df the diah with tlieir fingers, cleanliness requiretl that each permnr ihould at 
Jcul take off n Little of the loose dirt, before he commenced opemtiontt. This 
llirows light upon the grievous complaint*, that the PhariBecB mude agHin*t the 
peat Author of our religion, fbr eating " with unwashen hiin[|»</' At Al)-Fashd*ft 
tahle Mr. HughcA met with an additional refinement upon the ancient system, 
vhich I »hall relate in hia own wortlit. ** After the lapse of ubout half an hour, 
** the hidy of the house ciut^e forward with a silver pHcher and ewer, and a Sn^ly 
** cmbpoidered napkin thrown over her ftrm. Having advanced to tlie viz It, and 
** made her obeisance, she poured out Wcirm water into the boftin^ with which he 
** waihed hi» haud«, tuniiug up his loose sleeves for this purpose^ and washing 
** half-wnj up to the cHjow. Afler he had finished hk ablution, the wftter wns 
** brDUght lo ti& and the other guests^ * * * • p^^'ext came a roaeted lamb, 
** brought in by aaervant, to which all fingers round the tahle tvcre im mediately 
^ applied, stripping the meat froiu (jff one feide, till the riba were fi*irly exposed 
^ to view. I ought to obj$erve, tbnt. In deference to our customs, knireflsnd forks 
" were placet! befi>re the Engl iBhtneii, which, liowever, they thought proper to 
** d}ipetld« with as much as possible. The lamb wn» followed by a bruce of 
igeft^ which the vizir took up in both hi* handa, and plac^ one upon Mr* 
irker's plate, and the other upon my own, a» a token of extreme condescen- 
Scarcely, however, had they lain there a moment, when they suddenly 
" diiy^ppeafcd like Sane ho Panza*B delicacies, beinp snatched up btf the dirt^ 
^*'jtng€Ts of the bare legged ^ilbdman gnurd^ irAo $tmd art^und ita. Thi^, hoit- 
" rw***, ti*^ done merely to relieve ux/rottt the trmihU of carmng ;/(^ whenikep 
" had puiiedjhem limb from limb, they very carefully and respeeifuUy repinctd 
** them fip&n mtr platet; and in this mnnner was every fowl or duck, or any other 
** species of poultry, served, which the courtesy of the vixiror of the other guests 
** Inducetl them to offer ns/' Tra^eU in Greece^ &c, II, p< 5L Fork* are said 
In have been mtrodticed into England only about two centuTics, Before that 
period, the wisdom of our ancestors tawght them to make useof their fingers^ like 
the Onentnl nations at the present day^ It is «tiU customary at some coUeges 
to place a silver bfl;8>in ami ewer on the table at the conclusion t>f dinner, al though 
the prcigrew of refiuement ha» done away with the necea&ity of there being any 
wjitef serired up in them. 


I like your doctrines eveiy jot. 
Except one trifling tittle — 

Your swigjs^ng all tlie brath, and not 
Allowing me a little. 


You cannot make Miletus vvhiiie, 
After a meal of sabnon 1 ** 


But I can hire a silver-mine, 
After Fve eat a gammon ! 


1*11 fright the Senate with a speech ; 
Aye, and I'll force my passage 1 


But I will sei^e upon your breech. 
And stuif it like a sausage ! 

(44) The Nicias bera meant ia the wame who appeared in Itie earlier put i 
the plaj, Ab he wna ora very thmd, undecided temper, the Blackpudding-miJi 
IhTcatenB that he will put him in a fright bj way of a joke. The Speakefa, hoii^ 
fiver, who are hii enemie*, do not escape so easiiy ; far their throttti nre to b<f 

(45) This fiili.^ as we are told in a fragment of Ihe Epicunlan ga«lfo&omiiit 
and pod, ATch^mtus, f quoted in Athen^m^ VI L p. 311,} w&* met with paf- 
ticulivrly fine iiear Mi^^tujt, " No otKeta," he saj*, '* have such Bavqury and 
^ piquant fat nhout the belly/' The Miltnifln* were aubject Co Aihena ^nd there- 
fore C^eon threatens to get them into a a<:rape with their nmsterB, after lie has 
devoured their dainties^-a most ungrateful return for a good dinner 1 It wuuld 
appear front the reply of theBlaekpydding-man, thatf^ammons formed the usual 
food of the miuen^ of rk[ount Laurium. The old Bhafld on thh tuouatain areitill 
to be seen in great numberfi, Rnd the heaps ofacorifCf whence the Athlniaiis ^h- 
Uined their til v»;r» liealwut in every direction. 



But I will drag you out of doors, 

Head downwards, by the crupper. 365 


The man that breakfasts on such stores, 
Must first eat me for supper. 


I'll put you in the stocks for this ! 


I'll sue you, wretch, for cowardice ! ** 


I'll stretch your hide upon the jack ! 


I'll flay you for a filching-sack ! 370 


Ill nail you down upon the ground ! 


I'll make a hash of you, you hound ! 


I'll pluck your eyelashes all out ! 


I'll carve the weasand from your throat! 


And we'll observe pork-butcher's laws, 375 

And pop a skewer in his jaws ; 

1^) A common kind of action at Athens. See AchdrrUans^ Note 82. 

1 70 THE KNIGHTS, [aCT 1 

Thenp while his mouth is gaping wide. 

Pull out his tongue, and easily 
Exaiiiiue and explore inside 38 

If his black heaxt is meaisly. 


Then— as it appears — weVe got 
Sometliiiig that is stiU more hot 
E'en than fire, which men suppose 
Is the hottest thing that glows ; 
And moreover time has sent 
Something still more impudent. 
Than the impudent, shameless; slang 
Of the popular harangue. 
Thus the affair becomes pos^e^^sed 
Of no trifliug interest 
So attack and twist him about I 
Leave no hold manoeuvre out ! 

&cmB nu] 



Aye, and now the very shocks and 

Sheaves the rogue has stolen, he*9 
Tied to dry upon - • . . the stocks^ and 

Want5 to sell them at bis ea»e,*^ 


/ am not afi^aid of ffoWj by 

Phoebus, while tlie Senate-house 395 

Lives, and People plays the booby. 

Sitting there tor me to chouse. 

[PQlnUng to People's Iwuse^ 


How the fellow, to our face, 
Brazens out his hopeless case. 
Never chaiigmg colour t Oh, 
If I'm not your bitter foe. 
May I turn into a blanket, 
At Cratluus's/' and raise 


(47) The Lacedffimdman prison era were kept in chamn^ wbich i» metaphcK 
^^ic»Ily eEpreffiied bj tbeir being ^ tied upon the stocks." Clcon doubtlesa aimed 
^X liiakiDg ft good b&t|tam for himself^ in cmae thej were restored to thdr 

(4a) The Cmtinua here meant is the celebr&ted adver^ry of our poet's. He 
'^ii* at this period abo«t Bitiety-five, aiid wiis so much attached to the bottle, 
Ihat three yean after his death, AHiitdphanes jocoieLj observed in his Comedy 
^Qy^ P^ace^ (1. 701 t) that he had gone ofTin a lit during the Spartan invaBion, 
^ the sght of the breakage of a jar fi;ill of wine. The allu«ion in the present 
patfige is to certain little infimilties, to which men of his advanced nge and 
InieilipiifntA habita would be luituraily liable. He was spoken of afterwards in 
Him AjkuaaUi (t &2&'~53tif) in such a tone of contemptunuii pity^ that the 
mcTfiiet of the old hard were aroused ; he pi«senlcd his Win^JImk to tlio 
publii^ the very next year, in nhich play he retatiated pretty smartly on his 
•vcMtic antagonist, and chafgeil him with copying from Edpolis; and was 


Voice besides, and brandish shank at 
One of Morsimus's plays ! ** 
Liquorish bee of the bribery-marigold. 
Thirsting, whate'er the occasion, to carry gold» 
O that you'd disgorge your lioney 
Witli the ease you got your money ! 
Then you*d only hear me sing, 
" Drink, to celebrate the thing !' 
And Juliuses wheat-mad son** 
Would certainly attack us 
With loud " hurrahs" of jovial fun. 
And singj " O Bacchus, Bacchus 1 ' 

rewarded by gaining the firel pn^, while AjiBt«$phaiic* hftd to put up with the 
mortilicntion of a defeat. In this hi« lo^ composiiion, he piuwiiiHed Coitusr 
Ufl hi» wifi?f and made hei- sue for a divorce on account of hie attachment to a 
certain ^ir iiiiifire«^ called Wiks-flask^ atid hb entirely ni?glecting hia catu 
JitgaJ duties towards her. His ffit^nda^ however, interfcFe, and make up iiiatt«n» 
and so the drama etidtt. It is moat probably to this play that Homce alludci^ 
iifhen ho myn at the beginning of (me of hi^ Epistles^ 

■ Hy har4t it what CratimLi uyi be rtghtt 

* Thaw venwi cannot Uve» tbow hncn dellgtit^ 

* Whicti wdterHdrink^r* pen ; in rgjn they wiile, 

* For ^e'eT since Bacebui did in wUd ^ettgn 
' With Faunt and SAtyn half- mad pocu joli 

* The MuKii cvrry maittLpg »ice3t of wJn*." 

I. \9. Creeeb'i TramUtUa** 

The poor ot'i veteran died ahorily after his condnding effort. 

(i9) This tmgic writer was a gTand»vn of ^^Sichylu«*s liater. We gather fmm 
the Greek commentiitor that he wan a dumpy fellow^ a hod poet, but an 
excellent suri^eon and oculist. 

(50) A line from a Io«^t ode of Simdnides. 

(51 ) What waa the name of this worthy old gentleman > we are not told ; but 
it is plain that he was one of tfioae farmers^ who were burning to return to tj>cir 
ploughs, ** and whoa« talk is of bullocka." The phrase " wheat-mad " i^t a 
parody on the Homeric epithet^ '" damsel- mad ^" which that poet applies to 



You shall not give me the go-bvy 
By heavens, in rude and rank wit ! 

Or granty thou Jove of Markets, I 

May ne'er attend thy banquet ! 410 


But by the fists which made me wince. 

And by the blows from dagger 
I've oft put up with, ever since 

My feet were taught to stagger ; 
111 give you the go-by right soon 

In ready jokes and rough 'uns ! 
Or what's the use of having grown 

So big on finger-muffins ? " 


On finger-muffins^ like a dog ? 

Then how can you, you donkey, 415 

Who feed on dogt-meat^ fail to shog ** 

Before a dog-faced monkey ? ** 


Why, when a boy, I was complete 
In every kind of larking 

^^52) Tlie inTeation of n^kins was an hinofatioo of later and watt lazoioat 
^^ In tliewd^jBof primitiyeBmplicHj, UiejinadeiiieofcakciofeaBne 
*^M for that porpoae at table, which were afte i w aid a tfafova to the do^L 

(53) Ntm. "^ Wfll joa ihog off? I would have job m^kc**— Shakipcafe, 
^Mfy V. Act II. Sc 1. 

(54) The dog-&oed baboon u a moft powerfbl and Mvafe animal ; H wm 
^fSL known both to the Greeks and Romans, as it iriiabits the northern cnasU 
nfiflica. Tlielogic,ofcourw, is naught; bat theicin lies the whole jcrt of the 


And chousing ; for I used to cheat 
The butchers by remarking — 

*' Lookl there's a swallow! "Winter's gone, 
'* And I don't care a button I " 

And while they looked about for oncj 
I stole a bit of mutton, 


Oh what a clever scheme 1 What hopes 

I have of what will follow 1 
Like those whoVe fond of nettle-tops, 

You stole before the swallow." 


And if — which seldom chanced — some bore 

Amongst the fellows twigged it ; 
I rammed it in my drawers, and swore 

By heavens I had not prigged it. 
So that a Speaker, seeing me 

Employed in this vocation. 
Exclaimed, " That boy can't fail to be 

" A leader of the nation \ " ^ 

(55) The Greeks are remarkable to tbe present day for lixing a great deal oa 
ftaLndfi made of wsld herba, which thej gather on Uie momitains^ a;id generaJlj 
dieaa with oiL. The Greek note infomu ui« tbat nettle- tops were anlj good In 
the ipring before the sTrallowB had arrived. One would almost iuspect thai the 
Ath^niana, like the English^ had a proverbial joke of sajring, " ihmt nettles did 
" not uting those mtmthi:' But, utmng? ai it may appear to ua, botli Horace 
snd F^viui mentiou this plant ob forming part of the diet of the poor ; and 
CfttdUus infoniL§ us that he got rid of a severe cold and couf^h by the use of it 

{^}) It wa« a cTommon observatkifn, which U borne out by fecta tliat have 
actually come down to ub^ that those who had taken th<3 mo&t debauched and 
profligate courses in early life, often became great onitort whca they grew op. 
The example of iEachtnes will immediately occur to the cUtaaical reader. 



Bravo 1 The reason's plain, but droll — 

Because you were a glutton, 
And swore you stole not when you stole, 

And loved a bit of mutton. 


Ill make you both give o'er this din 

And puerile bravado ! 
For 111 rush down upon you in 

A loud and fierce tornado, 430 

And jumble up with sudden roar 

The earth and sea together ! 


Then I shall furl my puddings, — for 

There's like to be foul weather, — 

[Takes up his stand again. 
And scud before the gale, and shriek 

To you to kiss my rump, sir. 


And I, — in case you spring a leak, — 
Will mind the vessel's pump, sir. 


You shall not go unpunished, cheat. 

By Ceres, after boning 435 

So many hundreds ! 


Slack your sheet ! •' 
A strong nor'-easter's groaning, 

(57) How fond the Athenians were of these .Bea-af&in, maj be 
9iUiefid from the fiu:t, that even the tragio writers, in their most lerioui and 


THE ICMtCilfT.^. 


Or else a strong • - * • informer ! Go, 
Take care youi sails a n*t riven t 


You've got three thousand pound, I knowj 
That Potidia's given ! ** 


Well, will you take the tithe, to hold 
Your tongue, and let us bale out ? 


He'll be well pleased to get the gold ! 
Now you may slack your brail out ! *• 


The wind is lulling ! Bear a hand f 


Take Uie followitig ai to* 

elevate paasageft, make coi^fUnt lue of ihnm. 
ttancea; — 

» tf b«, wtio ruin the whip, lioldi hanl lh« ihect, 

" AM mhZy yleldt no Jot, be OTenwIi^ 

** Attii DsrlgalC'a thenceforth wfth uptunir^ thirsftg." 

Soph, ituig. nt. 

" But Tlie», when 'tti loowd» again flzvcL" 

Eurlp. Ormt fiii. 

** f ought. It Aremi^ t« Iw no ikllle» speakf r, 
" But, like the tniitjr helmimui pf b ahlp, 
'* With uili thrice-fcefedp O womanr icud away 
♦* B«fbrt Ihy nlmblc-mDUthed rongue^^TDUiiieti/' 

Eurip. J/«*. 521. 

(58) Potidrfft was n la,rgie Iowa m Thrace, trih«tiuy to Athena. II hid 
revolted at the very beginning of tJie war, but wiis ii^er wards reduced witll 
e(>n!itclembl<^ difficulty and expense^ 

{&&) Tho«e who underatand the meaning of all these miiitical meLnphors. will 
need tio explanntion ; and those who do not, would never have patience to 
wade through a long deacription^ which, after all, would be netu-Iy 
Some one has observed how prevalent figures of Ihia deaciiption have \ 
of late year* in English soviet j. We talk both of " throwing a meaayre over- 
" board;* and of defeating it by a "side-wind;' and even of "^swampiug" iW 
Upper Boiue of LegiBbiture. Tbi» h doubtleas owing to the Yachtamen. 

SC&!«R 1U»] 



I'll bring four suits against you, and 

m lay the damages in each 

At thirty thousand pounds, you wretch 1 


And I'll hring twenty against yo« 
For cowardice ; and just a few, — 
Perhaps a thousand, aye or more, — 
For stealing from the public store* 


You're sprung from those who fixed a stain 
Upon Minerva*s holy fane I *" 


Your grandfather wa*s base enough 
To nerve m body gnard — *^ 


(<a3) There i» an dluaion here t^ iotne G]n!umitaiic«eii which >)iul happened 

IkMrlj two oenturiea before, Certoin conipinitora, who h^\ Uiken refuge m the 

temple of Mm^rva, were removed on condition of their lives beinp epured, mid 

then nacrilegioualy murdered. The pcniOEis who were guilty of this oflfeijce 

^f^iul the deity, — for the mere bloodnhed was a flea-bite in the et^itnation of 

tbo»e dftjft^— were csciJelled at the time, but their dc^cendiinte aflerwanli returned 

to AtheniL (See Thi/lwall^ Hijft. Greece, TL p. 20— 1?3.) One of thp demnndi 

ifhich the Spartans made at the comTncjtcement of the Peloponn(%ijtd \rar, wm 

thai they thould be ejected afrcah, " knowingr say* Thuc^dides, " that Pi^ricl^ 

** was UDplioated in this contAjnitiatlon bj the mother's eidef &nd thinking that, 

** if lie were banished, they ahoiild find it an easier matter to m&nage the Ath^ 

** niiuiB, Though at the sanie time they BCarcely expected tiiit so much, a« that 

** Ibejr ahould make him obnoxiouis to the dtj, by upreading the idea that the 

* wmr wa» partly begun on hk private account.*^ — Thuc. L 127. 

(61) The Athenian jealousy of ail tyrants and tymnny h well known. Hfp- 
piat had succeeded hiij; father Piitbtratus, and waa at length expelled ffom 
Athefi* at the beginning of the previou* eenluiy. Like AIdbiadc» and Moreau, 
ht «tift httie enough to endeavour afterwarda to enalave his country by the 
tamm &t foreign s word». 





What stuff! 
To whom d'ye mean ? 


To Hidifuiy 
The tyrant Whippiais mamma ! 


You precious cheat ! 


You precious knave ! 450 
[The Blackpudding-seller and Demosthenes heat 
Cleon in variom ludicrom ways. 

Give him some cuts ! Be bold and brave ! 


Oh, oh ! The base conspirators 
Are thumping me ! I'm full of sores ! 


Give him some precious stinging cuts 

To punish him, and butter 
His belly with your tripes and guts^ 455 

Thou offspring of the gutter! 
[The Blackpudding-seller ^^« him with his puddings. 
Thou noble bit of flesh, so brave 

And eloquent and witty. 
Who hast been sent by heaven to save 

The citizens and city ; 
How slyly in these wordy frays 

You threw him at your leisure ! 


Would god that we could give you praise 

As great as is our pleasure ! 460 


By holy Ceres, I was well aware 

That these intrigues were carpentered^ and knew 

They were all nailed and glued! 


Confound the thing ! 
Can*t ytm 9a,j something from the wagon-makers ?•* 


Tm well aware of his intrigues at Argos ! 465 

He's treating with the Argives to conceal 
His private meetings with the Spartans there ! 
-And / know for what purpose this is welded/ 
*Ti8 to release the prisoners" that 'tis forged! 


Well done ! Well done ! Forge in return for gluing ! 470 


And there are Aigives hammering at it too ! 
And by no bribe of silver or of gold. 
No sending friends to me, shall you induce me 
Not to inform the Athenians of this. 


Then / shall go directly to the Senate, 475 

And tell of all of your conspiracies. 

And your nocturnal meetings in the town. 

(G3) See Note 87. 

(63) The Laoedomdnian prisonen taken in the island. Cleon hai been before 
aecnied of intriguing for their release. See L 898. 

^ 2 


And traitorous correspondence with the Persians, 
And this intrigue that's churned^ with the Boeotians! 


Then what's the price of butter in Boeotia ? 480 


I'll floor you like a featherbed, by Hercules ! 

[Exit Cleon. 


Come, you shall show us now what sense or judgment 

You are possessed of, if you formerly 

Hid in your drawers the meat, as you assert. 

So run on headlong to the Senate-house ; 485 

For that confounded rogue will rush in there, 

And slander all of us, and bawl a bawl. ^ 


Well, I will go ; but first of all I'll put 

My guts and knives down here, just as they are. 

[Puts down his stand. 


Take and besmear your neck" with this good oil, 490 

And you will slip away from all his charges. [Gives it, 


That's a good trainer-like remark of yours. 

(64) The great orator Derndsthenes, not having the fear of Aristdphanet 
before his eyes, actually made use of this very harsh metaphor in his speech 
coneeming the False Embcusy. 

(65) The expression is equally quaint in the originaL 

(66) This passage gives us a hint as to the hold used by the ancient 



And take and eat this garlic too. 


What for? 


That you may be well garlicked when you fight. •' 

[Gives him sonte garlic , 
And make all haste. 


I will. 


Remember now 495 

To bite, to charge, to swallow down his comb, 
And when you've eat his wattles ofi*, come back ! 

[Exit the Blackpudding-man, and shortly afterwards 


Yes, go with our blessing, and may you succeed 

As well as we wish in the dangerous deed ; 

And may Jove of the Market assist the attack, 500 

And when you have conquered him, may you come back 

Besprinkled with many a chaplet ! — 
Now list to the loud anapaestics,^ ye elves 
Who have tried the poetical style yourselves, 505 

And know how to manage and grapple it. 

(67) Like a game cock. See Achdrmaru^ Note 24. 

(68) This particular metre is so called. See Achdmiafu^ Note 72. 



[act !p 


If one of the old comic autliors by chance 

Had happened to give us some broad hints, 
That he wished us to come on the stage and dance. 

And make an Address to the Audience, 
We should not have done it. But now we see 

And feelj that we're bound by a new tie 
To a poet who hates the same fellows as we, 

And %*entures to tell ye your duty, 51fl 

And marches with generous spirit to fight 

The hurricane and the tornado. 
Now therefore he asks us to set you right, — 

As upon this occasion we ma^ do, — 
On a matter about wliieh many of you. 

He teUs us, come up and bother 
And examine him — why he has written all through, 

Till now, in tlie name of another. 
It was not his pride that made him do tlus. 

He says, but the consideradon 511 

That the Muse of Comedy certainly is 

The most whimsical thing in creation ; 
(For though there are many whoVe courted her, still 

But few have been blessed with a favour ;) 
And the knowledge tliat you were subject to feel 
An annual change of beha\iour/'^ 

(69) The men of the Chorus here *(pe«k strictly in their character w Knighi*, 
th« gentry of the Athenian republic, 

(70) Plays were only repieiieriieii «t two periods in the jrear ameiij$Rt thii 
people, who have been accused nf being immoderatflf addicted to frivol* 




nd deserted your bards when their baeks Iiad been curved. 
And their brows witli WTinkles were chiselbd. — 
He has seen in the first place how Magnes^^ was ser%*ed, 
B As soon as his hair grew grizzled. 5^ 

For although he had oftentimes beat from the ground 

The enemy*s comedy-armies, 
And amused you witli every description of doundi 
And by turns attempted to charm as 
Hrhe Harper^ the Bird, the Lydian page^ 
H And the Fig-fly, and died himself Frog-colour ; 
Bfet when he was old, — for it was not till age 
Had muffled his limbs in the roquelaure, — 
He was banished at last from the stage for a dunce, 

Whose himiour no longer amazes, — 5^ 

And then he remembers Cratinus/" who once 
In a copious torrent of praises 

t lowed merrily on through the open champaigns, 
And tore the soil from the banksj and 
Bore bodily off the oaks and the planes" 

LAnd the phalanx of foes on his flanks, and 
MemenU ; on« In Februacy* uid once in Marcti. Thii ii w}mi h mraunt bj 
armuid chnngi!; the iwooeetmma oomitig «o close togethi^r, thnt they were 
coniidenHl m otie* * 

(71) This comic pdet wm conaidembljr prior bo ArisUlpHiuiea in pomt r»f time. 
The names of five of hb plaja vere, the Harper^^ the Bird*, th* Ljfdiaru, the 
Fip-Jliet^ and the FtogMi nil of which are preiHjntJy alluded ta by our iuithoT, 
The clasfliiiAl neader will remark, that two of them coincide in their titles with 
two extant eomedic» by AriFitdptiatieff though it doefl not at all Ibllow thni the 
ploU were ^milar. Tho Sappltanta of iEflchjluii and Euripides are as eatirely 
difltaneDt from one another, ob any two pbyi can po«dibty be, 

(72) The great rival of our author. See Note *«. 

(7S) Thete beautiful trees eeem to have been ai!t gr^t fktouritet among tite 
ithihitaiu ai the Ronians. It wa» nnder one of them ttkat tbat rery dangvntui 



[act !. 

Was so rauch in fiLiihiotij thai any one guest 

Would have set a whole \\iiie-party gibing, 
Whose song was not " Builders of rhyme of the best ! " 

Or " Fig^sandaled Goddess of Bribing I " ^* 530 

Yet now that you see that his talents are flown^ 

And the beautiful biihl-work of amber 
Is tumbling out, and the sacking is gone^ 

And the joints are gaping and limber ; '* 

dklogue ot Plato — the Ph€edru*--vfa» supposed to t«ke [liace ; I allude mtm 
eupecially here to the horrible doctrines so sentimerit^illy promulgated in p. 256. 
PlBne-treea of moat enormaua ntte are fi>und at the present daj in rariouft paiti 
of Greece. 

(71) These were thecommctK'ement« of noine fiivourite meloilies compost b? 
CratinuB. The epithet ^' lig-inLndaled"' alludefl to the etymology of Ihe term 
^ sycophant^** which Bignifiea " an informer," but lltemDj' " an inft^rtner respeet- 
** ing figs," it being vulgarly dupposed that the exportation of thi* frail fitwn 
'Attieti was prohibited under the severest peitaJtieaf and that ihun the "" fig-ro- 
" formers^" rtoing n ^T&lt deall of buHiDess, gmdimlly gave the!/ name to therr 
brethren in the gene mi line. '* But," miyn Boeckh, *"■ the account i* Sir more 
** probable, which st4itea that the saered fig-trees were robbed of their fruit 
" during a fiimine, and that the wmth of the gods being felt in con8et)uenee of 
*^ this sal^riIege, aoeusalion!^ were brought against the suspected. In the sim& 
** manner per&ona who injured the saered oUve-tfeeii minht be subjected to hcAyj 
" pcnaltien; of which L^ias, in bis defence concerning the sacred olive-trees, 
** affords a remarkable iriRtance/'^/'iifi/, Ecom. Alhetvf^ L p. 60. 

(75) The same figure ia made u?e of in a beautiful fragmerit of the eomic poet 
Epicrates, whkh I quote at full length, partly on account of the moral whith it 
so forcibly, though coarsely, inculcates. The LaiH here spoken of waa one of 
the iDost celebraied of the Grecmn courteians— the Harriet Wilson of berdiZ! 

" tdli tienelf 'ft a tuj dniDkard naw, 

'* An4 looka to rnHhtng lint her djdly wine 

" And daily mtst. There Km bcfhllun li#?r 

'' What happens t© the i^agle; wlio, wheu y^tmg, 

" Swootit t^m the mouiitzun in hfa (fdd^ of ttrengtbp 

** And hoiTJei ofTon hif^h thp ftheep and hare ; 

" But, whfu he'i aged, slti htm duJiy du^a 

^' Upon icme tctnpk'i top, we^lc, leaii^ uid BtAfvtd i 

" And tlUa h. thought a direful prodigy, 

'* And Lili would he rightly reekaned one ; 

** For whea «}ie vas » tintUag, f^ir jind youlhfoj, 


I You show him no pity< His age is sped 
In strolling amongst the people, 
like ConnaSt'* with withered crown on his headj 

And dpng for want of some tipple ; 
When the state, on account of his fonner success^ 
Should moisten his guUetpipe free at her 
' Expense, and present him a handsome drea^. 
And send the old boy to the theatre, — 
And then by what harsh aiid repulsive means 
You expressed your displeasure with Crates, 


** The fulnua mAde her Grree i And you might tre 

** E'en PtiaiTiftbifUi euier than her. 

•* Bat now thiit tjer year* ire ruuulAf fmir-mUe I 

** Jmd ail the juftcittrrt of her frame a re ioat^f 

** 'Til euy both t& kt Kiid mjAt upon her ;| * 

** And *tie will fco to Kny drinklof-liDut i 

** And iMke m eftiwn-plMe, a>r, or t'ltn a ilxpebccr, 

** And wekome All mtn^ be th«f dM ar yootif^. 

*♦ Nax, ihe'i btoonie m Uunc^ Jiif dcAreit tU* 

'* Bhc'U wen teke Ihv matvtf ttvm fmai }aa±*^ 

Quoted in AtA^k**, p^ &7it. 

(7fi) Connaa wjia ii piper^ who hud often ohtaioed the prUe at the fKympic 
bul h*d nCHl&cted to titore up what wna far more necetmiy to obtaiu 
bim f»p«cl in hii old age^a j^tood round «u)n af uiDney. He used to go tit rol- 
ling about to drinking-paitie*, with the withered crown of wild-oliire ou hiB 
hmiA Itml he had gain^ at Olympu^ and woa mthcr too fond of hi» bottle to 
maintain a verj good chitrncter for Mbriety- CmtmuA had himself atiackc^d 
hun in •otiw? comic vetveA, bo that the compaii^n must have been doubly 
mmUtjing Thcfte lines ran ha ruUowi : — 

'' Eai And ludutgie j<mw futt 

" TIlat bungler mB)" Ircmbk- to vtrikE it ; 
** ConqiHtfor CuiifiHA nhall *tnjt 

** Wiih hii nuvierout crown*, If bfl like It." 

(77) He w» oeRTlj m contempomrj of Anstdphiiui, and appeiu^ at fir»t as 
fbeftdor of Ciiilinii«'» comedies, hul ttfterwarda composed original oiiei** He 
|| ^itEd iohave b^n the firat pcrrson who introituccd drunken characters mi (he 
fl«g<i L a nd wm therv^re, no doubts n wry notnhle tm^. The Greek note nlv^ 
** IhAt be used to ptirchiutti the audience *Uid their good will ;" Ijib moif pro- 
hMf nsfcn U^ iht* di»trjbulion» of nwt^ hgSj &e. mentioneil bel'ore. (See 




Wlio used to supply you a breakfast of greens, 

Both toothsome aiid handsome, with great ease; 
For he cooked up his jests at a trifling cost 

In that most watercress noddle. 
And 'twas he alone who maintained his post 

Now falling and now on the toddle* — 
When he thought of all this, our poet delayed. 

And began to shiver and shudder ; 
And besides you must first be a rower, he said, 

Before you lay hand on the rudder ; 
And nextj as a fo'c'stleraau keep a look-out 

For the squall, that so oft overwhelms man, 
And the dreadful sirocco, and waterspout ; 

And at last, you'll he trusted as helmsman," 
So since he was not as rash as tlie throngj 

But prudently stood shilly-shally ; 
O raise a great splash for him ! Seud along. 

In a lusty eleven-oared galley,'* 

AcMrmant, Note 87.) Our author iofiitiuate«, thatjhia cciTi3«dtes were not 
wntt^ti with vGTj great enret bj comparing htm to a hmt who sprn^k bi» 
break fiist-table with sulade and herbs^^^el^nt Ui appearance, but emljr and 
cbeaiJly procured. 

(78) The ancients steering by the eye and the memory^ and not by tbe cma- 
paunnd the ehnrt^ it becottien apparent how much more important the office <if 
hetmaman must have been with them, than wjth us. Up to the pre^ut d«y 
the Greek sail on nivjiy^ tnwt entirely to their personal lmowl«*dgB of tbe 
CoitstB they frequent. It ia either Hobhoiise or Chandler, who telU a ilOTy of 
the Tufkiah Admirtil inquiring, upon viniting a Britj*]i cruiser, how many raeti 
oa hoard understood the compaw, and being pedectly thunderBtruck, when he 
waA answered that the youngest midshipman tbey had in the ship could «te4^ 
with the greatest facility. But the Turks are notorious iand-lubbers; while the 
Greek s^amen^ in their own style of navigating^ are equal to any in the world* 

{79) None of the commentator»^ ancient or modern^ can make head or taO 
of this pann^. An ordinary Athenian galley being rowed by con^deiably 




A good Bacchanalian shout of applause, 

That the hard may he gratified when he withdraws ; 

And, ptea^d i^ith success, retire to dincj 

With cheeks that are rosy and eyeballs that shine. 550 


Neptune, the king o* tlie clattVing course, — 
Thou tliat the brass-clad neighing horse,— 
Thou that the grey-beaked men-of-war. 
Paid to protect this happy shore^ 

Fill with a joy unspoken ! 
Thou that art pleased when gallants dash 
On for the prize, and chariots crash. 

Shattered, alas, and broken ! 
Golden-tridented Sunian god, 
Lord of Geristus,— thou whose nod 

Awes the dolphins of ocean ! 
Dear to Phdrmion,*' dear to great 


qmvnk of a hundred ohjh, it seems clear that, if it wck manned with cmJj 
eleiren on each (tide, (na Canaubon Buggevta,) it would hnvu cut a rery aorry 
%are» whiqh is quite contpajj to the poet*s evident meaning. The other Inter- 
IMfiationa toe •can^ly Greek, t should conjecture myself, that the author 
J «Ilujd«B to the numW ^ 4N?a/<», or converging 6ight» of irtep» to lead to the 
in the Attii: theatre, which we may ntppoae to have been eleven. We 
ttow^ from existing remaJna, that both the theatre of Hier^polia, and that of 
Liodictfa, in A^ia Minor, had that eiact number, {t/m Leake'i Aiia Minor ^ p. 
941, and Ionian Aniu^iHes^ II. plate 49,) and therefore there eeema no reason, 
b the abwnce of a better explimation, why we ihould not make the suppow* 
lion in ^UMtion. Ilie circumatancc of there being only Jive in the medal 
fopmenting the Attic theatre, engraved in Leake's Alheru, in of no imporV 
iikce, a» the ancient artists neirer attended to the^e minvtiie. For example, the 
Firthennn it there drami with only four ktemi colutnnn, itistcftU of **venteen. 
($0) A i^lanC naval connnander, the Nelioa of Athens. With twenty 



Athens J during her present straight! 
Hear our tuneful devotian I 

[act I. 

Well commend our fathers, for they 

Showed themselves o'er hill and dale 
To be men of mettle, worthy 

Of tJie comitry and the Veil ; *' 
And they made the city glorious, 

Always coming back from fight, 
Botli by sea and land, victorious 

0*er the foe, whatever his might. 
No one stopped to count exactly 

What were the numbers of the corps 
Wliich he viewed ; his soul directly 

Thought of nought . , . .but Father Warn 
If tlxey fell upon the shoulder 

In a fight, they'd wipe it weD, 
And, uprising all the bolder. 

Swear by heavens they never fell \ 
But go on and wrestle gaily.*^ 



gallevf he ytlerlj defeated a Pdoponn^ian fleets seven-aud-forty «trcmi: * 
aftern-nrds, wHh the same fimaXl forc«, came off honourably in an eugRgemifiii 
with seventj'W^'en, and swept the seoa clear of them. — See Thirl wall's Hut 
Gr^eciF, III. p, 153—157. 

(81) In the great quadrienmal proeewmn (>f Mititfrva, a lai^e veil» emlirmd- 
ered with representiitiona of various tiacrcd subjecta, — genemlly battios betwetn 
certain mythological pertsHTiiagegt — was hoistdl ait the sail of a mogiuHeettt fthip, 
which wan dragged along through the pritictpal streeto of the town up to the 
citad«l A distiitit glimpsie of it, as it moves along amidst the assembled mul- 
titudes, may be caught in Mr-^CtickereU's beautiful rtstomtion of the V^t- 
theiioa, published in Wjllmms's Select Vi^w^in Gr^eg, near the beginning. 

(82) Thuc^dides, the exiled Hvid of Fericle*, \t^ refiorted to have made use 
nf the same figure ^ speech to esejiree^ the ability of that great orator. "^ Wbeo 


Nor would generals make a fiiss 
Formerly, to get their daily 

Diimer .... from Cleaenetus." 
But at present, if they get not 

Dinners given them, and the right 575 

Of the seats,'* they call out, " Let not 

" Any one expect we'll fight ! " 
We intend to fight, however, 

Gratis for our country, and 
Country's gods, and ask no favour. 

Save this only, at your hand : — 
When 'tis peace, and any fresh brush 

With the foe would be unfair. 
Don't begrudge us Knights a flesh-brush, 

And a flowing head of hair." 580 


Pallas, the guardian of a town 

Dear to the gods, and whose renown. 

** I throw P^cles,** said he, ^ he always manages to persuade the bj-standers 
** that it u I, and not he, who have been down." 

(83) Cledenetus was the fiither of Cleon, as we luckilj know from Thuc^ 
didca, the Greek annotator being quite at a loss. For an explanation of the 
p— age, see the Introduction, and Note 34. 

(84) Those who were possessed of this privilege, could compel any ordinary 
dtiien to give up his place to them in the senate-house, the assembly, the 
thfsatre, and all other places of public resort Cleon had obtained it as a 
reward for his unexpected success at Pylus. 

(85) Long hair, as has been remarked before, was only worn by young men 
of &shion at Athens ; and on that account, and the too fivquent use of the bath, 
lad the too elegant and expensive nature of their costume, they made them- 
sdves somewhat obnoxious to the "groat unwashed." 



[act L 



Both for its power and warlike deeds, 
And for it^ tuneful bards, exceeds 

Every other nation i 
Bring with yon here the goddess bright, 
Who in the march and bloody fight 

Grants us her cooperation, 
Victory, friend of the Choric hands, 
Victory J her that uplifts our hands 

^Gainst the opposing faction ! 
Now dien come ; for, if ever, now 
Are yon wanted to rout and cow 

All our foes in the action.** 

Now we wish to praise our horses 

For their brave and gallant deeds* 
They have helped the two-legged forces 

Of the country in their needs 
During many a bold invasion, 

Many a fight with hostile band. 
Though we feel not admiration 

For their great exploits by land. 
Ne'er so muchj as for their jumping 

Into transports, just like you, 
With some mugs they*d bought, and thumping 

Onions, and some garlic too ; '^ 600 

[m) The fois that are to be rauted are, of course, the rival comic poeti. 
(fl7) Throughout Uii* pjece of ptvetiy, the horsemen and the horara &n 
ftudinusly coiifased, the actions of the om being humourously altriktted to the 





Then J like practised human sailoi^, 

Taking up the oars to row. 
Snorting out at any failers — 

** Pull away ! Gee-yo-a-ho ! *" 
" Take a better grip ! No shirking ! 

" You must pull, you S-hrand, more ! ' 
And at last by dint of working 

Leaping out on Corintli*s shore | 
When the youngest dug a bed up 

With their hoofs^ and went to fetch . , ♦ 
Sheets. For clover-grass, they fed up 

All the cray-fish they could catch ; 
Nabbing some abroad, and hunting 

Others from the depths they sought ; 
Till a crab of Corinth,** grunting, 


oilier. The CoTinthiaii expedition, to whi^h reference is made, took place itt 
the previciui tummer, and ira^ attended by 200 c&ybItj in horiic^tmnipoTtfl, who 
were of CBPMitiftl iemc«. (See Thi rt wal i'l //«f. Grwse, IH. p. 2S2, 2.53.) 
** Cbt»Ii7 tinaHporta, although the Greeki had taken horie* with them to the 
•' dege of Troj, and the Persinni had employed many ahipfl of thw description 
** ir» the war a^ini»t Greece, were yet for the first time regularlj introduced at 
" Athene In the second year of the Peioponnesjan war, and were afterwurdii 
" frequently uBed." (Boeckh*B FnhL Ecm. Athene, L p* 3B4.) They were com- 
posed of gidleyB that were too old to be eerviei^ble in the Ime of battle. 

(B8) The ordinarf Beaman'a try being " yo-a-hor the ** gee** il added hj way 
of a joke upon theie veiy extmordinory howe^raiaHneft* 

(Hd) Greek hoiscs were bmndcd with vimouii letters, like the New Forest 
pOftiet, moet probably the iuitial of the breeder^a name. See the Cloudg^ ]. 23, 

(0C) Eeiike obaerve* on thii paasa^ :— '* 1 luspect that the Cotinthuinfl^ for 

* toiDe came or other, were nicknanie<l 'eiahe,* an the ii>briqttft of the Ba6i^aim 

* »ai • «wiiio J* perhaps on account of their running away in battle, coneemiii|{ 
** wineh «ee H^odoiw and Piularch, It waa not an unusual custom amongft 
** the ancientt, nor ii it at the present day, to give to entire natione *uch mvidioua 
^tnd diihonourable namet. The Sileaiani uied to be called ' aaa^tefv,* 


As Theorus" said, when caught, 
Cried, " It is a shame, by Neptune ! 

" That nor deep, nor land, nor sea" 
" Can protect from the perception 

" Of the Knights, poor, helpless me I " 610 

" (Egelfre8*er\ the Thuringians ' herring-noses,' (Hering$na9en\ the Sootdi 
** ' pismires/ and the Norwegians ' Lord-God-blackeners,' {Herrffotttsehwart" 
** xer.y If Reiske had been a Cantab, he would have added, that for some 
odd reason or other, the Trinity-men had been known time immemorial bj the 
appellation of " bull-dogs," and the Johnians by that of " pigs." The Translator, 
in the days of his boyhood, resided in a lovely little village in Dorsetshire, and 
he recollects perfectly, that whenever he paid a \i8it to the neighbouring market- 
town, he was always assailed by a mob of the indigenous small-fry, bawling out 
most vociferously, " Netherbury rat ! Netherbury rat T 

(91) A mean, cringing parasite of Cleon's. (See ^cA^mtafu, Note22.) Why 
this speech is put into his mouth, does not seem very apparent; but no doubt 
there is some secret hit at his personal habits. 

(92) See Achdmians, Note 64. 



Scene I. The Same. 
Enter the Blackpuddino-seller. 


Dearest and valiantest of men, how anxious 

I've been about you while you were away ! 

Now you have come back safe and sounds inform us 

How you have managed the a£^. 


What else 
Could happen, but that Fm the Senate-conqueror ? 616 


At the news of victory, 

Raise we all the holy cry ! 

Thou that bring*st us in our need 

Tidings of a glorious deed, 

And hast done far greater things 

£ en than those thy own moudi sings ; 


Would to heaven that you d declare 

All the details of the afiair ! 

I should be well pleased to travel 

Miles to hear them to an end ; 
So take courage and unravel 

Your exploits, beloved friend ! 

[act llJ 


And 'tis worth while to hear the narrative. — 
I rushed directly after him from hence, 
And found him in the Senate-house already. 
Belching up floods of thunder-driven phrases. 
And blurting words as steep as precipices," 
And striking at the Knights with wondrous tales. 
And proving them conspirators most plausibly. 
And the whole Senate, listening to his speech, 
Got crammed by him with flatulent wild-orach, 
Looked mustard, and uphfted all their hrows, '* 
So when I saw that they were taking in 
His reasons, and were cheated by his tricks, 
•- Ye great Rapscallions and ye Rogues," said I, 
" Ye Humbugs and ye Svrindlers and thou Scamp, 
" And Market-place in which I spent my childhood ; 
"Now give me boldness and a ready tongue 
** And shameless voice ! " As I was thinking this, 
A blackguard chap broke wind on my right-hand ; 

(9i3) The literal translation is, •*bl«jrtlng prcci|iic(M ;" but thai 
irapoffiible an operatjoit aa to put a hole in one'* piJckct 
{H} A sign of hauflhty pride with the Gi^ekik See AMmimm^ 1- 1069. 

SCENE t,] 



So I fell down and offered up thanksgiving. '* 

Then I rushed on, rump-forwards, at the bar, 640 

And knocked it do\aTi, and openmg wide my mouth. 

Bawled out — " O Senators, I bring good new&, 

'* And wish to tell it first of all to you 1 

'* Never, no never, since the war broke out, 

" Have sprats been cheaper than tliey are just now ! " 6+5 

They got immediately fair-weather faces, 

And crowned me as the bearer of good news,"* 

On which I told them a mysterious plan. 

Which I invented speedily — in order 

To buy the sprats a precious lot a penny, 

To embargo all the basons in the shops. 650 

They clapped their hands and gaped at what I said. 

The Magabian, twigging this, and knowing 

What sort of speeches pleased the Senate most, 

Made a proposal—" Gentlemen, 1 move 

** Tliat on occasion of this joyful news, 655 

" We offer to Minerva five-score oxen ! " *' 

The Senators agreed with him once more. 

fU5) The whole of this is n «juij5 ypon the MesaengenT iianatit» in tbi? Alik 
tnixedmiuL For an J one to tne^Me on the right-hand, wm ccnaidcred a moBt 
luckj^ iiip* The " Rapsciil lions," Ate. are humouroui]/ elevated to the digniij' 

(%') Sw NisU? im 

07) When ji b^&il was B&cnficed, they only burnt a poTtion of the fleah on 
the afto/ rif tlie go«l— gencmlly the thighs^ and part of Ihe »uet — and nte the 
pwt themielves. That this wm the cuHtom aim amongst the JewH, we may 
l«tm from the story of the wicked ftoni of ElL 0y this ioflenioa* device it 
heemme the interest of the people to l>e religioua ; for it was only on »uch occa- 
mm^ fat the moit paft^ that the Athi^nlan vulgar taxted meat. 




[act li 

So, when I saw that I was beat by cow-dung, 

I overshot him by two Imncired bullocks ; 

And bid them make a vow to sacrifice 

A tliousand kids to-morrow to Diana, 

If herrings should be sold five-score for two-pence. 

The Senators then stared at me once more ; 

And my opponent, when he heard the speech, 

Was quite struck dumbj and played the nincompoop ; 

Till the Committee-men and constables 

Began to drag him off. ITien, while the Senate 

Stood murmuring applause about the sprats, 

He begged of them " to wait a little while, 

** To hear the terms the Spartan herald brings; 

'* For he has come to treat about a peace*" 

But with one mouth they all of them bawled out— 

'* Wliat now about a peace ? Yes, yes ! Because 

" They've heard tliat sprats are selling cheap at Atliena! 

" We want not peace ; so let the war go on ! *^ 

And they cried out to the Committee-men 

To let them go, and jumped across the rails. 675 

Then I slipped past, and ran and bought up all 

The coriander and wild-onioiis which 

Tlie Market *place contained, and gave it gratis, 

By way of present, to the gentlemen, 

Wlio sadly wanted seasoning for their sprats. 

And they he-praised me and be-patted me 

So wondrously, that I have captivated 

The hearts of the whole Senate, at the expense 

Jui^l of-two-pcnivvworth of coriander* 



You have had, in this your plan, 

All the luck that falls to man. 

That most roguish currier-slave 

Has at last found out a knave 

More accomplished far, than he 

Ever was, in roguery, 685 

And in schemes to over-reach, 

And in smooth dissembling speech. 

Now reflect with cool and steady 

Purpose how youTl best devise 
What comes next ; you know already 

We're your firm and true allies. 690 


Here comes the Magab&an, urging on 

His half-spent waves, and putting every thing 

Into conftision, just as if he meant 

To swallow me. The deuce ! How bold he is ! 

Scene II. The Same. 

Enter Cleon, with threatening gestures^ accompanied by a 
rabble of tanners^ honey-men^ cheesemongers ^ ^c. 

Unless I do for you, — if I but fib 
As well as usual^ — may I fall to pieces ! 695 



The threats I like; the smoky brags I laugh at; 
The scamp I kick away, and cuckoo at him ! 


Never, by Ceres, never will I live, 
Unless I eat you up from off this earth ! 


Unless you eat me up ? No more will I, 700 

Unless I drink you up, and swig you up, 
Until I burst myself. 


m do for you! 
Aye, by the right of seats I gained at Pylus!" 


The right of seats, indeed ! Pshaw ! I shall see you 
On the last bench instead of on the first ! 


ril put you in the stocks, I swear by heavens ! 703 


How wrath he is ! What will you have to gobble ? 
What would you like to eat on best ? A purse ? 


Ill tear out your intestines with my nails ! 


And 111 nail out of you your Town-hall dinners ! •• 


Ill drag you to old People, and chastise you ! 710 

(98) See Note 84. (99) See Note 34. 



And rU drag yott, sir, and out-slander yout 


You rogue, he won't believe a word you say ; ■ 
While I can humbug him just as I like. 


Heavens ! How completely yours you think poor People ! 


Yes, for I know what pap to feed him with. 715 


And, as the nurses do, you feed him badly : — 
You taste the pap, and giving him a little, 
You swill yourself three times as much as he.*** 


Yes, and I*m so acute, that, just as I 

May please, I make the People broad or narrow.*" 720 


And I can play the same trick with my mouth. 


You shan't be thought to have insulted me 
Before the Senate. Let us go to People ! 


I'm ready. Go along. Let nothing stop us. 

[They knock at People's door. 

(100) These reipectable old ladies still retain their ancient habits. Human 
nature is the same, whether in an Athenian harem, or an English nursery. 
There is an odd stoiy in Athenwus of an Asiatic, who was so lazj, that all his 
life long he employed a nurse to feed him out of her mouth.— (P. 690.) 

(101) A proverbial expression apparently, meaning, I can do what I like 
with him, and persuade him into any thing. 



Dear People, come out here ! 


Yes, &ther, come t 725 


Come, dearest little Peopley, and 111 tell you 
How I m insulted. 

[Enter People in a mean dress, and barefooted^ 


Who are those that call ? 
Get from the door ! You rascals, you've torn down 
My olive-branch ! "* My dearest Magabsean, 
Who's hurting you ? 


This villain and the youths*'' 730 
Are beating me on your account. 


What for? 


Because I love you, and am your admirer. 

(102) An olive-branch, bound round with lockftof wool, was used as asjmbol 
of peace by suppliants ; the image of Britannia on our copper coinage, which, 
by the bj, is said to have been copied from Nell Gwynn, will furnish us with • 
remnant of the ancient custom. Olive-branches were also hung with figs, small 
loaves, and pots of honej, oil, and wine, and &stened once a year at the doon 
of the house, as a holj offering to Apdllo or Ceres. It is one of these whidi is 
here meant 

(103) The "^youths" are the Knights who compose the Chorus. Though 
they could not properly be said to have beaten Cleon, inasmuch as the or- 
chestra was at least ten or twelve feet below the stage, yet they had been 
guilty of ** aiding and abetting in the assault and battery," to make use of a 
legal phrase. 



And pray, sir, who are you ? 


This fellow's rival, 
Who have admired you long and wished to serve you, 
And so have many others who are gentlemen ; 735 

But we're unable, through this rascal's schemes. 
For you're just like the celebrated toasts ; 
You won't admit a gentleman's addresses. 
Yet prostitute yourself to lampsellers,'** 
To cobblers, and to saddlers, and to tanners. 740 


Yes, for I do him good. 


Just tell me how. 


By tripping up the generals at Pylus, 

And sailing there, and bringing back the Spartans. 


And 7, when on my strolls, cribbed from a workshop 

The pot another man was boiling there. 745 


Call an Assembly instantly, dear People, 
And find out and decide, which of us two 
Is the most trustworthy, and love him only. 


Yes, yes, decide, but not upon the Pnyx. 

(104) A hit at Hyb^rbolus. See Achdmiatu, Note 92. 



I will not sit in any other place ; 750 

So to the Pnyx walk forwards instantly. 


Consume it, I am done for. The old man 

Is a most kind, good-natured soul at home ; 

But when he sits him down upon this rock, 

He gapes like little boys bobbing for figs.'** 755 

Scene III. Athens. 

[The movable scenes are thiftedy and represent the Pnyx.] 
People takes his seat in solemn state. 


Now you must let out every rope ; 

Aye, and find a willing 
Heart and a ready tongue to cope 

With this accomplished villain. 
He extricates himself with ease 

From inextricable danger ; 
So rush upon him in a breeze 

Stiff and steady, stranger ! 760 

(105) Thoee who in their younger days have ever had a good game at ^ bob- 
** cherry," will understand the meaning of this simile. Cherries not having 
been introduced into Europe till the time of Luciillus, the elegant taste of the 
Athenians led them to make use of figs in their place ; and the little Attic boys 
and girls no doubt found, that, when they were soft and juicy, they might be 
used with prodigious effect. *' Bob-fig** must certainly have been ci^ital fan. 

Take care of attacks in tlie flank and tJie rem , 
And before he*s aboard of you, harkee, 

Quick haul up your ponderous dolphins, *" and steer 
For tlie foe wiLb the dear little barky. 



I beseech the invincible queen of the tawn. 

Our heavenly mistress, Minerva, 
That, if I have sought the delight and renown 

Of People with constanter fervour, 
Than any one man, save L^'^^^^^^ and ... . 

Those jades Salabaecho and Cynna, ^ 
I may go, wiUiout doing a jot for the land^ 

To the Town-hall and get me my dinner I ^ 
But, if I abhor you, or stand not the hits 

Of your foes,^ — whatever the case is, — 

(106} " Dolphins'' vere huge maases of lead^ which wete mupended from tht 

jird-aim* of veflKb, m tuch a vwy^ that they cotild be k'tdutrn with a rtm upon 

ihe encjiiy, if he sailed iindemeath them. They wcf^ iiicce^uljy made me of 

b^ the Ath^nhuia towards the dote of the unfartimat^ SicflJuji expediticMij and 

mink two SyroctjiaiD galleye which were imprudent efiough to cfline within their 

reach, fThtiCydidgt^ VII. 41, > It should he bomo in mind, that the ancient 

plleya were biiilt rerj differently fn:»m our modern men-of-wiy, being nothing 

but gigsoktic d»:kerl row-bo«ti| cOoBtrueted aa %hl m poaiible for Hfjeed. Everf 

nilor knows^ that any open bdat in^ he HWomped, even by hearing cold shot 

into it from a ship* 

(10?) Th^e were two celebrated Athenian ctjuiteiaiis. hpicim in thedeateF 

■ tl ilieep referred to in line 132, where ece the note. The coupling him with 

B ti^flftnf tfaii pTofesion, if he were alive at the period, mtiat have been felt as 

HHlfcer on uneiavouiy compliment But the andents were not wo thin-ekianed in 

^^H respect aa we are. 

^'llOS) Demdetheneg hegina hii odehnLted pleadJmj^ e4meerrdtifi fheCrmen with 

apmjrer of a tome what similar fiature. ^' Men of Athens ! t pmj to nil the 

" 9o4» «nd all the goddenei, that I may meet with as much goodwill from you 

^ in thu triaU as I have always felt both iowardfi the e^ty aiid the whole body of 

**l'mi diiienit'' 



[act t% 

By myself; may I die, and be sawn into bits, 
And be cut into yoke-straps and traces ! 

JL_ p.p.s 

And may /, if I love and admire jou not. 

Dear People, be chopped up directly, 
And be stewed with some mincemeat in kettle or pot ! 

Or if thh don*t convince you exactly, 77i 

Then may I be grated on this very tray 

Along with some cheese in an olio; 
Or be dragged by the rump with a meathook, away 

To the Potteries,'"' bellowing droUy '' Oh t" 


And how could a citizen, Peoplei try 

More strongly than I do to pleasure ye ? 
In the first place, when I was Senator, I 

Collected much cash in the treasury, 
By torturing a few, and strangling a few. 

And demanding some money from other' Tta 

Not caring for ajiy man*s favour, if you 

And 1 could hut get on like brothers, 


There's nothing, dear People, in tlus, that behoves 
To be wondered at ; I, too, am able 

( 109) There was a place eo called to the north-west (if the city, who 
bones of tho&e who had fttllen fighting for their country, wert* public! j I 
e^ery year, a funeml attLtioD being pronounced over them by the most distin^ 
guisshed orotor of the day. There ws* also another pariah of the mmt name 
within the city, iiifamou* na the residence of public women* It in to thin UUter 
that the poet most probably alludes. 


To do SO. m snatch away other men's loaves, 

And place them myself on your table. 
But first I shall prove that he loves you not, 

Nor would ever have felt any itching 
To serve you, unless he chanced to have got 

For himself the run of your kitchen. — 780 

Though you fought with the Persians on Marathon's shore 

For the land of your fathers, and proudly 
Achieving a victory, handed it o'er 

To us to be tongue-hammered loudly ; "• 
He allows you to sit in this comfortless mode 

On the cold hard rocks, without blushing ; "* 
While I, as you see, have carefully sewed 

And brought you this nice little cushion. "* 
Lift up ! And in future remember to use — 

And I'm sure you won't find it at all amiss — 
This well-padded seat, for fear you should bruise 

What fought at the battle of Salamis. "* 785 

(110) The victory of Mirathon was a standing dish with the Ath^an orators, 
when ^ey wished to flatter the pride of the people. Having been achieved by 
the Attic forces, unassisted by any others, with the exception of the Platc^ans, 
it was considered as more immediately the peculiar glory of Athens. 

(111) The Pnyx is cut out of the live stone. As to the question whether the 
seats there were of wood or marble, see Achdmians, Note 9. 

(112) We know from Theophr^us that it was not an unusual thing for per- 
sons to take cushions with them to the theatre, in order to make the marble 
■eats a little more agreeable to the seat of honour ; but, as the Assemblies did not 
generally last very long, it docs not seem to have been customary to bring them 
there. The invention may therefore be safely attributed to the ingenuity of the 

(113) This being a naval battle, the Athenian galley-men may very well be 
said to have fought, not with their hands, but their nether extremities. 


H^ attentions ^ ^ i 

By what petty *.^^„y,^BetU 

j^o« ca» you 

• „^t veats d«c«*"^ , .^ funny 

^oshutuptheh.^e^ .^^,„ey. 

iirttt inO 



And you drove off the peace Archeptolemus brought;*" 

And the envoys— as soon as we got 'em — 795 

You turned out of Athens as quick as thought. 
With a thundering smack on the bottom. 


I did sOi that People might govern all Greece; 

The prophecies might have displayed t'ye, 
That he*ll serve in the courts, if he wait but for peace^ 

On tenpenny pay in Arcadia,'" 
However, I certainly mean to employ 

Every means in my power to maintain him ; 
And by fair or by foul means III get the old boy 

His sixpence to feed aiid sustain him. 800 


You wished not that People might govern the clowns 

Of fertile Arcadia, but rather 
That ^OM might have booty and bribes from tlie towns. 

And your mmter might know it — no farther 
Thaik the war and the mist might open the way 

For descrying each roguish exaction — 
And be forced by his needs and his wants and his pay 

To gape for his food from your faction. 
But if ever he get to the country, and eat 

In peace and contentment his broiled-cake, 805 

(ilS) He WBs IT) wit ppobflhty one of the fimbA»ttdom sent to sue for p@nee, 
•Oftn after the Spjuiani had been WJoped up in the inland.— See TlurlwftH'i 
Hifi.Gfercr, HI. p. 241. 

(ItT) Tht* uiual pa J bebg ftixpenoe. The pio(ih«C7of troune U h hiunourvuB 



[act il 

And recover his courage with roastcd-wheat, 

And come to converse with some oU-cake ; 
He will find of what blessings the system of pay 

Was made to bamboozle kim through ye. 
And like a rough rustic he'll arm for the fray. 

And hunt for the vote that will do ye* 
And this you*re aware of, and therefore you seek 

To chouse him by dream and by vision* "' 


Now b it not shamefiil that you, sir, should speak 

Like this^ and expose to derision 
Before the Athenians and People a man 

So accomplished, and clever, and witty, 
That he's done more service already, than 

Themistocles did, to the city I 


" Thou city of ArgoSj dost hear what he says ? "*" 

You equal Themistocles? — him^ fool, 
Who found the city but half-filled with praise 

And glory, and rendered it brimful ; 
And kneaded it up the Pir^us beside 

For breakfast/" and even was able, 
Without takiug from previous stores, to provide 

Fresh incomes,,,, of fish for its table. 



(lie) For an inHtance of this practice of tbe demagogue'*, flee L lOflO^ 

(113) A lin<r from a lost tragedy of Euripides. 

(12CI) It wa»TheTiiisU>cle* who per&uudt^ Im countrjrmwi to aim at beoomtog 
R great naval power; and it waa by his ndvic^ that thej fort) iied the Pii»u», w" 
jM to be perfectlj inapregnable by any me&m knoim ia those d^ye, and ^iili^ 
wards coani^ctcd it with the city hy the Lang WalK thiiB converting; Athens IHIa 
an Lilond, a» &j an miJitary ivperationA ware cojicenied. 


While you have been aiming at turning us all 

Into villagers weak in the sequel, 
By your rhymes on dividing the town with a wall"' - 

You, who are Themistocles' equal ! 
Yet he was banished, and you can afford 

Finger-muffins of superfine barley !"* 


Now is it not shameful that I'm to be bored. 

On account of my loving you dearly, 820 

With his impudent insolence ? 


Hold your tongue ! 
Don't talk like a swaggering ruffler ! 
I knew not, till now, that you had been long. 
And still are, a sneak and a shuffler. 


He's the biggest of all conceivable knaves, 

My dear little Peopey, and always behaves 

In a rascally way when you're yawning, and crops 

The stalks of the Audits to gobble,*" and sops 825 

(121) On this subject we are left entirely in the dark. We know, howe?er, 
tbit when two fiiciions were nearly equally balanced, it was not an unusual step 
lo difide a town into two by a wall of the same height as the external fbitifica- 
tiooa, and settle the men of each party in the portion allotted to them. Whether 
Cleon had really thought of any measure of this nature, we have no information ; 
kot from the absurdity of the scheme in the then state of parties at Athena, it 
is most probably a calumny of the Blackpudding-seller^s. 

(122) See Note 52. 

(123) Every public officer, when he vacated his pUioe, was compelled by law 
to undergo an "* audit." This provision must have manifestly given room to 
gnat extortion and bribery, when the party was of a timid and retiring disposi- 
tiop, and there were any demagogues willing to take advantage of it 




[act II, 

His sop-in-the-pan with both of his hands 

In the firuits of the public possessions and lands-. 


111 trounce ye 1 A verdict shall shortly be found 
That yoUVe stolen one thousand five hundred pound 1 


Why splash up and dash up the waves with your blade, 830 
Wlien you've cheated the People and made it a trade? 
May I die if I prove not to every tribe, 

Which dwells on the earth, that youVe plundered 
The MitylenEEans, you rogue, of a bribe 

Of more than a cimple of hundred \ 836 

SCEKE IV. The Same, 


Thou blessing to humanity, 

What a tongue youVe showing ! 
If you attack him thus, youll be 

The greatest Grecian going. 
And mle the city and the allies. 

Brandishing and shaking 
A trident, which you*U find supplies 

Means of money-making."* 

(124) A demitgngue h here tacitly compared to Nepttine, tlie god 
ocean, who wa& euppoaed to caime earthquAkcA hy brandishing hi» ** tridenC' 
or three-pmfigcd pitch-fork. The ancients 94?t»ni to have observed, that actJTe 
voknnie district*! Are alwaja in the neiglikjurhood of tfee sea, and therdk« 
aMiinicd that the sea waa somehow or other the caume of volcatik phenomena- 
In ihe AcMmktm^ h 530, Periclei was compared to a atill more powerM god 
— the Olympian Jove, 


Now that you've got a hold upon 

The fellow, don't unhand him ; 
With lungs like yours, if you go on. 

You'll easily command him. 


Aye, but you have not done it yet ; 

Nor have you the ability. 
For I've performed, my little pet, 

A deed of such utility, 
'Twill gag the mouths of all my foes. 

So that they can't revile us 845 

As long as the Painted Piazza shows 

One shred o' the shields from Pylus."* 


Halt at those shields a little bit ! 

You've let me get a hold of ye. 
If you're attached to People, it 

Was very rash and bold of ye, — 
When you well knew those shields would be 

The finitful source of grand ills, — 
To consecrate them purposely 

Along with all their handles. 

(125) Nothing was more common in Greece, than to oonaecrate shields which 
had been captured from an enemj, in honour of some deity, in this case their 
handles were always taken off, that they might not be made use of in civic 
broils, or servile insurrections. The Spartan shields, that had been captured 
at PyluB, and dedicate in the Painted Piazza, still remained there in the time 
of Pausinias, about a. d. 170. They had been coated with pitch to preserve 
them from rusting.— See Leake's Athent, p. 16, and Wordsworth's Athena and 
AiHca, p. 17a 





This, People, is a crafty plan, 

That, if you wish to showc?r 
Your punishitients upon the man, 

You may not have the power. 
You see how large a troop he guides 

Of lusty strapping tanners ; 
And there are honeymen besides, 

Prepared to join his banners, 
And cheesemongers. And all their files 

Have leagued themselves together ; 
And if you looked a game of tiles/** 

And threatened stormy weather, 
They'd soon pull down the shields by night, 

And ask no peaceful parley, 
But run and seize with all their might 

The passes of our barley. 


Have they got handles then ? You rogue, 
How long you have been tricking 


(126) " The game of tllea" was played by the Greek children \n tht i 
ing waj. — A tile bt prtjvided, which it coloui^d black on one side, and white q 
the other. The pliLjers are separated into two corresponding parlJe?, Ibp 
blackft and the whitei; and a line k drawn between them. A child tooie&up 
the tile in the air, calling out " night I day !" and if it falls with the black sidf 
appennoBt, the hlAcks run afler the whttes ; if with the white, the conlmrf^ Ai 
jioon as one of the pursued party h caught, he k seated by himself n* "an ai«^*' 
and the tile h again tossed up, till all on one side hnve been made " awe^^" 
when of course the opposite colour ia proclaimed victor. {Jilius Poiiu^^ IX. 
111.) The aUtiflloti is to the ^* ostraciMUt" or honourable banishment^ where the 
method of voting was by sending up the baniahed person's name on an 
" ditraeonf " or tile. Every body hm heard the fitoiy of Ibe Albanian who could 
not write, and not knowing Aristide*, applied to him to inecriW bis own nftme 
on Uie tjle, as worthy of ostiaciam. 


Poor me by practising incog. 
This People-pocket-picking ! 


Don*t let the man who speaks the last 

Aye rule ye. I defy 'em 860 

To find a friend so true and fast 

To you, dear sir, as I am. 
I put down the conspiracy *" 

Alone, and I'm convinced on't 
There's not a party formed, but I 

Bawl out that very instant. 


Yes, for you're like the fishermen. 

Who fish for eels. Whenever 
The lake is still, they cannot then 

Catch one, however clever ; 865 

But if they stir the mud about. 

They take a lot at one try ; 
And so do you, too, get a lot. 

When you've disturbed the country. 
Just answer this : — Have you, who set 

To sale such loads of leather. 
Given your friend one shoe-sole yet 

To defend him from the weather ? 870 


Not he, sir ! 

(127) I am not aware that histoiy infonns us of any conspiracy, to which the 
lilMgogue could be suppoeed to allude; it was probably some trifling affiur 
*^ich he here magnifies, for the sake of exalting his own merits. 



Then you cannot choose 
But see his crimes are glaring. 
Now I have bought this pair of shoes 

For your especial wearing. 
[Presents a pair of shoes to People with buffoonish 
gestures. People puts them on. 


YouVe found more favour with me, than 

Another ever rose to ; 
And I am certain you're a man 

That loves my town .... and toes too. 


Is*t not a shame that shoes should have 
Such influence upon you ? 875 

So you forget your &ithftil slave, 
And all the good I've done you — 

I, who disfranchised Gxyttus, all 
For being an adulterer ! **• 


Is't not a shame that you should fall 

To play stripling-mulcter, or 
Attempt to stop adultery ? 

You checked those matron-seekers. 
Because you feared they'd get to be 

Accomplished first-rate speakers.*** 880 

(128) There is Bome bitter satire, no doubt, concealed here. GiyttuB mm 
probably a personal enemy of Cleon^s, and the real motives for proiecttttiig him 
were known to every boiiy. 

(129) Sec Note 56. 


But though you saw poor People here 

Was old, and weak, and pursey, 
And had no flannel-waistcoat, ne*er 

Have you given him a jersey 
In winter-time. — Come, pocket it ! 

Here is the thing I mention. 
[Presents a woollen under-waistcoat to People, who 
takes off his coat, and puts it on with signs of great 


The great Themistocles ne'er hit 

On such a bright invention. 
Yet his Pirsfeus was a wise 

Idea. When, however, 885 

This waistcoat here attracts my eyes, 

The latter seems most clever. 


What apish compliments you make, — 
Confound it ! — to outflank me ! 


Why any tipsy guest would take 

My shoes and never thank me,"' 
If he went out to ease himself; g05 

And why not / your manners ? 

( 130) Every schoolboy is aware that both the Greeks and B 
ml table on couches, instead of sitting on chairs as we do. Thr 
at the door of the apartment, that they might not dirty the 
Mme custom prevails in the Levant to the present day ; 
great an insult for any one to come into his apartment w 
•lippers, as an Englishman does for a stranger to come int 
room without removing his hat. Of the two ceremonies, « [Presents it. 



You shall not lay me on the shelf. 

Nor rout my conquering banners 890 

By making presents ! 
(To People, presenting the coat off his b<ick to him.) 

What d*ye think 
Of this ? 

{To the Blackpudding-seller.) 
Go hang, you villain ! 


Bah ! Devil take your coat ! The stink 
Of beastly hides is still in ! 

[Rejects it with contemptuous disgust. 


He gave it ye, because he knew 

Full well, that if you wore this. 
The beastly stench would stifle you : 

He's done the same before this. 
You must remember when split-peas 

Fell all at once like furj' ? 895 


I do. 


He made them fall, to teaze 
iThe men of every jury. 

(128) There itfal one has at least the merit of not being entirely without 
probably a persous tells a story of one Ddrion, who, having a club-foot, and 
were known to ev» that belonged to it at a wine-party, exclaimed, " I shall 

(129) Sec Note iirsc upon the thief, than that the slipper may fit him." 


They bought a lot, and made a tun 

Of soup to wet their whistles ; 
And then in court they poisoned one 

Another with their fizzles. 


A man of Dungwich told me so ! 


Their breeches though despised this, 
And blushed deep orange-colour. 


So, 900 

The Orangemen devised this ! 


You rascal, how you worry me 
With your jack-pudding nonsense ! 


Minerva bade me conquer ye 
By lies beyond all conscience. 


You shall not conquer me that rig ! 

Dear People, I shall hasten. 
And give you, gratis, pay to swig — 

A jolly thumping basin. 905 


Here's something, (if I do not win, 

'Twill be a disappointment,) 
For the sore places on your shin — 

A gallipot of ointment ! 

[Presents it. 



1*11 pluck your grey hairs, and disguise 
The old man as a stripling. 


Take this hare's-tail "* to wipe your eyes. 
When they're inflamed with tippling. 

[Presents it. 


Whene'er you blow your nose, in fine, 

Dear People, wipe your fingers 910 

Upon my head. *" 


On mine, on mine. 
While Ufe within me lingers ! 


I'll make you Captain, and 111 tip 

My gentleman a worn-out ship, **• 

On which you'll be obliged to spend 

Your own good cash. There'll be no end 

To laying out your money on't, 915 

And making good whate'er it want. 

(131 ) Kare*9-feet are used at the present day, by ladies who rouge, to apply 
the colour to their cheeks. 

(132) Pocket-handkerchie& are quite a modem inTention. The meet polite 
men of antiquity were every day guilty, of what a decent tailor's spprentioe 
would now be ashamed to do. 

(133) The Captain of an Athenian galley had a certain sum allowed him by 
the state, which was not near sufficient for the purpose* out of which and hit 
own resources he was expected to defray all the expenses of rigging out and re- 
fitting. The office therefore was only given to the most wealthy citizens. Here, 
as in other cases of the kind, if any one thought that another person could better 
afford the expense than himself, he could compel him either to exchange estates 
or take the duty upon himself. ' 


And I'll contrive, too, without fisdl. 
That you shall get a rotten sail. 


The fellow's bubbling up with ire. 

Don't, don't boil over on the j&re ! 920 

Come, pluck away some sticks, and let's 

Make haste and ladle out some threats. 


I'll take good care that you're enrolled 

Amongst the rich ; and I'll make bold 

To say, that, when you feel the stress 

O' the public-contribution press, "* 925 

You'll soon afford me specious cause 

To sue you for neglect of laws. 


No threats I'll utter, I declare ; 
I'U merely offer up this prayer. 
O may your frying-pan of soles 
Stand hissing on the burning coals, 930 

^ (134) The rich were also compelled to paj heavy contributions to the state. 
Boeckh however makes out, that, including eveiy thing, they were not taxed 
near so heavily as the people of modem countries. (PuM. Eeon. Aiheru^ II. 
pp. 293—295.) The art has certainly been carried to great perfection of late 
years, though I do not know that the following ingenious plan has ever been hit 
upon, which I therefore transcribe for the benefit of the Corporation of the dty 
of London. *^ The measure of the tyrant Hippias had an appearance of justice, 
" when in order to raise money he ordered those portions of the houses to be 
** sold, which projected into or over the public street, upon the plea that the 
" street was public property, and ought not to be overbuilt. The possessors then 
'* repurchased their own property, by which he raised a considerable sum. The 
** same method was adopted in after times by the Assembly, with the same ob- 
^ ject and consequence, by the advice of Iphfcrates." — Ibid. II. p. 391. 

2^ THE KNIQHTS, [aCT 11^ 

And may you just be going to treat us 

With a new Bill about Miletus, 

And to receive three hundred pound, 

In case you pass it safe and sound ; "* 

And so be in a fuss to stuff 

Your greedy nrnw witli soles enough, 

And yet have time to make a dash 935 

In the Assembly for your cash* 

And then, before you*ve had a taste, 

May some one come to invoke you, 
By heaven, to go ; and in your haste 

May one huge mouthful choak you I 040 

Bravo, by Jove, by Pha?bus, and by Ceres ! 


He seems to me a worthy citizen 

In all respects, such as has never yet 

Been granted to the teu-a-penny vulgar, 945 

But you, base Magab^an, while you said 

You loved nie, garlicked me. '" Give back my ring ; "' 

You shall no longer be my steward. 

(135) Miletus wta one of the wealthy ABuitLC cittea subject tn AUiens. Whul 1 
was the nnture of the biU» we are not told ; perhaps eomeMiZ^aimi advcoturen 
hud a snug little Rttilway bubble, which they foiitid it convenient lo push fop-| 
n-arda after the most approved modem sjftem. 

(13S) III otlier wofd^, used miMr means to exdte my iU-t«uiper^8ee^ 
Adidrmttnjf, Note 24. 

(137) The aigtiet-ring anaw^ered the same purpose in Greece, u a fafunch of kc^rs 
in England. It wm uauol to fostea the bar of a dirar n-ith bees' wux, imd wal it 
with the ieaJ on the ring. The jewellers weie forbidden by an expres* law from 
retiiining impre^on» of tho rings which they *old, in order to prevent fraud. ^ 
*^Poltef8 AntiqiiUieM^ I, p* 17L 



Take it ; [^Gives a ring. 
But know, if you cashier me as your guardian, 
There'll soon start up a greater rogue than I. 950 


This ring here cannot possibly be mine ; 

The device seems different, or else I'm purblind. 


Let's look at it. Pray what was your device ? 


A Pallas, with a mob-cap on her head. 


But there's no Pallas here. 


What is there then ? 955 


A gaping gull, haranguing on a rock."' 




What's the matter, sir ? 


Away with it ! 
It was Cleonymus's"' ring, not mine, 

(198) The " rock** Ib intended to denote the Marble Huttings on which the 
«peaken hanutgued in the Assembly. The ^ gull " refers to Cleon^s peculating 

(189) The cowardly glutton.— See Achdmians, Note 17. 

'222 THE KNIGHTS. [aCT H. 

He was possessed of! Take this one firom me> 
And be my steward. [Offers him another ring, 


I beseech you, master, 960 

Don't give it him, until youVe heard my prophecies. 


And mine besides. 


But, if you credit Aim, 
You're to become a water-bag.*** 


If him, 
You're to be circumcised up to your head."* 


My prophecies declare that you're to rule 965 

O'er every country, garlanded with roses. 


And mine again declare that you're to have 
A flowered purple mantle and a chaplet. 

(140) The prophecy here referred to ran as follows : — 

" Use not unworthy lenience; 

" Nor flatter with unctuous and courtly 
" Phrases the wicked Athenians, 

" Who'U turn to water-bags shortly." 

J4Uut Pollux, X. 187. 

(141) That is to say, flayed alive; an equally pleasant operation with that 
which is alluded to at the end of the following stanza. 

" For his own share — ^he saw but small otrjection 

" To so respectable an ancient rite ; 
" And after swallowing down a slight refection, 

" For which he owned a present appetite, 
" He doubted not a few hours of reflection 

" Would reconcile him to the business quite." 
•* Will it?"— said Juan sharply,— "S^ike me dead ! 
" But they as soon shall cireuincise fm^f head I " 


And in a golden chariot drag along 

The handcuffed prisoners .... Smicythe and husband.*" 


Well, go and fetch them, that this gentleman 970 

May hear them. 




And you fetch yours. 


Look ! [Exit Cleon into People's house. 


Look, by Jove ! Fm perfectly content. 

[Exit Blackpudding-seller into his own house. 


Sweet, oh sweet will the light of day 
Shine on those who are far away. 

And on those who are present, 975 

If but Cleon should now be hooked ! 
Though I heard some old chaps, who looked 

Most morose and impleasant. 

(U2) The wit of this passage is probably obscured, iW>m our not being ac- 
quainted with the circumstances referred to. Smfcjthitf was an eflfeminate 
fellow, who is here turned into a woman, Smfcyth^. If a married female pri- 
soner was brought into an Athenian court, it was usual to add the words, ** and 
** husband," when her name was proclaimed ; a feme-covert being supposed 
bcapable of answering, except throu^ her spouse. The phiy upon the martial 
and the legal senses of the word '' prisoner," is sufficiently obrious. 


Stand it out on the Law Exchange,'** 980 

That, supposing this monster strange 

Had been crushed in his cradle. 
Two o' the usefuUest instruments 
Had been lost to the Attic gents — 

Namely, pestle and ladle.*** 

I'm astonished to hear he was 985 

Such a dunce ; for they say, I'm poz. 

All his schoolmates are able 
To attest that he played the bass 
Oft, but stedfastly set his face 

'Gainst the learning the treble ; 990 

Till the Harpmaster got at last 
Wrath, and swore at him hard and fast — 

" Well, however the case lie, 
" They shall take ye away from school, — 
" Thnt they shall ; for the stupid fool 995 

" fTi/Zplay every thing bcusly.*' 

(143) There was an Exchange in the Pineus, where the merchants met to exhi- 
bit their samples, and transact business. We are not to suppose that there was 
also a place known by the name of the Law Exchange, but that some public 
office, where the business of the law-courts was transacted, is so nicknamed by 
the poet by way of a joke. 

(144) In the comedy of the PeacCy the god of War is represented on the lUgd 
as about to pound up the Grecian cities in a huge mortar, prerioos to whidi 
operation he sends his assistant Tumult, to fetch a pestle fiom Athens. Tumnlt 
comes back with the answer, that the pestle of the Athenians, the demagogue 
tanner, has been destroyed. 



Scene I. The Same. 

Peopde has remained on the stage. 
Enter Cleon with a huge bundle of scrolls. 

Here ! Look at them ! Yet I have not brought all. 
Unter the Blackpudding-seller with a stUl larger bundle. 


How my guts ache ! Yet I have not brought all. 


What are they ? 




The whole of them? 


Are you astonished at their number then? 

I've got a chest, by Jove, full of them still. 1000 


And I a garret, and two lodging-houses. 




Let's see them. Well, whose prophecies are these ? 


Mine are by Bacis."' 


And by whom are yours ? 


By Glanisy elder brother to that Bacis. 


And what are they about ? 


Athens, and Pylus, 1005 

And you, and me, and every thing besides. 


And what are yours about ? 


Athens, and porridge, 
And Lacedsbmon, and fresh mackarel. 
And men who sell their barley by false measures. 
And you, and me. 

[Cleon begins to gnaw his lips with rage and vexation. 
Would that he'd bite his nose ! 1010 


Come, read them to me, and especially 

(145) The celebrated soothaayer. (See Note 16.) GlanM is most pTobO)!/ a 
creature of the poet's imagination. We hear nothing of him in history. He is 
said to be elder brother to Bacis, according to the plan that the poet goes on 
of making the Blackpudding-man surpass Cleon in every thing. 


The one that I delight in, which declares 
That I shall be an eagle in the clouds/^* 


Then listen ; and attend to what I say. 

[Reads from a scroll^ with solemn pompousness. 
" Son of Erechtheus, rule 

" Thy steps by the words that Apdllo 1015 

" Hymns from oracular stool^ 

" And bids thee religiously follow. 
" Cherish thy dog with glee, 

" The holy, the rough-toothed, the clever, 
" Who, in defence of thee 

" Fierce gaping and crying, will ever 
" Furnish thee pay, because, 

" K he do not, to Stygian palace 
'^ Goes he ; for numerous daws 

** Are cawing against him in malice/* 1020 


I cannot understand what all this means. 
By Ceres ! What's " Erechtheus" got to do 
With this same " dog" and " daws ?" 


/am the "dog," 

(146) This orade was interpreted to signify, that as the eagle excelled all 
other birds in strength, so should Athens in prooeai of time excel all other 
nations in power. It ran as follows : — 

" When thou hut tullered and striren 

" In nutny a toilsome endeavour,— 

" Athens the blest ! —thou shalt !!▼• in 

" The clouds as an eagle for ever." 



[act hi. 

Because I howl in your defence ; and Phoebus 
Tells you to cherish me — ^your trusty Tike. 


That's not the meaning of the prophecy ; 
This dog of yours has gnawed the corners ofl' 
The oracled j just as he serves your door.^*' 
I\e got the genuine truth about the dog. 


Read it ; but fijst 111 take a stone up, lest 
The prophecy about the dog should bite me,^*^ % 

BLAciCFUDDtNG-BELLEE {reading ftom a gcroU). 
** Son of Erechtheus, beware 

" Tliat kidnapping mongrel, the bragging 
" Cerberus ; who, by thy chair, 

" With his tail most lovingly waggingj 
" Watches thee dining — to cheat 

" Thy soul with pretended affection , 
*' But will devour thy meat 

" Wlien thou gap*st in another direction ; 
" Aye, and will secretly go 

** By night to thy kitchen in silence, — 


(147) It was coramon in ancient timi?* to keep a fierce dag chained up at lli© 
rtreet-door to fiCAre away intnidcra. (See L^sUtralOy 1. I21ii/) At the entraJict* 
of tnstiy of the bouses in Pompeii, the?e is piimted in Iftrge ebaiactem. "Mintl 
** the dcjg!"*-a far mow «ei>»ible injunction, if it fa to be eouisidcredto a.pp\y to 
BTery pasat^T-by. than our English '' Knock and ringT* 

11411) There m an equally elegant joke in Plnutus. A follow who ha» been- 
taking *ome money for ii batch of donkey «» eielnimi^ 

•^ 1 villi I hiiil » tUf*E to thrash tliesv «««, 
'* Should I hey begin to bnjy vUliin mjr purief " 


" Cur that he is, — ^and so 

" Will lick thy dishes .... and islands." 


By Neptune, Glanis, you have beat him hollow ! 1035 


Hear this, my dearest sir, and then decide. [Reads. 

** Athens a woman enshrines, 

" And a lion shall suck at her nipple, 
" Destined to battle with lines 

" Of gnats in defence of the people, 
" Brave as if shedding his blood 

" For his whelps. Him guard and environ 
" Safely with walls of wood,"" 

" And impregnable towers of iron." 1040 


D'ye comprehend it ? 


No, not I, by Phoebus. 


The god most clearly bids you cherish me, 
Because I guard you in the " lion's" place. 

(14^ The poet eyidently had in his eye the celehnted oracle, which was 
delivered to the Athenians before the battle of Sdlamis, and which has given 
occasion to the well-known heart^ftinring phrase, ** The Wooden WaUs of 
** Old England." The lines referred to maj be thus translated : — 
" Every bulwark shaU faU,~ 

" So answers Jove to Minerva, — 
'* Saving a wooden wall, 
" Which will prove thy children's preserver." 

See ThirlwaU's H%$i, Greece, II. pp. 294—296.' 



I never knew you lived in LyofCs Place ! 


There's one thing that he purposely omits — 10*5 

The meaning of the wall of wood and iron. 
In which Apollo hids you keep the fellow. 


What does the god refer to by this phrase? 


He bids you put him in \ki^ jwe^hoUd flank^^ 


These oracles, I think, are coming true. 1050 

CLEON {reading). 
" Yield not, I pray, to his talk ; 

" There are envious ravens a-croaking. 
" Love the generous hawk, 

" And recaQ to your memory, O king, 
" Who it was brought thee in chains 

" The Laceda^mdnian codfish. 

" Pshaw ! When you risked that, your brains 

" Were Aiddled, you oddest of odd fish. 
" Son of Cecrops, then 

" Are his actions for other men models ? 1055 
" Women can carry, if men 

" Will lift up the load on their noddles ; 

(150) The stocks— ^n elegant mode of puniBhment, which the pn^gren of 
modem refinement bids flEur to btuiish from our land. 


" Women though cannot %ht ; "* 

'^ For a fight is a fright to a shy lass/' 

CLEON (reading J. 
" Now interpret aright 

" What's Pylus in front of a Pylus."»» 
" Pylus in front of a Pylus — 

PEOPLE (mimicking him). 
What means that " front of a Pylus ?" 

** Why, that he*ll seize on the pie-lass, 

" And rob her and render her pieless. 1060 

( 151 ) When Ajax and Ulysses were disputing the palm of hravery,— as was re- 
lated in the little 'Iliad, a poem hj one Leeches of Mityl^ie, now unfortunately 
lost,— the Greeks, hjr the advice of Nestor, took the very sensible method of send- 
ing some eavesdroppers under the walls of Troy, to ascertain what was the 
opinion of the enemy on the subject. These worthy emissaries find two virgins 
discussing the very topic, the first of whom, who is the advocate of Ajax, argues 
as follows :— 

" Ajax bore on hU back 

" The corpee of Aohillet, and drew it 
« Out of the martial attack ; 

" But Uiyues was fearftil to do it" 

To which the other replies with infinite promptitude : — 
" Why hast thou ventured to blurt 

*' Such opinions as these in thy recent 
" Argument t Why assert 

" A thing both untrue and Indecent f 
" Women can bear, if a wight 

" Will lift up the load on their shoulders; 
" Women though cannot fight ; 
•• For in battle their bravery moulders." 
It seems that this reasoning was thought conclusive ; for we know from 
authors who have evidently taken their fiicts fVom this poem, that the prize was 
bestowed upon Ulysses. 

(152) There was an ancient oracle, the words of which were:— 

" Pylus in front of a Pylus, 

** And still there's remaining a Pylus." 

It is quoted by Strabo (p. 339,) to prove the existence of three places of this 
name in the P^loponnese. What Clcon appears to insinuate, is that he him- 
self is the Pylus, who stands in front of the real Pylus, to defend it from the 



So I'm to purchase no more savory pies ! 


No more. He's robbed us of our pie-lasses. — 
But here's an oracle about your navy, 
To which you must attend especially. 


I will. Do you read on ; for first of all 
I mean to pay the wages of my seamen. **• 1065 

" Son of iEgeus, take heed, 

" The dog-fox carefully shunning, 
" Treacherous, blest with speed, 

" Deceitful, greedy and cimning. — 
" Know'st thou the meaning of this, 
" Thou People I dote on so dearly?" *^ 

PEOPLE (mimicking him). 
Yes, for the dog-fox is 

The pander Philostratus clearly. "* 


That's not what's meant. This fellow here is always 1070 

Demanding some fast-sailing men-of-war 

To go and gather in the revenue ; 

And Phoebus bids you never let him have them. 

(153) The Attic seamen, as we shall see from a passage which oocnn in the 
latter part of the play, were not always paid very regularly. The mention of 
the subject here is evidently a mere clap-trap to catch the applause of the 

( 154) Philostratus, it appears from the Greek note, kept a house of an abomi- 
niible description, and wus nicknamed ^' dog-fox,^ probably from the combined 
impudence and cunning of his disi>osition. 



How is a man-of-war a " dog-fox ?." 


Because both men-of-war and dogs are swift. 


How comes the " fox," then, added to the " dog?" 1075 


He likens the Marines to little foxes ; 

For when they disembark they eat the grapes. "' 


WeU, well! 

But where am I to find these foxes pay? 


Ill give them pay myself. ... for three whole days. '*• 
{Reading.) " Hear this oracle too ; 

" Take every precaution and care that 1080 
" Lamia"' cheats not you ; 

" The lips of Apollo declare that!" 

( 155) ^ Take us the foxes, the little foxes, that spoil the vines : for our yines 
** have tender grapes." (SoUmon'a Song^ II. 15.) Every one must recollect the 
&ble of the fox and the grapes. 

(156) As has heen before stated, it was usual, when an expedition was in- 
tended, to order the men to meet at a given qpot with provisions for three dajs. 
I should conjecture from this passage, that for those three days no pi^ at all was 
allowed them, so that the promise of the Blackpudding-man is perfectly nuga- 
toiy, in which the whole fun of the thing consists. There can be no doubt that 
they were not allowed provision-money for that period. (See Boeckh*s Publ. 
Eeon, AiherUf I. p. 363.) There is a somewhat similar piece of waggeiy in the 
Birdit where a reward of 300/. u offered to any body who shall kill a dead tyrant, 
a promise which it is evident can never be exacted. 

(157) A town in Th^Bsaly, where Antipater was besieged after the death of 


[act III, 

PEOPLE (mimickif^ Mm)* 
Lamia ? Pshaw ! 


*' He calls 
** TluB mendicant's hand by that nimfie, and 
*' L&Tma 'tk ; for he bawb^ — 

[Imiiaiing a heggar's actioiu 
" Pray drop your alms in my lame hand ! *' 

CLEON (reading). 
*• No, he is wrong in this, 

*^ What Phcebus alluded to by these 
** Words about Lamia, ia 

" The hand of poor Diopithes* "* — 
** I have a mystical stjroll, — 

" A prophecy pinioned and regal,^ — 
" How yoii*ll be king of the whole 

" Of die earth, and turn to an eagle, "* 
BLACKP0DDiNG*3ELLEa (reading), 
" I have one — mentioning both 

" The earth and the Red-Sea, and that on a 
** Jury you'll lick up broth 

" In the far-away courts of Ecbatana." 


(I5B) Of thin p^rsori, nil thiit can be gathered ift, tliat He wu an omtor^ tlmt li 
was accused of taking bribes, and that the comic poeta laiighed at him fort 
half-emcked. It was by him that a decree was procured^ '^hj wYuch pen 
" urho denied the being of the god«, or taught doctrines coticennug the eelcsttal 
** bodies whieh were inconsistent with religion, were made liable to a certisiu 
" cnmina] procesa.'' (ThiHwoirft^i^/. Greece^ Til. p. 89.) The psofiiiagie in the 
textproveti that one of hii haiida had beeu injured, which tlie ancieats oansiiletvd 
quite a Ikar subjeet for rldieule. We bavc certiiiniy impraved apon them in 

(l^) See before, Note 146. 


CLEON (reading J. 
" IVe had a fortunate dream : — 

" I see Minerva, and view her 1090 

" Pour upon People a stream 

" Of Wealth and Health firom a ewer." 

" I have had one as well : — 

*' I see her herself, and behold her 
'^ Come firom the Citadel 

" With the holy Owl on her shoulder ; '•* 
" Then she appears to me 

" To pour out a torrent and chuck it — 
** Scents ambrosial at thee, 

" Pickle-garlic at him — ^firom a bucket" 1095 


Holloa, holloa ! 

Why Glanis is the wisest man on earth ! 

I now commit myself to you, " to school me — 

" Old as I am — and educate me fi-esh." 


Not yet, I beg. Wait till IVe furnished you 1 100 

Some barley, and some daily livelihood. 


I cannot bear the name of barley. Oft 

Have I been choused by you and Thuphanes ! »** 

(160) OwIb are remarkably abundant in the neighbourhood of Athens to the 
pment daj, and are often seen perched on the old ruins. The most common 
^Mcies is the small brown owl.— The passage between inverted commas, (L 1099, 
1100,) is from the Peleus of Sdphocles. Sec Clouds, 1. 1417. 

(161) This refers to certain promises of distributing barley to the citizens, 



Then I will give you barley-meal prepared. 


And I some barley-cakes abeady made, 1H)5 

And roasted fish. You've nought to do but eat. 


Make haste, then, with the things you mean to give me. 

Whichever of you two shall treat me best, 

Shall have the reins o' the Pnyx delivered to him. 


1*11 run in first ! 


You shan't, for 111 be first 1 1 10 

[Exeunt Cleon and Blackpudding-seller. 

Scene II. The Same. 

song by the chorus. 
O fair is the rule you've reared ! 
Like tjrants by all you're feared — 

Both townsman and peasant. 
Still, People, I'm forced to say 
You're easily led away, 1115 

And think itjthe first of treats 
To listen to fawning cheats, 

which it was complained that the orators made when ihey had got thcmaelTet 
into a scrape, and broke when they had got themselves out of it. (See Wa$pt» 
I 715—718.) Thfiphanes, the Greek note sayss was a cheating flatterer of 
Cleon*s, and filled the oihcc of under-clork to the people. 


And swallow the lies you find 
Last told you, and let your mind 

Be absent though present 1 120 



Those overgrown locks'" must hide 
Small sense, as you dare to chide 

My mental bereavement. 
I act in this silly way 
On purpose ; for day by day 
I pocket my pap, and when 1 125 

I've fattened my statesman, then 
I lift him on high, alack, 
Begorged with his spoil, and crack 

His scull on the pavement. 1 130 



Then if, as I understand, 
You're really a deep one, and 

No greenhorn beginner ; 
You'd punish die rascals' tricks 
Aright, if upon the Pnyx 11 35 

You fed them with care like beasts 
Intended for public feasts, '•* 
And so, when your meat was out. 
Selected one fat and stout 

And killed him for dinner. 1140 

(162) Usually worn by young men of birth and opulence. See Note 85. 

( 163) These animals were fed with the greatest care for the sacrifices. It is a 



Now look if I don't out-^heme 
Those vainest of men^ who deem 

They chouse me — the rebels ! 
I'm watching them always, though 1145 

They think that I never know 
They're stealing ; and when I lack, 
I force them to vomit back 
The thefts that have passed their jaws. 
By tickling their greedy maws 

With juryman's pebbles. *•* 1 150 

curious &ct, which we learn firom 'Aristotle, that the Ath^niaDS undentood the 
art of bhwifig up their meat to make it seem &tter. 

(164) Vesp^Lsian seems to have been indebted to Aristdphanes fbr the idea of 
his celebrated bonrmot. He compared his Chancellors of the ESxcbequer to 
sponges^ which he allowed to get full, in order that he might afterwards aqueese 
them into his own pocket 



• Scene I. The Same. 

People Kcls remained on the stage. Cleon and the Black- 
PUDDiNO-SELLER have entered during the songs^ and 
seated themselves. 


Go get you gone to hell ! 


Do you, you pest ! 


Dear People, I've been sitting here, prepared 
And anxious to do you good, for these three ages. 


And I for these ten ages, and twelve ages, 

And for these thousand ages, ages, ages. 11 55 


I loathe you both ; for I've been waitmg for you 
For thirty thousand ages, ages, ages. 


D'ye know what you must do ? 



If not, you'D tell me. 


Make mc and him start fairly from a post 
To do you services. 


It shall be so; 1160 

And you shall start. 


Here ! 
[Cleon and tlie Blackpuddino-seller|>&i^6 themselves 
side by side. 

Run ! 


You must not jostle. 
[They starts and rvn off the stage at full speed. 


I shall be placed to-day by my two suitors 

In monstrous comfortable circumstances ; 

Or else I shall coquet with them most strangely. 

[Enter Cleon with a stool, the Blackpudding-seller 
with a table, and both bearing meat-boxes. 


Look ! Fm the first to bring you out a stool! 


But not a table ; I'm the Jirstest there. 1165 


See ! I am bringing you this barley-cake, 

Made of the barley tliat I fetched from Pylus. [Presentt U- 



And I am bringing you these hollow rolls, *•* 
Formed by Minerva with her ivory hand. 

[Presents tliem. 


What a big finger, then, you had, dread goddess ! 1 170 


And I some good-complexioned fidr pease-porridge. 
Which the gate-battling Pallas stirred herself. 

[Presents it. 


People ! The goddess openly protects you. 
And now holds over you .... this pot of broth. 

[Imitates the attittide of the goddess's statue^ using the 
pot as a shield, 


D'ye think this city would be still in being, 1 175 

Unless she'd often held .... her pot above us ? 


The army-scaring goddess gives this fish. 

[Presents it. 


The stalwart-£eithered goddess gives this meat — 
Which has been boiled in broth — and slices too 
Of the small-guts, the belly, and the paunch. 

[Presents them. 

(165) Bolls of this description were used by way of spoons, to ladle up broth. 
Similarly the paste of an Englifth raised pie is made to do duty for crockery- 



[act nr. 


How tlid you come to think of aeizing them ? 


The thought's Minerva's, but the tJieft is mine," 


I ran the hazard. 


But I roasted them, 

PEOPLE (to cleon). 
Be off ! I'm grateful to the offerer only, 


Confound it, I shall he out-impudenced ! 


Why not decide, dear People, which of us 

Is the best friend to you*..* and to your belly? 


And what criterion must I use, to make 
The Audience think that I determine wisely ? 


I'll tell you ; go and seize upon my meat-box 
In silence, and examine what there's in it ; 



(168) The Greek orators in latot daja were particularly food of uttribull^g 
their political scheme* to the inaplRLtioo of the ffodi^ Tnk«?, as one instaifcW 
out of many, the commencement of Demikthenes^i set^f/tid Oi^nlhiac ora^tm^ 
" Men of Athena ! I think one may see thrtt the good- will of the gtvdn has been 
" manifeBted towards the eity oii maoy occftsionii, but especially in the present 
'* itate of nJkifSw That a people should hove sprung up Ui wa^i? war with 
" Philip,^ — and a people, too, who are poasesa^Ml of an adjoininjj coufitij^ and 
" conajderable power; and, what h mmt imT*ortant of alj^ who ejjterto^ Stwh 
** fteetimeTits reapeetitsiyr the wiir, rui to con^der a peace with him unwor^y of 
" &ny confidence, and sure to Ituul to the ruin of their own country, — ccflainly i« 
" exrt4!tly like aome ftivour conferred by the demigods and the deities.'' Tlie 
circumstancea here Tefemed to were the result of the orator's own successful 


Then serve the Magabsban*s too the same ; 
And doubtless you'll determine well. 


Let's look; 

[Opens the hox» 
What is there in it ? 


Don't you see 'tis empty, 
Dear grand-papa ? I brought you every thing. 1215 


This meat-box is a trusty friend to People. 


Just walk this way, too, to the Magabsban's. 

[Opens the box. 
D'ye see ? 


Confound it, what good things 'tis full of! 
What a great liunp of cake he's put away. 
And cut me only such a bit as this ! 1220 

[Making a sign with his fingers. 


He's often served you just the same before : 
Given you a little of the bribes he took. 
But placed the greater part before himself. 

PEOPLE {to cleon). 
You blackguard, so you stole all this, and choused me, 
" An* I hae crowned ye an' hae gi'en ye gifts ! " *~ 1225 

A manifest quotation from some unknown poet, who wrote in a pro« 
TJncial dialect The honouring a fevourite orator with a crown of gold was 



[act IY. 


I stole it for the service of the state, 


Put down your crown tliis moment^ and I*U give it 
To him. 


Yes, put it down this moment, slave, 


I won't ; for there's a Pythian prophecy. 

Which says by whom alone Tm to be conquered. 1230 


Aye, and it points out vw as clear as day, 


I want to tiy you by a test, to see 

If you agree with the divine prediction. — 

And first, I shaD examine )^ou on this : 

WhsLt school did you attend in early life ? IS8& 


The singeing-pits,'^" and I was taught with fists. 


What ? {aside.) How the prophecy strikes to my heart !— j 

Well, well! 

What arts did the gymnastic-master teach you ? 


To steal, and stare, and swear I had not stolen. 

verj usofll One of the mtM ftpleiidid speeches of I>emii8t]ione$ wns tlelivcred 
in defence of hia friend Ct^phoD, who had proposed the decree by wliich he 
himself mm dJAtingtiished in this manui^r. — See ako Btrdg^ t 12^4. 

(170) Hence we may gather ihe iinportant feet, that the AthtfnUn f&rk- 
butchcra did not leo/rf, but sitiffCy iheir hogs. See PnUux, VI. 9L 



CLEON {anide). 
" Phcebus AptSUo, what am I to suffer ? " ^"— 
And when you grew a man, what was your trade t 


A blackpuddiiig^seller, 

CLEON {breathtessli^). 
And a ? 




Ajid a pitnp. 


Confound the thiog ! '* I am no longer aught. — 

'* There's still a slender hope on which I ride." *^* 

Tell me the truth now — did you vend blackpuddings 1 245 

About the Market-place or at the Gates ? 


Why at the Gatea^ where the salt-fish is sold* "' 

*' Alas ! The god^s prediction is fiiUiUed I 

[I^Qsiratei hiimelf at fall le^igth on ike ffrtmnfL 
" roll tliis miserable wretch mthin !''*^* 
Farewell my crown! Unwillingly I leave thee- 1^50 

(170 From the TiUj^us of Eanpidm.—Grerk ttoie, 

(1?2) Clt^riy ft quotatioti from tome Uagedj. Thu whole of thia tcmc is in 
It vein of burlesque tmgie sol em nit j. 

(I "3 J We nre not tdd tphkh tfoltt were anderatood bjr the phtme ike 
Gttie»y but Ihcj were mmi probably thnae that led to the Pin^us; forming the 
comaiunjcation between a maritime city and iU port, tliey wnuld btf more 
Jiltcly to be thronged with piwscngers than any atherik and therefore he U*ttcr 
adaptt^ for the Blackpudding^man's purpofle, I'he suburbs of a city are 
feaeF^lly the resort of the worst chometern of both nexcA, aft we find the neigh- 
bourhood of these G«te» wajs.— See U 1 iOO. 

( 1 74 ) Tim is &om Ihc Belttrojihtmy ti loet play of £urf piilea. — Grmk noic 



[act IV» 


Depart ; and you will find another master. 

More fortunate perhaps, though not more tliievish. 

[Gives up ku crown. 
Enter Demosthenes, 


Jove of the Greeks ! thine is Ae prize of victory, 


All hail, thou glorious conqueror, and remember 
That it is I whoVe made a man of jou, 
1*11 ask but one sniall boon — to be your Phanus,"* 
And serve you as your uuder-clerk in actions. 


Now tell me what your name is, 


Agoracritus | 
Because I lived by actions hi the 'Agonu ^^ 


Then I commit myself to Agoracritus, 
And give him up this Magabsean here. 


ril take great care of you, my dearest People ; 


(175) Alc^tis, in Eunpides's pltiy of tluit name, (1. 179^) e£flium» to trait I 
huflband, to presence whose life ahc is iibout to aocrifice ber own— 

" 1 dhi and you will find mmttier wife, 

** More rottuhalf! perhapn, thouglj nqt taon chute.'* 

(176) A han£!eiM>n of Cloon's. He occura again, apparently in thu mnm 
respectable tapsicity, in the Waspa^ L V2f2&. 

{I7T) The ^Agom, that bt to say, the Marketplace. The tnuisiiiitor hw 
iindeavoured^ ss much as poiusihle, to avoid intcTlarding the Engliiih lmii4[iuu{v 
with Greek terms, but it here setfTiii^l iinavoldabk% mq1v9» the dialogue was Ui 
run like that well-known f|ueatioa and answer in one of Matthewa'e At-ltamfn 
*' What'* the reiwon they call you fellows ipattrmmk^ Tom ? " ** Vy 'cwc w* 
" opene the hackDey-ttiwrh dcMra, your Honour.** 

&CBT4E I.] 



You shall confess that no one knows so well 
As I, what*s best for thc.,,<Gapenian statCi"" 
[Misceunt People, tke Black pudding-sblleEj and Demo- 
sthenes. Cleon renmim grovelling on tke ground* 


'* O what could form a fairer prolusion, 

" What could form a fairer conclusion/*'" li2G5 

Than singing the valorous warlike deeds 

Of the nrgers-on of nimble steeds ? 

Passing by Lysistratus/*** 

And not willingly making a ftissj — 

Though the fellow so ghastly and gaunt is,^ 

To provoke that houseless being Thumantis ; 

Wbo pouring forth a tearful river, 1270 

And humbly touchingj Phoebusj thy quiver; 

Ever at Delphi is praying to thee 

To appease his hunger, .-for poverty. 

Boldly to revile the wicked 

Should not fimiish malice food ; 

(!71t] Tliid is a fait &t the Ath^mana, for their dwsyn gnf^ng and etaring 
ifter other pe<t|jlc'» hiigitu?^ aiid ntflectirig their owu^^Se** the Birth. 
(ITfO ITte Greek note fiirui&bc* m with the foHo*ing fragnient ofPiodur: — 

'^ O what could rorm a CurtT proluiloUi 
** WJiAl could ffimi % fjurer cDndusion, 
" XliAQ iiu^ne Latdna tttid the d«edii 
" Of [be iLTfcr-on of nimble iteedsl^ 

(IWCJ) LysLstratiLB was a poor poTcrty-stricken wrietch; (see Ach&ramm, Noti? 
!i4 ;) ivnil Thtinilli}ti&, who is mentioned three liafa ailerward;*, was a propJtet 



[act IV. 

AIJ but men who've got a thick head 

Thiiilc that this becomes the good* 1£7S 

Now if he^ whose nasty penchant 

Must be satirised, had been 
Known himself, I would not mention 

One I love ; 'twould be a siji/'* 
But *tis not SO- Aiignotus 

All men know, wbo*d tell us right 
What's a crotchety or could quote us 

What's the odds of black and white | 
But he's got a certain brother, — 

Not allied IB manners thougli, — HSO] 

Scamp Ariphrades, whom other 

Persons here can scarcely know, 
" Scamp/' however, he delights in* 

Yet he's not a " stamp " alone, — 

who was much in the aame case. The comic wrilert Hennlpptii^ luu a hit it 
the latter in the foU owing piutsage, which h luldrewed to Bacchui. 

♦* Th* nccdjr »io* already offer tq fOU 

" PoorpaltT^lliatiaxeu, tnaltncd, juifl Imoer 

*' Ttuui LeottC'phddCfl and thin ThumAntii.*^ 
(IBI) The whole of ihia pieci? of poetry Is occupied in exprening thevirtucKU 
mnligniLtioii of th© poet against a heaottod tlebiiuchoe—ono Ariphmdeft. We 
leani from comparing a paaaage of the Wa$p$ (L 1275-— ISBiJ), that the munc of 
thiit wretch's father wns Aut^menes, and that he had two hrothors^ the first a 
veEy Buecessllil harper, and a man of the highest respedabiljty, called A]%adtitit 
who IB mentionetl in the present po^vige also ; 4jid the second n remarlaJb^ 
clever actor, of whose naine, however, we are not informed, Altfaomh w* 
cannot but esteem our author, for the feeling of diigust which he expreatt^al 
the abominatiorii of which this depraved fellow WM guilty, jel it certainly wei« 
to he wie^hec!, that, while be condemned the offender, he had not tpoken 
quite sfi plainly out as to the nature of the offence. But on these pointa, £■■ 
wv BGC from the examplei^ of the Roman satiriMta, the opiiuom* of Ihe ancient* 
appeur to hii^e beon diametrically opposed to oui«^ 




None would notice such a slight sin 

In tliifl scampnabounding town, — 
Nor a ** thorough-scamp ;*' he's added 

Something extra e*en to this 
In the brotlielsj where, be-madded, 

He enjoys his beastly bliss f 
Imitating Polymnestus*" 

In his filthineas, and thus 
Sitting down with such a guest as 

Scoundrelly CEonichusJ"^ 
Therefore^ be it known, whoever 

Loathes not such men thoroughly, 
While we walk the earth, shall never 

Drink from the same cup as we. 




O oft at dead of night have I pondered. 

Oft inquired, and studied, and wondered, 

If a table exists in the Attic nation. 

Where Cleonymus'** eats with the least moderation. 

Every body says that he, 

Feeding on rich men's property, 1295 

Usually stands as firm as a sentry, 

And refuses to go away out of tlie pantry. 

(tiSJOf tbeee Iwo perwjiis we know nothing, exoepi thiit the fiwt waa a 
iC^lopluliiimi harper, and that thuy w^re both addicted to the name ridoun 
j)ropetiftiti«fl oA Atiphnvlm, ncvording to the Gr^ek note. 

(IBS) Here we h«ve another attack on tht? ujilbrtunat« glutton* who h UtUi 
iptibeited to «temAl inlaniy in the poetry of his remonielew dumtutef.— See 



[act IV# 

On which they all, with one accordj 

Beg and entreat their king and lord i^ 

" Sire, be persuaded, and if thou art able, 

" Depart, we beseecli thee, and pardon the table l" 

Once upon a time oiir galleys 

Met, they say, to talk ; when one. 
Old and worn with many sallies 

On tlie enemy, thus begun : — 
** Have ye heard the news, deaj virgins ? 

" Some one wants five-score of us ^** 
" Launched upon a feigned emergence 5 — 

" Tis that sour Hyberbolus !"^«* 
AH agreed that this endeavour 

Must conceal some shameM plan ; 
One exclaiming, who had never 

Yet had ought to do with man — 
'* God forbid ! He shall not master 

*' Me ; {for rather than such terms 
" Here FU bear each foul disaster, 

*' Waste by age^ and rot by worms ; — ) 
" No, nor Galla^ G alius daughter ! 

** Never shall he play such pranks. 



(184) On several occaaioiiB in Uie earUer part af the waf, the Ath&umii tent 
ciut oe Inr^ a fleet as this to lavage the cofwts of the Ptloponnefle. When 
we ccMiiiidfr that the compkmcnt of each iE^Igj was 2(K) men, and therefof^ the 
whole number of souh on board atich a 6eet 2U,000, exeluaive of land-fbite^ 
we maj form Bome idea uf the nilnoua expcnaea of thii unnatuiBl Btruggte. 

(IB5) The demagogue, who afterwardft succeeded Clcon. (See AdiAmiam^ 
I^oto i)-2.) His old trade of hmipBelliug will ahortljf give oocaaou to a bitter 


" If I'm meant to swim on water, 

" If I'm built of pine and planks ! 1310 

" Should the Athenians agree to 

" Such a scheme, I move that then 
" We do sail forthwith, and flee to 

" Theseus' or the Furies' Fane.*** 
" Shall we let the precious rascal 

" Snap his fingers at the town 
" By conunanding us — I ask all ? 

" Let him put to sea alone, — 
" To the devil, if he's itchy, 

" To rejoin his brother scamps, — 
" Launching all the trays in which he 

" Used to hawk about his lamps !" 1315 

( 186) There were two Temples of Theseus. The one that is here meant is not the 
elegant building on the north-western side of the citadel, which remains nearly 
perfect to the present daj, but another situated in the Piraeus — the Wapping of 
Athens. These rebellious young ladies would of course have been unable to 
go any great distance by land, being accustomed principally to water-carriage, 
thou^ they were occasionally hauled over narrow isthmuses on machines 
contrived for the purpose. There was a Fane of the Furies on the Hill of 
Mars, or Areopagus. Temples in Greece, like churches in Roman-Catholic 
countries, generally had the privilege of sanctuary attached to them. 



Scene I. Athens. 

[The movable Scenes represent the PROPTLiBAyi*^ w GaieufOffSf of the 

Cleon still remains lying on the ground. 
Enter the Blackpudding-seller. 


Abstain from ill omens^ and close your lips, 

Nor let reinforcements be levied hence 
To attend upon trials with quibbles and quips. 

And deliver their tedious evidence ! 
And mind and immediately shut up the courts 

In which this city rejoices ; 
And — to celebrate duly my joyfiil reports — 

Let the Audience raise up their voices. 

(187) For a restoration of these magnificent buildings bj Mr. CockereU, m 
"Leakeys Athens. They were constructed bj Pericles, and were formed » i 
not only to ornament, but defend, the entrance to the Citadel. 



Of holy Athens the pride and renown, 

Of the Islands the noble protector ; 
What news do you bring, that will perfume the town 

With our offerings' savoury nectar? 1320 


I have cooked up and hashed up your People, and made 
His ugliness turn into beauty.*" 


And where is he, thou who hast boldly surveyed 
New regions of mind with acute eye ? 


He is dwelling now in ancient and &ir 
And violet-garlanded Athens.'** 


Oh how can we see him ? What dress does he wear? 
And what is the look that he hath hence ? 


It is such as he formerly bore, when he ate 

With Mildades and Aristides. 1325 

You shall see him. They now are unbarring the Gate, 

On this highest of holy and high days. 
So raise up the sacred cry at the sight 

Of Athens the loftily-swelling. 

(188) There is an evident alliision here to the mythological stories about 
various old gentlemen and ladies, whom Med6a is said to have cut to pieces, 
boiled in cauldrons, and thus restored to youth and vigour. 

(189) See Achdmiaru, note 74. 



[act V, 

The ancient, the wondjoua, the much-hjmned, the bright. 
Where the glorious People is dwelling. 


O Athens i anointed and violet-crowned, 

And envied by numerous nations ; 
Exlubit the king of the Attic ground 

And of all the land of the Grecians ! 1330 

[The Gates of t!w Citadel are thr&wn open. People 

appears in a magnificent dres»f seated on a throtie, 


Behold him, with grasshoppers adding a grace 
To liis locks/*** and purged of his wrinkles ; 

And scented all o'er vvith the mjTrh of a peace. 
Not stinking of stale periwinkles* **^ 


Heaven bless thee, thou wearer of Gr^cias's crown ; 

For we, too, enjoy the retrievcment 
Of blessings from heaven, Thou'rt worthy the town, 

And Marathon's noble achievement. 

(l!>0) Thue^d)d€8 tell a us that it was not Icmg befom hin tinje^ that thi' 
wealthy old AtTi^nian geiitlemen hjui lefl off rearing their hftir in a knol, 
ffuttened by a golden grftasbopper-broocb. Tliis insect wb» »elect4^d^ bccauite 
they had on id^ that it ffsgemhled them in linving t^pfung Apontoneoinsly fioffl 
the e^rth ; every body i& awRre tha^t the people of Attica boasted of being the 
indi^nouB Inhabitants of the soiU 

( 1 a I ) They aometlm ea made ub<s of Hinni 1 ahells, imteod of pcbblea, or metaUic 
tokeniSi to give Iheir rotes with in the Ooutts of Law. 


Scene II. The Same. 
PEOPLE comes forward, 


Come here, my dearest Agoracritus. 1335 

What good your cooking up has done me ! 


Has it? 
But you don't know, poor fellow, what you were, 
Nor what you did before ; for then you'd think 
I was a god. 


What was it that I did, — 
Come tell me, — and what sort of person was I ? 


First, if a man declared in the Assembly — 1340 

" I'm your admirer, People, and I love you, 

" And care for you, and scheme for you, alone ! " 

When any one began his speech like this, 

You flapped your wings and butted with your horns. 




And, in return, he choused you well. 1345 


What ? Did they treat me thus, and I not know it? 




[act % 


Aye, for your ears, by Neptiuie, used to open 
And shut again, like any parasoL 


Was I 30 foolish and so old as tliat t 


Yes, and whene'er two orators advised you^ — 1350 

The first to build some galleys, and the second 

To fool the money on yourself in pay ; — 

The man who recommended pay^ by Jove, 

Was sure to beat the one who spoke for ships*^ 

[People shows si^ns of deep Mhami» 
Why are yon stooping ? Cannot you gtand still ? 

I*m quite ashamed of all my former sins* 1355 


But it was not your fault, — so never mind, — 

But that of those who choused you- Tell me now — 

Should some bufFoonisli barrister ^^ declare — 

" You jurymen wiU get no barley-meal, 

" Unless you find a verdict for the plaintiff! "*•• 1360 

What will you do to this same counsellor t 

(102) StricHj' speaking, the Athenitmsbid noeucb class of men as*" 
though it was not an uiiiwuaJ thing for a peraon, who iraa not a good orator luni' 
■elf, to be defended by hia friend. The cuBiom of mokijig a profeiBiOR of pleftd- 
iiig causes wna never introduct^ in Gioece. 

(193) *' Not only wa* it tlic pmctice to adjudge property to th©»tot«v in «iniei 
" to mereaae the revenue, but the demagogue* publicly declared in Uiw-tuit«» 
** tbat if judgment wm not given m bodjc certain manner, the falaiiescouM ni>t 
** any longer be paid to the people/' (Boeckh, PubL Ectm. Athenf, L p, 29 1 J 
What a hoiTible state of public morali doea this one fact indltate! 





ni lift him up and hurl him down the Gulf,^** 
With fat llyberbalus hung round his ncek. 


WTiy now you talk correctly and discreetly ! — 

How will you manage other public matters? I3f>5 


First, I shall issue the full pay to all 
- Who row the galleys, when they come in port 


Then you oblige a lot of bench-worn bottoms. '" 

W (194) Greece^ being an extensive Bineslone formation i naturallj ohnitiids in 
f cat pms ajid grottoes. The ** GulC or '* Felon's Pit^" wafi a Ji?ep bole of this kind, 
into which crimioAla condemned to death were sometlme^s cti&t. When Dunns 
icnl ambasNidors to Athens to demand earth and VHter, — the iymhoU of un- 
quAlified Eubmiiiaion, — the people threw the wretched men int*> thia h^l^ and 
told them to iak« what the^^ wanted there. 

(IJI5) ETCiy body who baa ever rawed fiftj or fliJtty mil^ in a day will fully 
nndenbuid the whole force of this refined racpresaion* It is a Btmnge things that 
Mr, Mitfotd, — who laughs at other people for talking about rowing, when they 
have never had an oar In their handSj— should dbpute the necessity of the 
Ath^nlnn wHlley-men taking cuabionj* to sit iipon, when they went to sea. The 
London watermen, whom he inBtanccs, row regularly a certain distaucu every 
dny, and therefore are always, like Ajai s shield, enveloped m sevenfold hide- 
But the Athenian seamen^ on the eontmry, were often called out suddenly for 
•erviue, after a repose of perhaps half a year or more, and so lery naturally 
mndt um of e?ei^' escpedient to render the bardness of the t>ench€» more t*ilemhle 
to their aehing bunes, — (See Mitford's Hi^t. Greece, IL c. 8, Appemii^fJ The 
Greek note mi this passage informs us gravely, that all the Athi^nians^ from 
Theseu* downwardly were slender in the hinder parts, the reason of which 
waa this : Theseus, the king of Athen*, had descended to the Shades in o«ler 
U> steal away Prdeerpine, but had been detected by Pluto, and comlemne^l 
to irl for ever iti>on a htige stone. Shortly afterwards H^reuie« paid a visit 
|o the BBiiie dark re^ponis to filch the Dog C^rhcruA, iwid detemiining to 
reieaM his friend fi-om his durance vile, he pulled him away with duch violence 
fitMii hk scat, that he actuiUly left his poateriors siickinj? l>ehind him. Which 
aceountii^ tayi the Greek commentater^for all theAth^ninns, from that time forth^ 
hariog their hinder parta dieiinguiAhed by a remarkable lack of oben^, 




[act v. 


And secondly, no citisEen whose name 

Is entered on the catalogue, shall get it 

Transferred by favour to another place ; '** 1370 

It shall contintie where it was at first. 


This touches up Cleonyraus's shield- 


No beardless chaps shall haunt the Market-place, 


Then what must CUsthenes and Straton haunt ? **' 


I mean the striplings in the perfume-shops, 1375 

Wlioll sit and chatter there all day like this — 

" That PhaSax *'* is a clever soulj and managed 

" Most ably not to be condemned to death; 

*' For he is copulative, and perfective, 

" And sentimentative, and clear, and motive, 

" And skilfully obtentive of applausives*" 1S80 

<196) TMi w»* done, it appeara, ifi order to eacape mibtaiy serxwc. Tbere 
woa a reguliii mufiUj^mill kept of all eitizenfl able to bear anni, and thej were 
c^tcd out in rotation, whenever a body of soJdiem vm wonted for any purpoftis 
Hence, if a cowardly sneak tbund his name coming on, be procured it by fiivotu 
to be tmnaforred anionic tbosc who had just perfbnned the ie<|imed dutj* Bsd 
by ihh mctms escaped for the tini& 

(IJ)7) For a notice of these two effeminiite ftllowi, n^a Achdmkms^ Not«« 39 
and 21, 

(138) Ad Athf^nuin stateaman, who was generally conaidePed incm? succe^ul 
m a negotiator than an orator. It seems, however, firom thia |mMafce« thai h* 
managed to obtain a verdict fur himself in a capital pro^cution under leij 
equivocal eircumsiancen* He wai a rival of the celebrated Alcib£adc« in public 
life. ECipotii, the comic poct^ chikmrleriBed him m 



Are not you kickative of babblatives ? ^^ 


Not I, by Jove ; but I'll compel them all 

To go and hunt, and leave oif making motions. 


On these conditions, then, accept this stool, 

And this young slave to carry it about ; 1385 

And when you like it, make a stool of her. 

[Presents them, 


So I'm returning to the good old times ! 


YouTl say so, when I've given you the Peace 
For thirty years.'*^ Come hither, Peace, directly. 

[Enter a beautiful Courtezan, attired in the character of 


Afan^hty Jove, how beautiful ! For god's sake, 1390 

"Will you allow me to be-thirty-year her? [Kisses her. 

How did you get her ? 


Why, the Magabsean 

(199) Theie foims, which denote power or capabUUff^ were particulariy 
afiected by the SocrAtic school of philosophy. Those who wish to see the use 
«f them pushed to the very brink of absurdity, may read the Sophitt and the 
PoUHeian of Plato— two ingenious pieces of trifling. 

(200) The Greeks, when they made peace with one another, generally made 
it ibr a definite period, as five, thirty, or fifty years ; thus verifjring the doctrine 
of Hobbes, that the state of war is the natural state of mankind— See Achdr- 

», L 187—195. 


Hid her within, for fear that you might find her- 
So now I giv^ you her, to take with you 
Into the country. 


Aiid what punishment iSQo 

Will you inflict upon the Magabaean, 
Who acted thus ? 


Notliing that's very harsh, 
Except that he shall exercise my trade^ 
And be the only person that's allowed 
To sell blackpuddings at tlie City Gates — 
A happy compound of the dog and asa. 
There shall the rogue get drunk and slang the whores, 140^ 
And swiU the dirty-water from the Bagnios. 


You've well devised what he is worthy of — 

To try and out-bawl whores and Bagnio-men ; 

And, in return, I ask you to the Town-Hallj 

To occupy the seat that villain held ; 

So take this spotted robe and follow me. 
(To the attendants*) 

Bear out that fellow to pursue his trade, 

That all tlie foreigners he wronged may see him. 

[Cleon is carried out in a helpless siate^ together wUh 
th^ stand', blackpuddingn, ^c, which h^id been kjt 
llw sta^e. (See L 489.) The CuoKUs kavts 
Orehestra, and exeunt omnss. 




#• Tkr wMmhtrt, tmik h^n and in th$ iramtmtimt mf«r #ft the Hm*t 0/ Srmtl^t Or^tk 
l^fi, tekieh correspond aeeurnhlp to tkott 0/ the two texU pubtukik 6y W^ Dindtrff; 
MX, one in J«2A aimmff§i tke Ieihiq Cj^AiHics, gnd one in 3BJ0 In the FottM 

L. 25 ] 

I i»fo]|aws: 

rvr drpifm. irpwrop A^e 

T^ f^kwfifVt tlra ^, cwJt<J KKrrrdyi^t itviep6¥^ 

t. 75.] Read aMf with the VenetiaEi MS. And the PwL Scm, 

hs 87,] Expunge the 

tht! end of the line ; for 

[}f iDtcrrogatii 

cjiiestion ^an Bcarcely be asked with yQutf the second word in the ientence* 
The fonsCntction is f^lUptical, for Tr^pl vcrrau ^ciiit/ itrri troi [if yvto^yt*'^ as in 
the Wasp^, L 240, dAA* iyKav^^tVt tevBpfs, wr itrrm AAxwri t^ovl \Hm^4v^} 
Nidus proposes Co drink bulVs blood; DcmosthcrK^s to drink wme. Nicitis 
ih^n i4ughs at the proposal of his friend. " At all events, however" [the 
proper meaning of yov^,] says he, ^* your proposal is concerning drink — 
** thoug:h it is not exactly the kind of drink I should wish. For I want bulfa 
*' blood ; yoti waot wine," Afterwards^ in the 95th liner he makes use of the 
emphatic phrase, r^r <f^ ttot^ ; wherea^t it would have been mer«ly t^^ itqt^, 
unlefts there were a distinction to be forcibly pointed out between your kirid 
of dritikj and wty kind of drink* The circumstance of none of ihe commen- 
laton having seen ihe meaning of tbia phrase, rnvwi aerpe aa my excuse for 
bting a little tedious on the subjecU 

L, 1*6*) Read fAi tous OfniJj* eV ^J^ wovjip^¥ y\ with the Venetian MS. 

L. 2tt3,] Resd SmdaAi^v with the edition of 1825. The word occurs In th« 
Sam* techmcal senile, IL 491, -196, though in both those passages there is at 
tlw Bame time an allusion to the cotntnod meaning "to slander.'* See also 
Mird*^ L jtf4S, and f^astressett 1. 1!214| where itsi^i&et, by a mee&pbor, " tu 

L, 272,] Read rA (tkIa^ij, with Bekker and the Poet. Sten. 

L. 271.] Read itd KiKpaym, i^irwfp it\, with the edition of 1825, 

h. S75.] I have translated as if the iine within brackets had been added 
by the author; aotnething of tha kind appears wanting, on account of the 

AAA* iyoi ttt Tp $ofi Town? yt irp^ra rpit^^at* 



L. «iOOj Read i^taijm wiiU Bt^ntlcy. The Hav* MS. has ^taufu. 

L. 3*i70 H<?ad o S' lirra£s^5 with Suidas Aiid Kusten TIk^ aucieiit 
SchotiiiiC atid otie of the more recent ones evidently read iKe same; the 
Jtttter ot whom, by the by, seems to have found AfiTrrraj in the text instead cif 

1h S30»] Fiaice the cotn ma before aJSTo$€v instead of after it, 

L. *070 The Rav* MS. has irvp*iri'nrjj^ ; read wvpofiirriw instead of wv^^t- 
njF, wbieh if not Greek, in the sense which in given it of ** ru forum puervrmm 
♦' inspectator.*' It might Justus well mean, *' ruforum sqmmm inspeciat^if/' 
One Scholiast seems to have read waiSffwtmjy, which would do very well ; aud 
anothur wvp&wiTniv, wjio quotes Cratinus as authority for the m&ni, and 
escpluitis it fpiiXa^ tov ffiTov. 

L* 602.] 'Aj't^pi^nfiu^ RcomB a atrangeword to use in such apiece of poetry 
as this, where nothing hut the language of ordinary life occuirs- I should 
coiijectiire dvf^^tN^lm^, and have translated as if the author had so written. 

L. 634.] This and the following Line are terribly hacked and slashed m. the 
lidition of IB 26. They ought to be read^ as in Bekkerand tlie PoeL Seen, 

BrpcVxc^olrc koI Ki^^oAai koI yi6Bufv^ jc. t.A. 

L. 832,] Head kwaiti^ti, *Eiri|ffjfvy/tii or ^i^Uctntfiiu (for they are iiMd 
promiacuously by PlatOi Euihtfdemmf p. 274» fin.) signifies *'io exhihit*"' 
generally In tlie senee of *' shDwing oW^"^^ though not alwaya, f. g^ ibid. p. 2B5t 
in It, *Aro^liafUfii is mostly " to [irove," *' to demonstrate^** thovgh h has 
also other aensea. 

L, 12j6II0 tn the fragment of Pindar quoted in the Scholiast, n*ad 

iDstead of i^Artipta^i atid interpret it to apply to Apollo and hia soW chariot. 
The verse is Sapphic, as many m the same author. 

L. 1272.] Place a comma after Tlu^i'i «V Bi^t w that HOttwt wimr^iu. may 
depend upon d«l wtu^. Tlttyu takes a genitive in the setise of ^' deairiDg'^ 
TU two passages of the Cyropa^dia ; and as iinJSvfjm regularly governs either a 
genitive or an infinitive (Matth, Gr, Gr. g§ 32&, 531 )| there seemi no reaaoti 
why ircu^ should not be indulged with both constructions likewise^ tt^H^ 
I confess I have got no instance marked down* The allied verb, Bt^, 
however, is thus used in the same work of Xenopbon's. 

Ih 1287.] I suspect that Polyiunestus and CEonichus have been unjusdy 
mectoed by the Scholiaat of participating in the filthy propensities of 
Ariphrades, and that Artatophanes merely means to play upon their namet 
in this line. B<wAf tcu y^ irwoCTj\9aait art a d^^tmoios ovrof if ark fJtlr TtaKXoM 

^ff ^pi^. The word itoK^p^^^as in the pasiive iseuse, *' a nndti^ ambitus/" 
occurs in the Odyesiy S, 770, |. ti+, and ^, lit?. Oldvixits would refer to thf 
Ionic word ofor, " solus.** 
JL, U^Z} Expunge the comtna after <nr<wS«y. 



Streps! ADBS, an Athinian citizen. 
Phidippides, the San rf Sirepsiades, 
Slaves of Strepsiades. 
Scholars of Sdcrates. 
Socrates, the Athinian Philosopher. 
Chorus cf Clouds. 
The Just Cause. 
The Unjust Cause. 
PAsiASy a Money-lender. 
Bailiff ofPdsias. 
Another Money-lender.* 
Ch^refhok, the Scholar of Sdcrates. 

( 1 ) This second money-lender is generally named Amynias ; the Tianslator* 
reasons for departing from the ordinaiy usage will be found in Note 9, in the 
body of the play. 



The Comedy upon which we are now about to enter 
may be considered as the exact counterpart of the Knights. 
The vengeance which the latter so successfully executed 
npon the rich politician^ the former was intended to inflict 
upon the needy philosopher. Throughout both of them 
the object is kept steadily in view by the poet, and is never 
suflered to be thro^Ti into the back ground by any of those 
lively little episodes, which are so often introduced m most 
of his other extant compositions* In one respect^ however, 
there is a remarkable distinction between the two dramas, 
which may bo traced in almost every single line of them, 
Aristophanes in the Knights, is evidently writing imder a 
sense of pergonal dangerj, which gives an intense seriousness 
even to the most humorous of his witticisms; in the 
CkmdSf on the contnu^, we may observe every where that 
joyous spirit of careless hilarity, which formed the dlstin- 
guislnng leature of the old Attic Comedy, and which was 
exacted as a religious duty from all who mixed in the 
sacred festival of the God of Wine, 

The question that immediately occurs, is, why should 
sucli an attack as this have been made upon an individual, 
who has generally been held up to the admiration of pos- 
terity, as the most perfect character of antiquity, and who 
has even been blasphemously compared to the great Author 
of the Christian religion? Before we can answer this 



enquiiy, it will be necessary to take a hurried glance at 
some of tlie peculiarities of the Ltathen philosopher. 

To begin with what carries so much weight with all 
tis, though so few are willing to allow it to its full extent— | 
the article of personal appearance. We learn from Xeno- 
phon and Plato — ^who were both of them Socrates's pupils 
and friends, and therefore not likely to have formed on 
Tanfavourable judgment of their preceptor, — ^that he was of 
a squab, big-bellied figure ; that he had goggle eyes, large ^ 
swelling nostrils, a flat nose, a projecting mouth, and thick 
blubber lips* In his personal habits, too* be was more^ 
slovenly even tlian tlie manners of bis ^e and country 
rendered justifiable. He almost invariably went barefoot, 
and scarcely ever made use of the bath* We read also that 
he never altered his dress in summer or in winter^ and that 
he went without that under garment, which corresponded 
to the modern shirt, except iii beiBg usually made of wool 
instead of flax. With such external disadvantages as these, 
wa may conceive wliat must have been thought of himi 
when, as was his constant practice, he walked into the shop 
of some tradesman, and under the pretence of asking for 
information respecting the nature of the wares he dealt in^ 
gradually drew the unfortunate fellow into a deep metar 
physical discussion respecting tlie nature of good and bad, 
or the knotty question whetber virtue might be taught or 
not. In general society, too, we are told that he usually 
managed to engross to lumself fer more than his fair share 
of the conversation, and was sometimes guilty of rudenesses 
wliich could scarcely have been tolerated in any civiliised 
nation.' The method of arguing, too, which he invented, 

(1) The following conversaticm at the end of the Mefwn of Plato nfMy be 
tftJten a» n Epeciraen. " M*Non, — Yet perhBpa AnytuB here'* {pmnting to Um) 
" is hurt by whul you say. SocRAnts. — / do jwt eare one ^traw if A<? b; Wu 
^ will talk to him ftt some ftiturepetiodi Menon.** 


and of which a specimen may he found in the Preface,' 
must have been particuliu'ly disagreeable to the volatile 
Athetiians; as it placed them in the situation of a witness^ 
undergoing cross-examination, and fearful at every step lest 
he should he hetrayed into some answer to be afterwards 
turned against him with fearful effect- When we add to 
aU this the poverty of the philosopher,^ which incapa- 
citated Hm from entertaining his rich friends at hia own 
house, though he never appears to have felt any scruples 
on that account about accepting their hospitality, as often 
as it was offered ; and when we take into consideration also 
the eccentricity of some of his habits, such as that of lagging 
a Little behind as he wa;3 walking through the streets 
with a friend, and occasionally standing like a statue for 
hours together in the most public places, immersed in a 
brown study ; we shall scarcely be surprised that an 
aristocrat and a man of the world, like Arist6phaneS| 
should have voted the sage a bore, and determined to take 
down his consequence by a little wholesome chastisement. 
Butt it will be said, that " these unimportant pecaUari- 
" ties ought to have been overlooked in a man of such trans- 
'* cendant talents, such deep and varied knowledge of the 

(2) In the abfltiBcf of Platos DHnking-pttr^i^, It wns ludicrousl/ made itw 
of hy Stk'mtcs'a sch(}lar^ Aristippua, to justify hia living m a state of open ccfi^ 
CubiaojDie with the celebrated tjourtezan LaVa^ *' Do jou thinks Di<jgenes, that 
** there is any thing odd in inhabiting ii house that others have iivhabiti-cl tiefore 
**jim^' " No,*" " Or in sailing in a ehip» in whkh many men have iaileti be- 
** fot0 you T' ^ No.*^ " By parity of reasoning then thore i» nothing odd m 
** living with a woman, whom many men have made ui»e of before you/'—~Aih^ 
ffMTUj, p. 568. 

(3) In X^nophoii'f DmntsHc Econimtffy Sciemtes valucB hih house and house- 
hold liimLture at the nnall (mm of 26/.^ while he cstimiit4?ft hU friend Critobuliis*a 
ttl 2S0(Ml He had, as wo learn from Demetrius of Phid^rum, 3jO/., lent out at 
interest to Criton, whii*h, at the medium rate of 15^. pet cent ^ would have pro- 
duced him an aunual imxtme of only fifty guineas. — See Boeckh's Pubi, AVon. 
Atfun^i I, p> 147'— 151, who has miaUndenitDod the pavogc of Xe'nophcm. 



** human mind, and such pure and refined morality/' That 
Socrates wfis blessed with great natural ingenuity, and that 
his style of philosophy, though in itaelf of little or no 
utility, was of considerable service as a means of eicercising 
the mental faculties — whieh is all, by the by, that can be 
pleaded in favour of certaiji modern studies — we may safely 
allow ; but tliat his morality was of the elevated and 
etliereal description which is generally supposed, 'may 
admit of great doubt, both on account of the Idnd of pupils 
who proceeded from his care> and the records we have of 
his general conduct in the wri tings of his scholars. 

As a great deal has been said and written by men who 
quote ancient authors much oftener than they read them, 
and who have consequently idealized every ancient subject 
upon which they have touched, respecting the ** great and 
** good Socrates," I shall just translate a passage from his 
Memoirs by Xenophon^ — an author, be it obscr^^ed, who 
has a most decided bias towards the favourable side of the 
question— and then leave the reader to draw his own con- 
clusions from it as to the value of such a teacher of 
ingenuous youth, 

A courtezan of great beauty, wIiobp name was The^dota^ l>«iitg fof- 
merly in Athena, one of tlie company mentioned her, and said thiit ber 
charms were greater than could be expressed in wordp, and tliat paintere 
paid her visits on purposte to sketch from her, !to whom sbe exhibited all 
the most beautiful parts of her person. **Then/' said Sdcmtes, "we 
** »hoM go and look at her ; jbr by only heiiring we eannot pcMtiyy 
" understand what k greater than can be expressed in worda^** " Come 
" on then,'* replied the narrator ; and bo they walked to Theddota*8 houie, 
ttiid having found her placed by the side of a certain painter, stood 
and looked at hen When the painter had finished, • • • Sficratea 
observing that she was expensively attired, and that her mother was 
along with her in no ordinary coBtume, besjdea many beautilul widting- 
girU in neat dresses, and that the house was magnificently furnished 
besides, »* Tell me," said he, *' The6dota, have you a landed estate?'* 
** Not 1," slie replied. ** Well tiien» a house that brings you in rent V 



" No, no? n hotJie," ahe aiiid, " Have you any hnndi craft slaveit then ?'* 
** No, nor any liandicmft slflves either/' " Theji how do you liveT' 
** I gain my subsistence from any friend I may get, who may choose to 
** muke tne |irest;iits>" ** By Juno^ Theodotn, it is a tine kind of pro- 
** perty, mjd far better than sheep, and oxeti, and goats, to have a herd 
*' of friends ! But do you leave it to chance^ whether any ^lend fliea 
" up to you like a house-fiy, or have you any contrivanee lo make them 
** do so f * ** How could I invent any contrivance for dua purpose?" 
• • • • • " lf» by Jove/' siaid be, "* instead of a dog, you 
** were to keep a man^ to track out and find for you rich fellows 
" who are fond of beauty ; and wben he has found ihemi lo contrive 
*^ it to as to throw them into your nets*" • • • • • ** Why, then^ 
** Sficmtei," said The6dota, " do not you help me to hunt for ftiends?'* 
*' I will, by Jove,'* said he, " if you can induce me to do so/' " And 
" how," said she, '* can 1 Induce you ?'* " That you shall find out 
" and contrive yourself, if you want me/' "Then come and see me 
*' (requeiitly/* To which Socrates, l>y way of a joke upon bia own 
freedom from business, replied, " But, The/nlota, it is not easy for 
*^ me to !md time for thisi ; for I have many private and public affairs 
ii ^hieh occupy my time j and I have also female friendSf who will not 
**^ let me leave them either by day or by night, as they learn from me 
** certain love-medicines, and love*churma/' *»Whatf* said she, '* do 
" you understand tho*e things too, S6crates?'* ** What do you suppose/ ' 
said be, **■ ii tlie reason that Apollod6rus here-, and Antisthenes^ never 
" leave my side ; and tljat Cehca and Simmias have come to see me all 
'* the way from Tbcbes ? You may depend upon it that this ta not done 
" without many love-medicincn and love-chamis and spelb/' '* Tlien 
*' lend me," said she, ** yoiur spell, that I may draw it first of all againut 
*' you," ** But, by Jove,'* said be, " I do not wiab lo be myself drawn 
" towards you ; but that you should come to me/' ** Well, 1 wDl come, 
itaid she ; ^* do you only let me in/' *• I will,'' said he, ** if I have got no 
'* lady witbm that 1 hke better/' 

Let us auppose, thereforej that the poet had conceived a 
secret grudge against the philosopher, on account of his 
vulgarity and offensive ecceiitrieitiea, He would not, of 
course, trouble himself to in%*estigate very minutely the 
real nature of the philosophical tenets maintained hy ihe 
cibject of his satirej nor would he be very scrupulous as to 
■ttlributing majiy things to him, which he must have pretty 
^ wen known were untrue, AU that was required would be, 




that he should seize upon a few of the leading peculiarities 
of the sage, and fill up the rough outline from the eopioujs 
stores of his imagiiiation. When Btirns wrote his humor- 
ous satire against Dr. Hornbook, no one imagined that every 
tittle that he asserted respecUug him was literally true^ or 
thought of blaming the author on that account 5 and there 
Eeems as little reason for finding fault with the Athenian 
wag, because in many points his portrait of Socrates 
rather a caricature than a picture. Some of his charge 
indeed, are so grossly and glaringly inconsistent, that no 1 
with any common sense could be deceived into »upf 
that they were seriously intended. For instance, we are ' 
both told that the philosopher was wretchedly poor and 
destitute, (L 104, &c.) and also, that he had taken 300/. 
from a pupil for teaching him the art of eloquence, (1, 876,) 

With respect to an accusation which has been ignorantly 
brought forward against our author, that he was accessory 
to the death of Socrates, by publicly satirizing liim in this 
play, it win be sufficient to state, that the latter ev^ent 
took place B,c, 4£3, and the former, b.c, 399, just twenty* 
four years afterwards ! Those who consider the ephemeral' 
nature of dramatic literature amongst the ancient Greeks, 
will see at once the whole absurdity of such an idea. 

It is now time for us to offer a short analysis of the plofcj 
of this comedy* Strepsiades is represented as an old 
country-gentleman, who has been deeply involved in deb 
by the extravagance of his sou, Phidippides- In order to 
enable him to defeat his creditors in the numerous actions i 
with which he is threatened, he places liimsclf un 
Socratea's care, to learn the art of pleading causes* But 
it is soon discovered that he is far too old and stupid ever 
to he able 

' To make the woi-se Appear the Htter TNtmn ; *" 



after some cliificulty he persuades his son to take hb 
place* Accordingly, Phidippides enters the house of 
SocniteSj and in an incredibly short time is returned to his 
fond &ther an accomplished sophist — the creditors are 
contumeliously driven away — and the happy pair retire to 
celebrate their good fortune by a banquet. Shortly after- 
wards it turns out, that the dutiful son has been gi^^ng his 
poor parent a practical demonstration of his proficiency in 
the new philosophy, by beating him most unmercifuilyj and 
justifyiug his conduct by some amusing soplustry \ when 
Strepsiades, finding that he has only jumped out of the 
finringpan into the fire, by exchanging law-suita for cud- 
gels, and indignant at the heartless cold-bloodedness of the 
young disciple of Socrates, attacks the house of the philo 
sopher with fire and pickaxe, assisted by his slaves ; and the 
piece concludes, according to orthodox raelo-dramatic laws, 
with plenty of squalling and bawling, mid a splendid con- 

The Chorus is composed of certain Mysterious Clouds, , 
who are represented as the object of the philosopher's wor- 
ship, and appear in the corporeal form of Nymphs, in 
obedience to his invocation^ 

This comedy was first represented at the great festival 
of Bacchus, (March, b, c. 4^23 ;) when Aristophanes was 
beaten both by Cratinus and Amrpsias, through the efforts 
of the yotmg and powerful Aleibiades, tlie friend of 
9, as we are told by the author of one of the old 
Greek Arguments* In consequence of this defeat he pre- 
pared another edition, which, if we may believe the Greek 
note-writers, was exliibited with an equal want of success 
in the following year* If this be true, the poet must have 
ako commenced preparing a fJurd edition, because the 
Address of the play, as it now stands, mentions thi?^^ 

T 2 



^* Maricm^^ of Eupolis, which was not performed till »*c. 
4SL It seems more probable, however, that this assertion 
js incorrectj and that the play^ in the form in which w© 
now have it, was the original first edition, with a new 
Address, and a few other unimportant alterations per- 
haps, and that it was never completed for the stage;* 
because it would not be at all likely that a second edition 
of an unsuccessfdl drama should be again offered to the 
public notice after so short a lapse of time as twelve 
months, and because it seems scarcely possible tliat an 
author, having failed twice, should think of making a third 
trial of the good nature of his audience. Moreover, the 
Address, which must have been written after the sup- 
posed second exhibition, does not say anj^hing of two 
defeats experienced by the poet, but only on^. In any 
case, the comedy, in the exact form in which we now 
have it, could not have been brought upon the stage, be- 
cause part of it, {1, 591 — 594,) mentions Cleon as still 
living, who died in the summer of b.c* 432, and part, 
(L B^,) as w^as before stated, quotes the *^Maricat^ of 
Eupolis, which was not exhibited till b, c. 42L 

(4) ThU will well ftccount abo for the apparent diBCFepancy between the 
statctaenta of I 543 and L 149ft— 14^. Ft perfbctly ngre^ nlm w\lh what U 

averted by the author of the Serenth Argument in Bekkei% cditiim. Se 

however, on this subject, OlintonV FasH Heiknim* 


Scene I. Athens. 

[Tke centre heme cf the usual facade i$ supposed to he inhabited by 
Strepsiades, and one of the others by Socrates. In front of the former 
there is the usual bust of Mercury on a quadrangular piUar ; in front 
of the latter there is a huge earthen Jar erected in its place. The 
movable side-scenes present a view of part cf the town,"] 

The front of Strepsiades's hottse is " wheeled round/* ^ and 
discovers Strepsiades passing the night upon one sofa, 
and Phidippides on another. Around them are several 
slaves, sleeping on the floor. 

Heigh-ho! Heigh-ho! 

King Jove, what long afiairs the nights are now ! 
They're endless ! Will the daylight never come ? * 

(1) See Achdmians, Note 50. 

(2) The slave Sdsia makes a similar complaint in Plautus, while trying to 
sleep through the prolonged darkness which Jiipiter has caused for the sake of 
ddSemng his flight from the arms of his fiedr mistress, Alcumina. 

" I Mver taw a longer night than this, 

" Ezoq^ing one, during the whole of which 

'* I waa hnng up and flogged moet bitterly." 

Amphitryon, Act I. Sc. 1. 




[act U 

I heard the cock crow long ago, and yet 

My slaves are snoring still ! But Fd have told them 

A diirerent tale of old, during the peace I 5 

The devil take you, War, for many reasons ! 

I cannot even punish my own slaves*' 

Aye, and that good young gentleman out tliere 

Won't wake before 'tis Eghtj but stinks away 

Snugly be-nightcapped with his five warm cloaks^ — 10 

Wellj well! in cover up my head and snare !— 

Wretch that I am, I cannot sleep ! I'm bitten • , . , 

By my expenditure, my debts^ my stables, 

All through this sou of mine. The long-haired rogue 

Is riding nags, and driving curricles, 15 

And dreaming of his horses, while poor I 

Am tortured by the sight of that curst moon, 

[^Pointing to it 
That's bringing on the SOth of the month ; 
For tliere*s the interest coming.* Light a lamp, 

(3) EvCTy Ath^nliin waa obliged to be veiy turcful how he oHcatled aiiy af 
hia slaves oa long oa the war Isiated ; for if they mn awny, and once gut vltar 
oWnito the etiuiny^s territory, he was pretty cvrUdn never to see Ujem a^n, 
Th(* reader mtiat recollect howr facctioiialy Brother Jcinnthan complnins, when 
he arrives at Liverpool with hia fat niffgcr A|ggy, — '' A prttty cooaideriihle nk« 
'' land of Ereedum this, I guess, where a man can't whop tils own nigger whm 
" he ple&ies 1 " 

(4) Money was generally borrowed at thia time bj the montk, whicJi wa# 
rt*g%il«tt;d anioijgstthe Athfcnianfi, so as to correspond ae dosely oa valghi He with 
tlie mooiLjthc first day being called " the New Moon/' and the last "' ibe Old tend 
^^ New," IjeeauBc the moon wm then considered m being renewed. The iDteie^ 
Wiis ixud at the httter period, m we Hhall have abundant i>ocasion to aotice in 
the L'our&e of this comedy. The rnte varied from ten to thirty-six per t^ni. ptt 
mmum, hixt it niotit frequently lay at Atheuo t^ouieKhere betwi-en twcheiuid 
eighteen. Common usurers who lent money by the day, am! made a prrifit of 
the necesities of the poor, or the extrav^i^inee of the youag^ t^ftcn ileaiaadotl 


5CENE I.] 



Ajid fetcli out my accaunt-book, boy, Uiiit 1 
May take and read how many men I owe to, 
And cidculabe the intereBt, Let me see ; 20 

[j1 ilave bring* him a lamp and kk aecm^d-book. 
What do I owe? To Pasias* sixty pounds. 
How came that «btty pounds to P4sia$ ? 
Wliy did I borrow it ? *Twas when I purchased 
My son the horse that's branded w^ith the " I/* " 
Coidbund k I Would to god that my own eye 
Had h€en knocked out before I bought the beai^t \ 

PHiDiPPiDES {in hk sleep). 
Philou, for shame ! Drive on your proper side ! 25 


This is tlie very pest that's ruined me ; 

If or even while he sleeps he cbeams of horseflesh, 

piiiDiPPiDES {in his sleep). 
How many heiits will the war^chariots run ? ^ 

i mitjTigeoaa. siiTFi of twent j-fivc per eeni. per diem. The usual rate in the 
XerMtl tit y^c present mooient is twelve per cent, fter annum i (bci: ntR'ckh's 
PM. Ei'on. Athem, I. pp. 1S7, 170, 174.) TMr. Iliighi;* infortna us, that he 
foimd from ten to thiTty per cent, generally demanded in Greece when he imi 
ihens.— Trttvfh m Gr^eaf^ ^c, II. p, 2JiS. 

(5) Thi* IB the worth j wbi> nmkea hi» appenmnc*? towurdt the etid of the plity 
to dtnuuid his monej, a» is ci/ident from the sum there mentioned bein^ the 
man^ And having been borrowed fi^r tht- ftanic piirpiiac. 

(ij) A usual pfitctioG, CTcn with the moat valyable cattlo, — See Kni^htt^ 
Note m. 

{7} In H Grecuin ch&riot mce, the chanotn drofct B&veml times nitmd Iho 
ahiotM^ i'ciurRe, without itoppitiff \ thus the ancient ** heata** were dUfervnt fTnm 
th<« naodeni iHies, hetwe«n which tlit^rc is always a certain brcathlng-time 
oUowed. I'he mn«t usiin! leAm wm a twrv-fFheeleil ehnriot driveti ibur-iti-hnnd ; 
but the hofNw were never plnced one pair before the other as with ua. Two vtte 
ulw^^m |oked to the iioIpt tinftwering to our " wheeiera," and two hariM^itsed by 
a diain, one* on tradi aide of the ''yoke-horMia,"" Like a tnodAn " oytn'ltBer/' 
Th6m u «ii cxeeUent dcKTiption of « rme between cJurtoti of this kind in tlic 


Tll£ CLOUDi. 

[act t. 


You Ve run your poor old father many a heat ! 

*' Wlmt debt gaed to me " * after Pasias's ? SO 

To Amynias * fifteen pounds for wheela and chariot. 

PHiDiPPiDES {stiU sleeping)* 

00 give the horse a roil and take him home. 


You rogue youVe rolled me out of my estate ! 

1 huve got damages to pay to some> 

And others swe^ir that they'll distrain my goods 
For interest 

PHtDlPPlDES {f&akin^). 
For god*s sakc^ tell me, father, SS 

Why do you fret and toss about all night ? 

Eihira of Stipboik-A, (I. 69^;— TMJ the resuk of which ia, that the '' moiithlL*» 
" coita" of one of the conchniL«n run away with him as he is jiM begiiiimig hh 
seven Ih h(.-al^ and iHjLting on to the oppodte dde of the coune oome fiiU hutl, 
Jbrehcad to forehcnd, ngaltist another team, luid throw cveij Uting into coafUstan. I 
** Waj^dmriota," the Greek note iufornii us, contained a ioldier in beihvj 
am>our, besides the driver, like those we read of in llonien TMs wa« caiTTtfig J 
weight with u vengcnnee* 

(H) There is the fbl I owing fragment of Euripides quoted In the Greek note: — | 
*■ Wliat liebt gwd t« the nwD^bn T 

(9) There Is an Amytiins, who was the son of Prdnapci, introduced to our 
notice below (I ti92) n^ '* A cowaj*d knave tliiit never goc« on aertice^'' and iili»i 
in Un* Wasp$^ (1. 74 \ 9^e also L 1267,) oa havinjc; Hjsenthis fortune in dicing, anj 
being reduced to Bpon^nt; upon the rich for it dinner ; but this is most probuhlj 1 
not the person here intendeil. The circwnstance of his being mentioned in the 
former piuaiage froHi the Wu^pB with hi* father's name, in order to dhtingiiisfe 
him, giiea to prove that there wore two individunk va culled. It appc^js ^ttetf 
tlonbtful whether the creditor who is so uticeremonioujtlj ditnij»ed ttllerwiifdii 
hy Strepauideft, {me \, 125H— 1302,) wa» identic^ with the AmyniM here«pf>k«a 
oC as he iumK out to have \tJ\i money to the mn^ not to the father^ And the 
wonlii of this line seem rather to indicate that the fifteen [lounds were owcf! m 
ihtf price of the chariot, than that thc'y had been borrowed in orrii?r to pnj to 
another perpoii for K ebntiot. After jiH, these pt>ints aie fiorhap^ scarcely wnrth 


S€£t4£ U] 




There's a hum-bailiff' in the bed that bites me. 


Dear sir, pray let me get a little nap. 


Sleep then ; but I can tell you that these debts 

Will all be visited upon your head- — 

Heigh-ho ! 

The devil take the old match-making beldame. 

That egged me on to wed your motlier, child ! ** 

I used to enjoy a rustic's jolly life, 

Dusty, unmopped," reclining at my ease, 

And flourishing in bees^ and sheep j and oilcakes ; 

Until, alas, I wedded with the niece 

Of Megacles the son of Megacles,*— 

A rustic with a lady from the town, 

Proud* fashionable, and be-Ccesyra*d,^* 



(10) Au iti modern^ bo lh aiici^^nt, Greece, it frequently hitppened th«t the first 
time the wife wxm seen bj the huahaiul n-oa on the bridal day. Nearly the ijniy 
duinc« he had of catching a glimpse of the kdjs was when ihe was w&lkii^g in 
idme of the solemn religious proceseione^ which were no doubt not the Ie« fre- 
quented on that fici^uritH, juit as our churcheii^ it ia to b« fe^red^ ate sometimes 
■ttonded by young gentlemen^ more fr>r the lake of what they leo, than what 
they hear ther*. The match vnis nmally made between the parent^ or by cer- 
tain eonvenient old women, *'ho officiated a* go-betweens. 

(11) It would ap|>ear from thij, that the fine lady's cleanliness was partieti- 
Lirty offensive to pmir Strepsiiidofl. Like all old baehelora he evidently 
delighted In dirt and dust^ and hated a houaemaid'a brooEn aa the devit batin 
holy water. 

( 12) There were two CcrsyraH who belonged to the race of AkmiiAon, the for- 
mer of whom« the more c<4^bnited of the two, waa a rich andluxuKous heipem 
of Er^tria in Eubsa ; the Latter was a grand- daughter of herv, and hod been 
Riven in mnmase, for political reasons, to th? lynuit Pisfstmtus. They were 
thin both eonneetcd with the noble and wealthy Miracles; but it i» the former, 
no doubt, who i» here dluded to. { See AcMrrUamj Note Th imd Thirl m-all** 


[act U 

Upon the bridal night we went to bed — 

/ smelling of new wine, fig-baskets, wool, 

And she of perfumes, saifiron,^* slobbery kisses, 

Profusion, gluttony, and Venus'es. 

I will not say however she was lazy ; 

She travelled /tut enough; so that whenever 

I saw her hurrj'ing about the house, 

I used to make it an excuse to say — 

" My dearest wife, yotire going it toofasi" 


Our lamp has got no oil in it* 



Itiai. Crceo^^ IL pp* 59^ t)0/) This Megficles wild m realitj the eon of Hlppii- 
rratesj, and ia here called the son of Blfjiiaclea, mere I j' bj way of a joke on Um 
name occimioa repcsitedljr in hk genealogical tree, its wiJl be aoen' al oncfi tm 

As.iiT6irTM(?i. MiGACLKs, tlie jintsgrjitiit (if PtBtstiatai Uic tymnt. U rppAcAiTdu 

Cl.[tTUEirBi, Alci 



AGJ^A-iflYH. Y MftOACLtt, thL'Buece«f^ tultof In the contest fm ttiv t^ruit't «Uiikgbl«T. 

j 1 




MAslcLEA, tbe penea hena m^mit. Aoa hIste. = Xiiiriii??!?!, 

F|&rcL'E«, Iheofator, 

The jinOioritiei for thi« table nu^ be found in Hgndotus, I. 59— CI, VI. 125 
^131, and in the Greek note^ on this pas93|Ee. 

(13) Oil of Baffron figured iti the multitudinous list of Grecian per^miCM, nod 
appears to have tieen higbly esteemed. The berb in Shjikhpcare'^B dajniTupot 
to a v(jry diffefctit purpose, as may be seen fmin the following pusaigie^ 

** Cloww. Let tue aee, what atn I to buy for our sjjeep-shearing fe^M l* Thtte 
** pound of sugar ; five pound of cuminta; rice— what will tills sSster of mine do 
** witb rice ? But my father hath made her mistresfi of the fuast, and she layj it 
" on. * * * / mtisi hatfe saffron to cohur tfi£ warden pies -. mace — datc»~ 
" tionc ; that's out of my note : nutmegs^ w^^en ; a nu.'e or two of finger, IhiI 
'^ that 1 nutj l^ieg; four pound of pmnes, and m nmny of mmwh o' the Kiin/'— 
Wintmn Tnic, Act IV. Sc. 'L 




Confound it. 
Why did you light the drinking lamp ? C!ome here 
And you shall catch it. 


Why am I to catch it ? 


For putting a thick wick into the burner. — 

\BeaU him. 
As soon as ever the son you see out there 60 

Was sent to me and this fine wife of mine, . 
We had a precious jaw about his name. 
She wanted to stick " Ippus" to the word, " 
" Callippides," " Xanthippus," or " Charippus;" 
While / again proposed " Phidonides," 65 

After his grandad Phidon. So we quarrelled 
For a long time, but compromised the matter 
At last, and called the boy " Phidippides." " 
This son she used to take up in her arms. 

(U) **" Ippus,*^ or more properly ** Hippua,^ signifies ** horse," and as horses 
were only kept by the wealthy at Athena, it was peculiarly aifected in the namea 
of children of distinguished fiimilies. P^ricles*8 &ther was called *^ Xanthfppus," 
or ** bay-horse.** " Philippus,*' which has passed into our modem " Philip," is 
another instance : it means ^ fond of horses." It has been before mentioned 
that Greek names always had a meaning. ** Phidon** signifies '* sparing,** — 
which partly accounts for the thrifty old gentleman*s anuety, — and ^ Phid<^ 
** nides,** ** Phidon's son,** corresponding to our John«on, Dickton, &c. It may 
**' perhaps be worth while to add, that of the two other names quoted in the text» 
** the former is equivalent to *^ the son of beauty-hone,** and the latter to 
^ delighting in horses.** 

(15) This was the name of the Athenian runner, who ran from Athens to 
Sparta, a distance of about 150 miles according to CoL Leake, in two days, in 
order to request assistance before the battle of Mirathon. — Herod, VI. 105. 
Leake, on the Demi cf 'Jttka, p. 182. 



[aot I. 

And fondle thus — ** When yon are grown a nmn^ 

" And in a broad-cloth cloak like Megacles* 

** Shall drive a chariot towards the Citadel ! ** 70 

To which I always said — ** No, no, my dear 1 

** When in a cloak of leather, like your father, 

** You drive your flock of goats down ficom Mount 

But he has disregarded my advice, 
And stuck hoTie-leeches on to my estate. 
So, after thinking all night long, I now 76 

Have found one single path to travel by, 
Of most prodigious excellence ; and if 
He will consent to take it, I am saved* 
But first of all I want to rouse him up. 

{Leaves his couch and goes t6 thai on which kis sou is 
What's the most pleasant way to wake the rogue ? 
Phidippides ! Phidippy ! 

PHIDIPPIDES (waking). 

What, papa ? 80 


Kiss me, and give me your right hand. 


There, there ! 
[Phidippides ^e^* wp, and both come upon the stags ^ 
the room is " wheeled in" again. 
But what*s the matter? 

(IC) Ei^pt>ctuig this mminlain, fee Aehdrnians, Note 37, 





Tell me, do you love me? 


Yes, by that Neptune there, the God of Horses ! " 

[Exhibiting an image of him. 


Don't talk to me about the God of Horses ; 

For he's the author of my woes and troubles. 85 

But if you really love me from your heart, 

Obey me, child. 


In what must I obey you ? 


Make haste and change your former course of life. 
And go and learn the things I recommend. 


Then tell me what they are. 


Will you obey me? 90 


I will, by Bacchus. 


Cast your eye out here. 

[Painting to Socrates's house. 
D'ye see this little door and house? 

(17) One of Neptune's numerous titles, given him, because he was supposed 
to haTe produced the horse, in order to gain the fiivour of the Athenians, in 
opposition to Min^nra, who created the olive>tree. The magnificent horse's 
head, which was taken from the pediment of the Parthenon at Athens, and placed 
in the British Museum, represented the noble animal starting into existence 
from the bowels of the earth. 



[act I. 


I do. 
What is the meaning of all tinSf papa ? 


This is the Thinking-shop for clever souls. 

Here there dwell metij who'll prove t'ye that the heaven 95 

Around us is an oven, and v^e tlte charcoal. 

And they 11 teach any hody, who will pay tliem^ 

To argue down opponents, rigjht or ^vrong. 


Who are they ? 


I don't know the name exactly ; 1 OO 

They're study-thinkers^ well-bred, worthy fellows. 

Bah I they are rogues, I know. You mean the liars. 
The pale bare-footed chaps, to whom belong 
The wretched Socrates and Chaerephon?" 


Ah ! Hold your tongue ; say nothing infantile ! — 105 

If you regard your father's . » , . barley-meal, 

Be one of these and c«^" your love for horseflesh. 

(IB) Thid Chicrepboa wae a himgeiKm of the pbUosophetX '^^ appear 1 
hATC been Laughed at for the iniid extremes to which he iarri^ his rever^ntia]! 
attacJiraent, even bj hia fel low-scholars It was he who roceJFed from the Delphiol 
oracle the celehmtiHi aiwwer t — 

'* Wij* ii the learned poet i^pbocki, 

" And wiBPf jrtiU the ftafre Enripide*, 

" But of all iiiorUiB S(icT»t*» i» wfieiL'* 
Ho was nicknamed '' Bat;* on account of his being a littb^ dark, difty fUlmr.^^ 
See Birdt, U. 123^ 1564. 
1 19) The word ia used in predwly the some slang senie in Uie orij^^nftl. 






By Bacchus^ I would not ; e'en though you gave me 
The Colchian steeds Leogoras*' is training! 


My dearest, sweetest Mend, let me in treat you, 110 

Go and be taught. 


And what am I to learn ? 


'Tis said that they have got both the Two Causes — 

The Stronger what-d'ye-call-*um and the Weaker ; 

And that of these the latter gains the victory, 

Although it speaks upon the unjust side. 115 

So if you go and learn this Unjust Cause, 

I need not pay one penny of the debts 

I owe on your account to any body. 


I can't obey. I could not bear to see 

The Knights with my complexion spoiled by study. 120 


By Jove, then, neither you, sir, nor your yoke-horse. 

(20) LedgotBi was a wealthj an«. luzuriouB person, the &tbcr of the orator 
And4feidfifc The comic poet Plato, in his Afflicted^ couples him with a pair of 
notorious poMmMMdr. 

'* Onst M6rjc lus, and OU&eetet the Mde, 

'* And thou, I «6goru ! now are ye blett; 

** For je live pleasantlj tnd think of nothing." 

Edpolis, in the second edition of his AtUolffcut^ accuses him of having squan- 
dered awaj his estate on the courtezan M^rrhina.— 4Gr«vAr note.) With three 
soch expensive propensities as horses, gluttonj, and women, it was no wonder 

288 THE CLOUDS. [aCT I. 

Nor your S-brandcd nag, shall eat my goods. 
J 11 drive you from my house. Go to the devil. 


My uncle Megacles won*t see me horseless ; 
I shall go in and disregard your threats. 1S5 

[Exit Phidippides into his fathers house. 

Scene II. The Same. 


Though I am thrown, yet will I not lie grovelling. 

Ill pray the gods, and then I'll go myself 

Up to this Thinking-shop, and there get taught. — 

But how can I, who'm aged and forgetful 

And stupid, learn the shavings of philosophy ? — 130 

Yet go I must. Why do I dribble thus, 

And knock not at the door ? — Boy, boy, I say ! 

[Knocks at Socrates*s door. 

SCHOLAR OF SOCRATES (from mthiu). 
Go to the deuce ! Who's that that knocks t 



Son of old Phidon, of Cicynnus parish. 

Enter Scholar. 


You are a dunce, by Jove, to kick the door 185 


So Sturdily and unreflectingly, 

And make a thought miscarry which I'd got.*' 


Pray pardon me ; Fm but a countryman. — 
But tell me what the thing was that miscarried. 


*Tis not allowed to tell it, save to Scholars. 140 


Then make no bones about it. / am come 
To be a Scholar in the Thinking-shop. 


I'll tell you then ; but reckon what I say 

As secret as the Holy Mysteries. — 

Socrates lately asked of Chaerephon, 

How many of its own feet a flea could leap ; H5 

For after biting Chaerephon's right brow, 

It hopped away to Socrates's head. 


How did he measure this ? 


Most cleverly. 
He melted down some wax ; then took the flea, 
And dipped his feet into the liquid stuff*. 150 

So, as he cooled, he got a pair of shoes. 
These he took off*, and found the distance with them. 

(*21 ) This kind of metaphor is peculiarly appropriate in the mouth of a 
scholar of Socrates. The philosopher was very fond, as we read in Plato, of 
expatiating on his abilities in " menial midwifery,*' his mother having dis- 
charged the more gross and cori^oreal duties attached to the profession — See 
the Thetetftm. 

290 THE CLOUDS. [act I. 


King Jove, what subtlety of intellect ! " 


Wliat would you say, then, if you heard another 
Of Socrates's thoughts ? 


Pray tell it me. 155 


Cha?rephon asked him which was his opinion— 
That gnats buzzed through their mouths, or through tlieir 


And wliat, tlien, did he say about tlie gnat ? 


He said the intestine of the giuit was narrow; IGO 

And, being slender, that the wind went through it 
With violence, straight to the tail ; and thus 
The expanded breech, joining the narrow gut, 
Resounded from the fury of the blast. 


So a gnat's breech is nothing but a trumpet! J 65 

(22) " Aristoph.iTK's, in order to make the great and good Athtoian philoso- 
'' pher, SocnitoM, appear ridiculous, rcprewnts him as haTing measured the 
'' leap of a flea. In our better times, scientific men have done this without 
'' beini; laughed at for it, and have ascertained, that comparatively, it equalled. 
*' that of the locust, being also two hundred times its length. Being effected 
'^ by muscular force, without the aid of wings, this is an astonishing leap.** 
(Kirby and Spence's Fntomoloijy, II. p. 310.) It is as if a man, five feet high, 
were to jump a distance of one thoucand feet, which is more than forty times as ^ 
much as the very best jumpers can accomplish. We have already seen in the"*^ 
Preface, how the Symciisim showman was represented as throwing this J<Ae m 
Siicrates's teeth, in Xt-iiophon's Dririking-jtarty. 

j^o^ A YV*^cA 


How blest he is in his intestination ! *' 
That man would easily escape conviction, 
Who understands about a gnat's intestine ! " 


The other night he lost a mighty scheme, 
All through a lizard. 


How was that? Inform me. 170 


As he was looking up to find the path 

And orbit of the moon, with mouth wide open, 

A gecko on the ceiling dunged upon him." 


Ha, ha ! A gecko dunged on Socrates ! 


Yesterday evening we had got no dinner. 17;) 

(23) There u a aiinilar quaint word in the original, which may perhaps have 
been made use of in some other sense by Euripides. 

(24) ** Aristdphanes, in his Chudty deriding S<5crate0, introduces Chserephon 
*' as asking that philosopher whether gnats made their buzz with their mouth or 
*• their tail. Upon which MoufTet very gravely ol>ser\'es, that the sound ot* one 
** of these insects approaching, is mucii more acute than that of one retiring; 
" from whence he very sapiently concludesi, that not the tail but the mouth 
" must be their organ of sound. But after all, the friction of the base of the 
*' wings agunst the thorax seems to be the sole cause of the alarming bu7j: of the 
" gnat, as well as that of other two- winged insects, (Diptera). • ♦ • For 
** no insect, like the laiger animals, uses its mouth for utterance of any kind : in 
^ this respect they are all perfectly mute ; and though incessantly noisy arc 
" everlastingly silent.'* — Kirby and Spence's Entomology^ I. pp. 378, 371. 

(25) There are sevenil lizards common in the South of £uiope, that are fre- 
quently found in houses, and have the power of running up walls with astonish- 
ing celerity, and even walking like flies upon the ceiling, when, as is often the 
CMC in thoee countries, the said ceiling is not i>articularly smooth. One of them, 
called by naturalists the geckotte^ is abundant in Provence, and known thi re by 
the name of the iarente. The gecko is supposed to emit a very acrid hlimc from 
ita paws in more tropical latitudes. 





How did he scheme, theiij for his l)arley-meal ? 


He scattered some fine ashes on the table, 
Then bent a rod into a semicircle. 

And taking in his hand the compasses . . • . 

He iilched his coat out of the WrestUng-house* ** 


Why, why do we admire the famous Thales ? *' 
Make haste, and open me the Thinking-shop, 
And show me Socrates this very instant. 
I*m going scholar-road. Open the door. 


(Sti) The word " hk** is to be taken in the aame quaint sfgnificatjan hew? «* 
Che wriFda ^ you" and " jaur'* in the dial ague botween Hamlet and the Gmv^ 

" HAMtJcr. Haw long wOJ a man lie in the««rth ere he rot ? 

** GRA^^-nniGKa, Tnhh, if he be not rotten l>croTc he die, (aa we have many 
^ pocky mnm noHr-aniayft, that will scarce hold the lajing in,) he will Inat ywi 
^ »Ofne eight yeftT nr nine year : a tanner will lust you nltie yean 

** Haul^t. Why he, more thun another? 

** GftAVK-DttiGKa. Why, air, bin hide in so tiuitted with his trade, that he will 
*' keep out water a great while ; and your wnter is a sore decajrer of ^mir 
** whoreson dead body. Here's a scull now hath lain you in the earth thee^ 
and-twenty-ycars/'_//anifcf, Act V. Se, L jr 

The geometrical prcpamtionfl were of coune intended to throw dust In the 
eyes of the spectatoi^ and thus enable the thief to aeetimpli^h hi» dedga with 
the greater sccresy. Wo shidl find Strepsiadi's himftclf i* served iti the Minie 
H-ay in the course of the play ; m fitct, he U still warm off, for he loiea hi» &mX 
nud hi^ boots to boot. The great philosopher hod heett before acLUfed bjr the 
comic poet Etipuli* of similar dislione&t practices. He describes him a* be- 
having in a very ungcntlemBnly way at a dinner-party, when he waii called upotn^ 
aa waa Ufiuol, for hiit ftong, over a flowing boi^l of negu«* 
" S^mtei then, with lute on knee, 

'* Singing Ble*ichoni«'i glee, 

" PUclieB the i]fcirus-laill&." 

{27) The liSnian philosopher who maintained that water wn» the orljs:i& of «(! 


[The front o/Socrates's house is " wheeled round,'' and 
discovers the Scholars in various grotesque attitudes, 
Socrates himself is seated in a ridiculous position 
upon a kind of high shelf on which household articles, 
not wanted at the moment, were usually deposited. 
Philosophical apparatus of various descriptions is 
littered about the apartment. 
O Hercules, what animals are these ? 

Why do you stare ? What do you think they're like? 185 


The Spartan prisoners we took at Pylus. — 
But why do these look down upon the ground ? 


They're searching for the things beneath the earth. 


Oh truffles ! But you need not search for them / 

For I know where there are some large and fine ones."! 90 

What are these at, who stoop so very low ? 


'Erebus-groping under Tartarus. 


Why do their rumps look upwards to the sky ? 


Their rumps are being taught astronomy 

All by themselves. — You Scholars there, go in. 

For fear the Master meet with us out here. 195 

(28) Truffles at the present day are discovered in moist woods by dogs, which 
an trained to noae them out, and when well broken in, become very valuable. 
flCivpitodM fboliihly supposes that the geologists were busied in trying to smell 
ont ikmt d«Ueioi» vegetables. 

29i THE CLOUDS. [aCT I- 


Not yet, not yet ; but let them stay, until 
I've told them of a small affair of mine. 


They cannot possibly stop out of doors 
For any space of time i' the open air. 


For god's sake, tell me, what on earth is this ? SOO 

[Pointing to some globes, niups, Sfc. 


This is Astronomy. 


And what is this ? 
[Pointing to some mathematical instruments, ^c, 




But what's the use of it ? 


To measure out the land. 


What, in our colonies ? 


No, the whole land that's underneath the heavens. 


That's a good clever democratic scheme ! *• 205 

(29) As in the ca«e of iEgina^ (sec Achdmiaru^ Note 76,) the Ath^niaDS often 
divided the lands of a conquered territoiy amongst a certain number of thdr 
citizens. Strepsiades ignorantly imagines that the whole earth is to be ^ measaied 
*' out,"* in this waj, and is highly pleased with the project, as he flatters himself • 



Here's the circumference of the whole earth. 
Look ! This is Athens. 


What ? I don t believe it ; 
I cannot spy out any juries sitting.'® 


I tell you this is really 'Attica. 


Where is my parish, then, Cicynnus ? Show me. 210 


There 'tis ; and here's Eubcea, as you see, 
A narrow strip of country l)ang low. 


Aye, 'twas laid low by us and Pericles. '» 
But where is Sparta ? 


Where is Sjparta ? There. 


How near it is to us ! Pray find some thought 215 

To take it to a precious distance from us. 


But 'tis impossible. 

no doubt, that he Bhail come in for his share. Geometry, as is well known, is 
said to have been first invented in Egypt, in order to settle the opposing claims 
of land-owners, whose land-marks had been obliterated by the overflowing of 

(30) The fondness of the Athenians for trying causes, forms the subject of the 
Comedy of the Wasps. The satire is here evident enough. 

(31) This refers to the reduction of the revolted Eubc^s, twenty-two yean 
before the first representation of this play, by the good generalship of Pericles. — 
See Thirlwall's IfUt. Greece, III. pp. 41—42. 

^96 THE CLOUDS. [aCT I. 


Then you shall catch it. 
But who's that fellow on the hanging-shelf? 




And who's "himself?" 


'Tis Socrates." 


Holloa there, Socrates ! — Come, my good sir, 

Give him a loud holloa, and you'll oblige me. 220 


Call him yourself; for I've no time to do it. 

[Joins the other Scholars. 

Scene HI. The Same. 


Holloa there, Socrates ! My little Soccy ! 


Why dost thou call on me, thou short-lived mortal ? 


First, I beseech you, tell me what you're doing. 


Air-galloping, and questioning the Sun. 225 

(32) The scholars of Pythdgoras, when they were asked their reasons for anj 
absertioii they had made, always thought it quite sufficient to reply, ^ Himtelf 
" said so!" meaning of course their master. 



Why call the gods in question** from a shelf. 
And not upon the earth, if you mttst do so ? 


I should have never made discoveries 

Of heavenly things, imless Fd hung my mind up, 

And mixed my subtle soul with similar air. 230 

If from below I'd sought for things above, 

I should have never found them ; for the earth 

Draws to itself perforce the mental moisture. 

YouTl find that cresses have the same effect.** 


What do you say ? 235 

Does the mind draw the moisture to the cresses ? — 
Now then, step down to me, my little Soccy, 
And teach me what I've come for. 


What is that ? 
[Socrates descends from his shelf and comes upon the 
stage. The Scholars^ S^c, are " wheeled in.*' 

(33) This is the first passage in which the charge of heresy is brought forward 
against the philosopher ; we shall meet with others hereafter. There is a play 
upon the two different senses in which the phrase ^ to question the Sun" may be 
taken ; namely, ^ to examine into his nature," and " to doubt his existence as a 
** divinity." 

(34) This herb was believed by the ancients to dry up all the humours of the 
body, of whatever nature they might be. X^ndphon tells us that the Persians, 
who reckoned it disgraceful to be seen spitting, wiping their noses, &c., made 
large use of it on that account The pretended lady in the Feastretses 
accounts for a strangury, which she says she is troubled with, by her having 
eaten of the plant on the previous day.— See that pUiy, 1. 614. 

298 THE CLOUDS. [aCT I. 


To learn to speak ; for debts and crabbed creditors 240 
Harry and spoil mc, and distrain my goods. 


How came you not to know you got in debt ? 


An eating horse-disease afflicted me. — 

So let me learn that one of your Two Causes 

Which gives back nothing. Any fee you ask, 245 

I'll call the gods to witness that I'll pay you. 


Pshaw ! Call the gods to witness ! In the first place, 
Gods will not pass with us. 


What do you swear by ? 
An iron coinage, like the Byzantines?'* 


D ye wish to understand clearly and rightly 250 

Divine afiairs ? 


Yes, if there are such things. 


And to hold converse with the heavenly Clouds — 
The deities we worship ? 

(35) The iron coinage of the Byzantines was totally different from the well- 
known iron money of the Spartans, which was, properly qieaking, money. It 
consisted of iron tokens, which hore a fictitious value like our modem papet 
money, and supplied the place of silver for the home circulation. Of ooune 
their value depended entirely upon the credit and stability of the govemment 
that issued them.— Bocckh's Publ. Ecotu Aihent, II. pp. 381, 387, 388. 





Then sit yc down upon the holy couch — 

[Points to a couch. 


Look ! I've sat down. 


And put this garland on. 255 


What is the garland for ? Confound tlie thing ! 
Don't slay me, Socrates, like 'Athamas ! " 


We do all this to those who learn our rites. 


But what advantage shall I gain by it ? 


In eloquence you'll turn a perfect dust, 260 

A noisy rattle, and a subtle flour. 

[Scatters some barley-meal over him. 
Come, come, keep still ! 

(3(>) 'Athaina.% in the lost tragedy of Sophocles, which took its name from 
him, was brought with a garland on his head, like a victim, to the altar, in 
order that he might l)e slaughtered, as a punishment for his having caused 
his own children, Phrjxus and Hellc, to lose their lives in the Hellespont, 
by tumbling off the back of the Golden Ram. At the critical moment, 
however, Hercules made his appearance, and saved him by declaring that 
PhryxuB was not drowned, but had got safe to Colchis. — (Greek note.) The 
death of Helld, it seems, was not considered worth noticing, as she was only a 
lady ; or perhaps it was thought that she was sufficiently recompensed by giving 
her name to the narrow straight, now called the Dardanelles, where she 
perished. Aristdphanes is evidently parodying Sophocles throughout all the 
prepaiatlons that are made for the initiation of Strepsiades. 

300 THE CLOUDS. [aCT I. 


By Jove, you won't deceive me. 
I shall be sprinkled till I turn to flour.*' 


Let the aged man attend to the prayer 

In silence, until it is ended ! — 
Great Master and King, thou measureless Air, 

That keepest the Earth suspended ! " 
Thou glittering Ether ! ye dusky-faced Clouds, 

Wlio vent in the thunder your cholcr ! 265 

Rise, goddesses, rise from your dewy abodes. 

And appear in the sky to yoiur scholar ! 


No, not till I fold up this bit of a rag, 

By way of umbrella, and don it. 
What a thick-headed blocldiead I must be, to wag 

From my doorstone ^vith never a bomiet ! 

(37) Before a beast was offered up, it was usual to sprinkle some barlej 
between its bonis. This was probably done, in order to make the animal shake 
its head ; for they had a superstition, that unless it appeared to consent bj 
(nving a gracious nod, it was unlucky to sacrifice it. Socrates here makes use 
of the Jiour^ instead of the gravis by way of a practical joke to amuse the 
children. The biirley-meal may, perhaps, be intended also to have the appear- 
ance of snow sciit down upon him by the m3rstcrious Clouds. 

(H8) '' There was a certain opinion of the Natural Philosophers noised 
** abroad, that the earth was of great breadth, and supported in the air.** — {Gretk 
note.) The w^orthy grammarian who indited this observation, little thought that 
the opinion, of whicli he speaks so disrespectfully, would ever be established bj 
a Newton on the firm basis of mathematical demcmstration. The following 
beautiful fragment of Euripides refers to the sUne kind of doctrine. 

*' Dost thnii Ix-liuld the boundless Air aloft. 

■• Which clasps the Earth within its dewy arms ? 

" Consider this thy Jove, and this thy god ! " 



Yes, come, ye adorable Clouds, and speak 

Your decrees to this suppliant lowly ! 
Come, whether ye sit on the snow-beaten peak 

Of Olympus, the towering, the holy ; 270 

Or dance to the Nymphs with song and with smile 

In the gardens of father Ocean ; 
Or in ewers of gold at the mouths of the Nile 

Draw upwards your watery potion ; 
Or haunt the sluggish Maeotian lake,'* 

Or Mimas's snowy-capped sunmiit. 
Oh list, and receive the offering we make. 

Nor turn away angrily from it ! 

Scene IV. The Same. 

SONG BY THE CHORUS {from behind the Scenes). 
Rise, ever-flowing Clouds, 275 

Showing yourselves to the wondering crowds 

Clad in your dewy corporeal essences ! 
Fly from the hoarse-roaring Ocean's fountains ! 
Fly to the tops of the tree-clad mountains ! 280 

Thence will we view Earth's craggy excrescences ! 

(S9) Now called the Sea of Azoph, and described bj Dr. CHarke as frequently 
coTered OTer with thick fog!». Mimas was a loftj mountain of Asia Minor, 
mentioned bj Homer as lying to the east of Chios, on the sea-coast. — 'Odyssey^ 
III. 172. 




Thence the green harvests of which we*re 
Thence the sweet banks of the murmuring rivers, 
Theuce, too, the sea*s heavy-rumbling endeavours 1 

IDutani i/rnnder is heard. 
Bright in the Ether the Eye of the Day 28f»\ 

Blazes untlrecl on his mission. 
Shake off the showery mist of the grey 
Heavenly nature, and let us survey 

The Earth with our far-seeing \nsion." 


Ye adorable Clouds, how my hearts truigs rejoice 

To know that you've heard me imploring \ 
Hark 1 Did ye perceive not the sound of their voice. 

And the god-dreaded thunder ** roaring ? 


O spare me, ye Clouds ! I am frightened to death 

By your terrible thundering. How else 
Could it happen that I should be seized in a brcatli 

With a thundering pain in my bowels? 295 

(40) How gjtesLl and overiKiweriiig nitiiil have been the effect of this Intaei^ 
tioni when the nudteiiee attuallj had before their eyes the crt^^ prectprt^J 
of SilamiA and vEgfna, Uic fortDe pMn which lay between Athc^ii^ und the » 
the little ri^iilefci bci celebrated imder the njimes ol the Ce!phi?«ui« rtod Iti^sm 
tmd in the IwckKround the " heavy- mi«bling" sea itaeJI! If, to complett' J 
picture, we add a ttk^ mom hriUinrU than can even be imagined ill Ihcic hi 
latitucfcA, and a aun of molten gold, we shall have mjtne faint idea of the eiiqi 
Bite lande^^iipe which delighted the eye, wldie these degant verset were flteftliq 
thmtigh the car to the heart. 

(40 We leyim fmm Julius Poll u it, that the ** thunder" oti the AtUe i 
wjia prcxlueed hv riilliiig leather hm9^ full of pebblei down ahecfes of hn 
(IV. 13*),) The Greek note- writers^ on the contrary, eay that the usM meihoi 
wfis to pour pebhle^t into u htigt* bmxen laildroii, Modent '* thnnder," I bclievi 
in rnnnuiiieturcd by the mere rjUtiing of larye sheets of meUd, luid th« pelihia 
or ntlher peua^ ore reserved ti> brew " a heavy shower t>r min," if it should I 



Don't strain after jests, or attempt to perform 

The Comedy-clown. It is odious. 
Here are goddesses great, in a clustering swarm, 

Advancing to music melodious. 

SONG BY THE CHORUS {from behind the Scenes). 
Shower-producing band. 
Come to Minerva's anointed" land, 300 

Famed for exploits recorded in history. 
There there uptowers the Holy Temple, 
Open alike to the proud and the simple 

Skilled in the sacred ineffable Mystery.** 
There there are gifts to the blessed Immortals, 305 

Lofty-roofed fanes, and marble-built portals. 
Statues, processions, and cunningly-wrought halls. 
There at all seasons are garlanded rites, 

Banquets, and mirth ever-blooming ; 310 

And in the spring-time the Bacchic delights,** 
Challenges shrill from the Chorus's wights. 

And the pipe's heavy-echoing booming. 


Pray tell me, dear Socrates, who are the jades 
Who are singing these 'Iliads and 'Odysseys ? 

Or am I to think that the musical maids 

Are certain divine demigoddesses ? 315 

(42) Sec Achdmians, Note 74. 

(43) This refers to the Great Eleusinian M3r8teriet, and the Sacrnl Rnild- 
ingB at Eletims, for plans of wliicli nee the Unedited Antiquities of Attica. 

(44) It has been before mentioned, that the two feasts of BacchiiH, at whidi 
alone dramatic representations were allowed, took place respectively in the 
months of February and March. 

304' THE CLOUDS. [aCT I. 


No, no, they are Clouds and goddesses bland. 

Who send to us sluggards invention, 
And logic, and judgment, and paradox, and 

Verboseness, and pulsion, and prension.** 


Ah, that's why my soul got fidgetty when 

It perceived what was said by the folk, and 
Sought subtle disputes with nimble-brained men. 

And hair-splitting prate about smoke, and 320 

Felt anxious to nudge forwards thought with thought. 

And refute an opponent's positions. — 
Do you think it is possible they could be brought 

To my view upon any conditions ? 


You have nothing to do, but to cast your eye 
Towards Parnes ; I see them descending. 


Where ? Show me ! 


Out there, upon one side, on high. 
They are coming in numbers, and wending 
Their intricate way through the thickets and vales.** 

(45) If the English reader does not precisely understand the meaning of 
these two last terms, he is no worse off than the best Grecian scholar. Tbejr 
are designedly made obscure, by way of a hit at the pedantry of the philoeopher. ' 

(46) '^ Next morning the rain continued, and the heights of Fames woe 
" enveloped in dark clouds, which came rolling obliquely down its huge sides 
" in the manner described by the Attic poet" (Hughes^s Travels in Greece^ 
S^'C. I. p. 318.) The mountmn faced the stage, but could not have been visible 
from it, as the rock of the Citadel must have entirely shut out the view ; much 



Tis an odd thing I cannot descry them. 325 

What can be the reason my eyesight fails ? 

[Enter the Chorus, attired as goddesses in thin floating 


At the Entrance.*' 


O now I can spy them. 


Yes, now you can spy them, unless you have sties 
In your eyes of the size of a pumpkin. 


Yes, by Jove ! — Ye adorable deities, 
Oh befriend an unfortimate bumpkin ! 


You never supposed they were goddesses blesi, 
I conclude then, you thick-headed gaper ? 


Not I, sir ! I thought they were made up of mist, 
And of dew, and of smoke, and of vapour. 

leas could it have been seen bj the assembled spectators. It was evidently 
safer and better to leave the picture of the descent of these ethereal goddesses 
to the imagination of the audience; for if Pames had been visible, and it had' 
to happened that it was remarkablj free from mists and fogs at the time, what 
a ridiculous 6gure the poet would have cut ! The author of the very useful 
little treatise on the Elgin Marbles^ published in the Library cf EnterUnming 
Knowledge^ has fidlen into the common mistake of supposing that Aristd- 
phanes ^ Q>oke to the eyes of his hearers" in this passage, although the plan 
of ancient Athens which he gives clearly shows the contrary — See that publica- 
tion, I. p. 14. 

(47) That is to say, of course, the '* Entrance'^ by which the Chorus came 
into the orchestra. 



[act I. 


It is evident J then, that you arc not aware 

That they feed a whole herd of philosophers — 
Brave ThuriaM prophets,*"* physieianers rare, 

And long-liaired and nail-he-riiiged goasipera ; " 
And that they maintain the benders of lays 

Di thy rani bic, those airy rapscallions, — 
Because they are always h^nimin^ the praise 

Of the Clouds,— as idle as stallions/" 


So that's why they sing of " the threatenm' loom 
" O' the Clouds forked-glitter ings atrawin^, " 

And ** the curls o' the hundred-headed Simoom," 
And " the tempests humin' an* hlawin j " 

To say nothing of " crook-taloned air-swimjnin* fowls 
" O* the watery kingdom of heaven/ 


(48) For a notice of the religieut juggleriei pfactiMd at the fbtittdAtlofi of 
Thijril in Italy, sc*? Thirl wrdPs Hist. Gttsee^ HI. p. 5&* 

(49) Aa in modem Eiipope, so in nncient 'Attko, people of fashion sometiu 
wore sueii ii proiligjous number of rin^ on one linger^ that it wm corcfcl ] 
neaj-ly op to the very nail 

(50] W«! have no Dithjrmmtiic odes remnimng; but as &r if lie QUI ju^ | 
fttJtn n few frngments that hnve come down to ua, they appeal to haTe been 
diatinoruiabed by a very bold nnd lofty vein of poetry* They w«re compoMd ill 
the Bame broad pronncial dialffct a» mojt other pieces intended fbr Bokmzi 
music, and were sung TjyTh'cr"X]lrcuJar Chomsea," of which the Tnodem Greet 
"' Romdtka" In nupposed to lie a remnimt ; (tt?e Leaked Tramtk in ihe Mm^^l. 
p. b.) The comic and %w%m Chomacs, oh the other hand, were alwaya anaagi^ 
in an Gbhng instead of a dr^ilur form. With resjiect to the etypiology o^ tbfl 
term " nithyramh," the niicients themselves wert^ in the dark ; Mr RomanJ (b 
Timkowtiky, in his Comttiieniiirif on Dithffmmfts, (publiBh^ at Mo«?ow Kn J9f*(» j 
saya that the word was undoubit/dig miented by Bome man when he waidrtwk. 


And " showers o* water an' boomin' growls 
" Frae the Clouds by thunderbolts riven," 

For, by way of return for their flattering words, 
They gobble down sauces and gravies, 

" An' braw caller baddies and gusty birds — 
" The cushat, and bonny wee mavis."" 


And have not they earned their rewards from the Clouds ? 340 


How comes it that Clouds should assemble 
In the likeness of girls ? They resemble not crowds 
Such as these. 


Then what do they resemble ? 


Why — ahem ! — loose wool. They are no more like 

To women than turnips to roses. 
Now these that you see, as it surely must strike 

Your eyesight, have fingers and noses. 


Just answer my questions, and do not be shy. 


Make haste, then, and ask them, dear Mentor. 345 


Did you ever look up and behold in the sky 

(51) We shall find our author waging mercilef» war with these unfortunate 
writers of Dithyrambs in the comedy of the BinU. The Hierdnymus, who 
was attacked in the Achdmians for wearing long hair, (L 888), and who will be 
again mentioned a few lines afterwards, belonged to the same school of poetry. 

X 2 



[act I* 

A cloud that resembled a. Centaur, 

Or a pard, or a wolf^ or a buUf or a fish?** 


Yes. What's that to do with the matter ? 


They have power to turn to whatever they wish. 

If they spy out a wihl-looking satyr 
With a shaggy body, and flowing hair, — 

Tiike old Hieronymus, — enter 
Tile streets ; as a cut at his madness they wear 

The shape of a rough-coated Centaur* 


And what if they spy out Sinion below — 
That thief of the national treasures ? 


Tliey turn into wolves on a suddens to show 
The greedy turn of Ms measures." 


\ / (52) Parson ha& opportunely lulduccd tw» sLmikr passagoA in j 
I fHamiet, Act IIL end of Sc. 2, and Antony mid Cieopatra, Act IV. begimili^of* 
J SCk I2y to which Dobree hm wdded the following from Jer, TsyloPs Worthy 
I \Communkanf^ p. tl. '* Wt* sometimes espy & bright cloud fortziiiid into an irre- 
/ |"giilnr ligure; which, when H is obseoed by unakilful and fantastic tmvelJenf j 
I *^ looka like A Centaur to Bome^ and as a c&atlc to otben. Some tell thjit tbe^ i 
I i** saw an army with bannt^rs^ and it aigjiifies waj ; but another, wipei than hu 
\/ **^ follow, «ay» it looks fbr all the world like n flock of sheep, aiid ftireteU plenty. ' 
/ \' And tdl the while it k nothing but a sMniog doiid« by iU own mobility ani 
f I* the activity of the wind cast into a oontiiigent and iDarttfieial sbape*" 
1 (53) This Simon occurs fifty lines afterward b us a perjurer ; we know nothinf 

more of him, than that he was aiso attivckcd hj the comic poet Eiipolis in tJi« 
foHowtog vene : 

" Th.€ nwAl OJehed wtm? caih ftom H*nicl*i," 

1^ He must of eourte have been ndiierent peiiKin from the wealthy Knight Simniif 
jiientioned in the comedy of the Knights, 1. 242, 




When they saw the shield-losing Cleonymus, then, 
T' other day, 'twas the reason I've now heard 

That changed them to stags ; for of mortal men 
They judged him the horridest coward. 


Yes, and now they have spied out Clisthenes here, — 
Don't ye see ? — and have changed into women. " 355 


Hail, goddesses, hail, and your voices uprear 
To the skies in harmonious hymning. 


Hail, ancient old man, who hast ventured to hunt 

For learning to physic thy rife ills ! 
And do you^ too, inform us of all that you want, 

Grreat priest of ingenious trifles. 
There's not a philosopher living now. 

To whose prayers we would vouchsafe attention, — 360 
Save Prodicus only, ** because we know 

His learning, and wit, and invention, — 

(54) Respectiiig Clednjonus and Clisthenes, see Achdmiaru, Notes 17 and 20. 

(55) Prddicus of Ceos was one of the persons who amassed great wealth at 
this period, bj going about to the different cities of Greece, and instructing 
young men of fiimilj and fortune in the arts of reasoning and speaking. Like 
some of the German professors, he gave courses of lectures at different prices, 
according to the means of his auditors. Sdcrates is made to say at the beginning 
of Plato*t Cr&tylus, that he had only heard Pr($dicus*s shUlmg lecture, and not 
fait ffty-MUing one, and again in the Theatiiut^ that he had recommended 
many of his own young friends to take lessons from him. It was he who wrote 
a little work on the choice made by Hercules between Virtue and Vice, of which 
we have so elegant an abstract in the second book of X£nophon*8 Memoirs of S6- 
eraiet. He makes his appenrunce in another dialogue of Plato, the Protdgorau^ 
discouning with some young gentlemen, its he lay warmly wnipped up in bed 

310 THE CLOUDS. [aCT I. 

And youy on account of your making a fuss 

In the streets, and peeping and prying, 
And travelling barefoot, and trusting to us, 

Mankind superciliously eyeing. 


Good Earth ! What melodious music they brew ! 
How decorous, and wondrous, and holy ! 


It is they who alone are divinities true ; 

And the rest arc but nonsense and folly. 365 


Come, is not Olympian Jove a god ? 


Jove ! Twaddle ! Have done with your playing 
The fool ! there is no such person, as odd 
As you think it. 


What's this you are saying ? 
Then who is it rains ? First answer me that^ 
Before you go on with your treasons. 


Why the Clouds, to be sure ; and I'll prove it, that's flat. 

By tlie most convincing of reiusons. 
When there is not a cloud to be seen upon high. 

Did you ever see Jiipiter raining? 370 

of a morning, but troubled with Huch an indistinct, deep voice, that it was very 
difficult to hear what he wiid at any distance. He is there caUed ^a remark- 
*' ably clever and gOlI-liki^ man/* Aristdphanes spoke of him in his lost play, the 

i?roi/t'r.«, in the followinjj way : 

" I !«•'•» U't'ii corruplcil by a lio*»k, or elMj ■] 
• H> rn»ilirii«.. oi fxnwf mu (^f the biibblert./ 



Yet he ought to rain in an open sky, 
When there is not a Cloud remaining. 


That explains your assertion right well, as I live ! 

You have glued it most skilfiilly to it. 
I used to imagine that Jove had a sieve, 

And emptied his bladder-bag through it. — 
But who is it thunders and makes such a rout ? 

For that's what compels me to tremble. 


'Tis the Clouds who thunder, when rolling about. 


How comes that ? You shall not dissemble. 375 


When, choakful of water and hung in the air, 

They are forced into motion, they tumble 
With fury, perforce, on each other, and there 

They burst with a terrible rumble. 


But is it not Jove, by whose arm from afar 
They are forced, my good friend, into motion? 


No, certainly not Tis ethereal Jar. 

[Pointing to the holy Jar^ which stood at his door. 


" Jar?" Well now, I had not a notion, 380 

That Jove was deceased, and " Jar " was now king 

In his place ! What an ignorant blunder ! — 
But you have not yet taught me a single thing 

Concerning the rumbling of thunder. 

312 THE CLOUDS. [aCT I. 


Now did not you hear me declare, that the Clouds 

Come tumbling with furious intenseness 
On each other, when filled with their watery loads. 

And rumble because of their densencss ? ** 


What proof is there of it ? 


Ill prove it with ease : 
From your very own body, 1 tell ye. 385 

Did ye ever swill soup, till it kicked up a breeze 
And a vehement stir in your belly ? 


To be sure, and my belly is instantly roused, 

And lost in indignant wonder ; 
And the rascally jorum of soup that I've boused 

Groans, rumbles, and bellows like thunder ; 
First quietly "pappax, pappax," and then 

" Papappax," till lastly the chap packs, 390 

When he meets with a vent, from his flatulent den. 

With a thundering loud " papapappax.*' 

{5()) This is quite as sensible, and certainly a far more intelligible account of 
the ciuisw of thunder, than what Aristotle presents us with. As fiir as can he 
made out from the very muddy style which this author generally indulges in, 
when he is writing aI)out what he does not understand, he appears to hare con- 
sidered that the clouds were a mixture of two kinds of vapour, a dry and a moist 
one ; and that from the dissipation of, heat upwards, their upper parts liecame 
colder and denser than their lower. "All the dry vapour, therefore,*^ says he, 
"which is enclosed during this refrigeratory change, is forced out by the con- 
'' dentation of the clouds, and being carried along with great \iolence, and fiill- 
*' ini; upon the surrounding clouds, causes a stroke, the noise of which is called' 
'' ihundcr. * * * And the wind thus s<|ucezetl out genemlly bums with a slender 
" and weak flame, and this is what we call fiphtninff.'^^MeieoralopyyB&okll.c. 9, 

8CEHE 1V»] 




If a poor little belly can utter such groaiis, 

Whea it lets out a trumper from under ; 
How much more must the mfiaite air ? And the nouns 

Are alike, too — trumper and thunder.*' 


But from whence are the fiery thunderbolts whirled, 
That reduce us to asheSj and merely 395 

Singe others amongst us alive ? They are hurled 
By Jove at the perjurers clearly. 


You old-fashioned bekke-diluvian^ dolt! 

If Jupiter hurls them to floor us 
For forswear! ngj why does not he launch a bolt 

At CleonjTnus, Simon, Theorus ? " 


(57) The reflcmJilance between these tivo words reminds one of tliat poculiai 
kiml of rbyuio so much used in the old Spjiniah theatrinil writens, aceo tiding to 
which two dittyllablea, that contain the name two voweb in Ihe *amc onl«r, are 
constdeTCil to rhynn* to each other ; for inatruice ** drama " to *' rascaU" " loTer'* 
to " nQiifieiiM.%" '' panon " to '* harlot,** nnd so on. 

(SH) Thm refeni to a Btran^e stoiy which we meet 'With in Henldotiui, (IL 2.) 
PtiimmiHichut, km^ of Egfpt, kt ap|H?ai^ wsintcd to find out whieh nation was 
the most ancieut, and after many fruit less inquiHea, devtscd the foUowittg wise 
fcheme. He took a. eouple of infunte, and ilclivcref! them to a goatherd, with 
utrict ordem thut no one should ever spenk in ihiir jirefsenee* At the end of two 
yenra it was found that thej hnwled out most vixiiferotj*lj, ** Beko*! Beko«r 
or, m we ought to pronounce it, " Veko* ! Vekoa !** Now after inqmry, the king 
oscertair^cd that this aforcfiaid word signified ** bread" in the Phrtfgian tonf^e; 
whence he very fapiently coricludi'd that the f*ht^ffiftn4 were the tnoflt nneieni 
people in the woftd, ** and the Egyptian*," nays the hiAtorian, "^ who hud formerly 
** fiincied that they themaelves were the moAt ancient^ maintair]t:*d Iheneeforth 
** that the Phryffianw were pRwlured hefore them, and they l>efofe the n*t of 
" niankirid." It( kke-iljluvian, of course, refem to Ihe epithet *'ante-dikiviiui»'* 
wUkh wiiii:vjiplied to the Arc^iane — :i njttion wlii^i Jiaci tiever within the memory 
of miui been ejected from the territory they iuhahited* 

{Mi) Eespectmg this Jast pewon^ we AcMrmanit, Note '12, 



[act I, 

They are terrible perjurers, every one knows ; 

Yet they never have met with their deatli hence. 
But he blasts his own &iie, in the place of his foes, 

" And Suniuin, headland of Athens," *° 
And the crests of the innocent oaks of the wood* 

For what reason ! An oak can't be perjured* 


I am sure I don't know; but your argument's good. 
In what way is the thunderbolt nurtured ? 


When an arid wind is upraised horn below. 

And enclosed in the Clouds^ its capacity 
To inflate them like bladders is called in, and so 

It bursts them in two of necessity ; 
And rushes outside with a vehement force 

From its denseness, when it has rent 'era, 
Consuming and burning itself on its course 

By its friction, and noise, and niomentum. 


IVe been treated myself in the very same way, 

By Apoilo, on many occasions ! 
I neglected to nick a haggis one <lay 

I was roasting to dine my relations ; 
Wlion it puffed up, and suddenly to mj surprise 

Burst open in tatters, and nearly 



(eO) These worfs are Jrom the Odyue^^ Uil. I 278.) There are iflmi* 
heautifiil xemains of a temple cf Min^Yn ittill in existettce on tbis pmttiotll'M-/ 
(if Sunium, tvhich taki^ itp ItaUna itiine ** Civpo Colonn^,'' horn thot dicuis- 


Deprived me of sight by a spurt in my eyes, 
And scalded my face most severely.** 


O mortal, who longest for wisdom and wit, 

I foresee by my powers of prescience. 
That you'll rise to be wealthy and fortunate yet 

Amongst the Athenians and Grecians, 
If your memory's good, and you wish and desire 

To be constantly thinking and talking. 
And are furnished with patience, and never tire 

Of standing, or running, or walking, 415 

And are neither tormented by cold, nor pine 

Like poor silly wretches for breakfast, 
And abstain from the Public Walks, and from wine. 

And the follies that make one a rake fiast. 

(61 ) The Greek haggis was roatied instead of being boiled^ but in other respects 
is appears to have resembled its Caledonian successor very closely. There whs 
the same necessity in both for ** nicking," or ** pricking,** in order to let out the 
expanding air, as may be seen from the eloquent receipt in Meg Dod's Cookery 
Book, for making 

Thx Scotch Haooia. 

** Parboil a sheep's pluck, and a piece of good lean beef. Grate the half of the 
*^ liver, and mince the beef, the lights, and the remaining half of the liver. Take 
** of good beef suet half the weight of this mixture, and mince it with a dozen 
" small firm onions. Toast some oatmeal before the fire for hours, till it is of a 
" light brown colour, and perfectly diy. Less than two teacupfuls of meal will 
** do for this meat. Spread the mince on a board, and strew the meal lightly 
^ over it, with a high seasoning of pepper, salt, and a little Cayenne, well mixed. 
** Have a haggis bag perfectly clean, and see that there be no thin part in it, 
" else your whole labour will be lost by its bursting. Put in the meat, with as 
** much good heef-grnvy, or strong bmth, as will make it a thick stew. Be care- 
*''ful not to fill the bag toofull^ but allow the meat room to swell; add the juice 
'* of a lemon, or a little good vinegar; press out the air, and sew up the bag; 
^ prick it mth a large needle^ when it first swells in the pot, to prevent bursting ; 
" let it boil, but not violently, for th»ec hours." 

316 THE CLOUDS. [aCT I. 

And long for that most which is longed for among 

The talented men of all nations — 
To conquer in fights that are fought vdth the tongue. 

And intrigues, and debates, and orations. 


As regards the reposing in comfortless hut«. 

And a spirit too sturdy to clamour, 
And hard-living, thrifty, and mint-dining guts, 

I can stand like an anvil, the hammer.*' 


Of course then you'll only believe in the gods, 
That are owned by your newly-found brothers — 

The Chaos you see, and the Tongue, and the Clouds ? 
These three we allow, and no others. 


I would not, sir, even converse with the rest, — 

No, not if we met in the city, — 425 

(62) There is a somewhat Rimilar paf»age in the Pythagorian Si^olart^ the 
comic poet Aristophon ; — 

"In bearing hunger and in eating nothing, 

" I can assure you you may reckon me 

" A TithymdUusor Phillppides; 

" In drinking water I'm a very frog; 

" In loving thyme and greens — a cateiplllar; 

•• In hating Bagnios— a lump of dirt ; 

" In living out of doors all winter-time — 

" A blackbird; in enduring sultry heat, 

" And chattering at noon— a grasshopper ; 

" In neither using oil, nor seeing it— 

" A cloud of dust; in walking up and down 

" Bare-footed at the dawn of day— a crane; 

*' In sleeping not one shigle jot— a bat." 

Quoted in JtMntt'fn*, p. 2S». 


Or bestow on the rogues at their earnest request 
Wine, victims, or incense, in pity. 


Now tell us what 'tis that you want us to do, 

And don't be afraid ; for we never 
Will refuse to comply with your wishes, if you 

Respect us and try to be clever. 


My adorable mistresses, grant to me, then. 

This smallest of all requisitions ; 
I wish to become the most eloquent man. 

By a hundred miles, of the Grecians. 430 


We will grant it you ; so from the present day 

Not a soul of the demagogue crew shall 
Carry so many motions, by means of his sway 

In the Public Assembly, as you shall. 


No canying motions for me, I intreat ! 

But there's nothing I long for so much as 
To be able to wriggle through actions, and cheat, 

And slip from my creditors' clutches. 


You shall have what you wish ; for your prayer and request 
Is such as becomes our dependants. 435 

So boldly deliver yourself to the best 
•Of instructors — our &ithful attendants. 


I will — in reliance on you; for I needs 
Must act in the' way that you bid me. 



On account of those rascally I-branded ste^s» 
And the jade of a wife wha undid me. 

[act I. 

Scene V- The Same. 



So now let them do with me just what they will i 
I give them my carcase for good or for ill> 
To experience beatings, and hunger, and thirst, 
And dandmif, and cold, or be flayed if they durst. 
On condition they teach me the method to find 
An escape from my debts, and I'm thought by mankind 
Bold, niinble-tonguedj impudent, anxious to rise, 445 

A blackguard, a gluer-together of lies, 
An inventor of words, a lover of suits, 
A law-book, a rattle, a cunning old boots, 
An auger, a strap^ a dissembling old bagSj 
A puddle of grease," an indulger in brags, 
A goad-riddled slave, an impertinent dog, 
A twister, a teaser, a gluttonous hog. 
If passers-by speak of me thus, I am ripe 
For whatever they think to be proper ; 


(63) Such puddle» vould be veiy naturallj fonnod in the rooms whet^ Uie 
Athenians anointed their bodies with olive-oil, sftfiir pftftftking of the hath, iuid 
doubtlesa ofUn occasioned th^m as dcvore arid uneJipe^tod tumbled o^ the bit» 
of omoge-pecl, which nre eo copiouely Bcattcred about out public street^^ stjime- 
timefl inflict upon u*, Th^ mcajimghere is of croupe metuphoricid ; it it«qii£- 
taleut to najing— " if I ^ vc my enemies as severe tumblea aa Ihej get froni the 
^' puddltiB of gresise iti the Bai^iuos." 


And, if such is their wish, let them tear out my tripe 455 
And give it the Scliolars for supper. 

Scene VI. The Same. 


You've a bold and ready spirit : 

If you learn within my portals 
Lessons like these, you will gain by your merit 

Lofty fame from mortals. 460 


How shall I fare? 


You shall live 
Days without limit or measure. 
Wrapt in pursuits that will give 
Most unbounded pleasure. 


Shall I then ever see A6& 

Such felicity? 


Yes, and a numerous rabble of boors 

All the year round will sit at your doors. 

Wishing to have the advantage of learning 470 

What's your advice and opinion concerning 

Action, or cross-suit, or bottomry-scroll, 

Worth many hundreds of pounds to your soul. '175 



[act I. 

(7b Socrates.) 
Now make an attempt to instruct the old man 

In wliatever it is your intention 
To tcacli him, and stir up his mind, if you can, 

And examine his powers of invention. 


Come now, inform me, what's your turn of thought; 

That knowing of what nature it may be, 

I may forthwith attack you with fresh engines. 


F(^r ^(kVs sake, are you going to besiege me ? 


No, bnt I wish to ask you a few questions. — 
Pray is your memory good ? 


Aye, in two ways : 




Mind, when I place some clever thought before you 
About the heavens, you catch it up directly. 4©0 


What ? Shall I feed on learning like a dog ? 


This fellow is an ignorant barbarian ! 

I am afraid, old man, you want a whipping. 

Come, if one beats you, what d'ye do ? 


I'm beaten ; 
Then in a little while call men to witness ; 405 

And then I wait a bit, and go to law. 


Lay down your coat ! 


Have I offended you ?** 


No, but the custom is to go in stripped. 


I do not want to look for stolen goods. •* 

(65) Poor Strepsiades imagines that he is going to be flogged, like a school- 
boy, for not answering the question properly. 

(66) A coat would of course afford additional facilities for secreting anj 
article, or introducing the very thing which was asserted to have been lost, 
during a search for stolen goods; and therefore the law provided, that persons 
who claimed the right of following their own property into a neighbour's house, 
should leave their upper garment behind them. The aged novice, as we shall 
afterwards see, never recovers what he so foolishly gives up. 



[act I, 


Stuff i Nonsense J J My it down. 

[Strepsiaoes /nyi ditwn fm mat, which Socrates 

inmiediatel^ takes possension of. 



Just tell me this : 
If Vm attentive, and take pains to learn, 
Which of your scholars shall I most resemble ? 


You'll be exactly like our Chii&rephoii, 


Confound the thing ! So I shall turn half-dead ! 


Don't prate, but follow me direetly here. 


No J give me first a honey-cake to hold, 

I'm frightened at descending down below. 

As though *twere to the cavern of Trophonius/^ 


Come ! Why d^ye keep on boggling at the door ? 

[Exeunt Socrates and Strepsiades into the kouse &f 
the former. 


(BT) Thy wiu fi celebrated cave at L«bad^it in Bce^Jtia, into wKfch U»e poitiei, 
who wished for n knowledge of futurity, dnscendutl *rith a. honej-cnbe m llMirl 
hAndft. They wore theix met by ii number i»f tame 5m^ke^ who ate the-lr oileev 
but did them no harm. Hnbhftuse my» thut the cuvem still ejcbtii, xknd corre- 
spnnda exnctly with tlte dewriptinn ofthegeotjfmpherPausunins, in whi*?ha 
tion, howevpr, he is not bomc out bj succeed ing travelleTa* {Tr*treh iHGr\ 
SiG.j L p. 2fE3,) We Ifjim from this piusivge, aa well m from unotJier wbidl 
we sbalJ iifter wards* meet with, ibat the " Tbiiiking^bop" vfnm jrepteiented na 
alt underground uiHirtment.— See i. 8S1 



Depart, and may fortune vouchsafe you her aid, 510 
For the sake of the valour that you have displayed. 
May the man be successful, because. 

Though deeply advanced in old age, 515 

He is dying his soul with the laws 

Discovered by 'Attica's sage, 
And is ardently burning 
For the study of learning. ■* 


By the holy Bacchus, from whom 

All my comic talents come, 

I'll declare, spectators, to you 

Freely what is really true. 

May I lose the prize, and be thought 

Dull and tame, and good for nought, 520 

If 'twas not from reckoning that 

You were critics good and great. 

And that this was frillest of wit 

Of the comedies I'd writ/ 

That I chose out you, sirs, to taste 

First the work I thought my best.** 

(68) This Addrxm was written after the first edition of the plaj had been 
damned. — See the Introduction. 
/ (69) A comedy might be ex hibited eith er in February or Ma rch ; in the 
V former caae Uie audience congiated almort entirely of readent citJie ns; in the 
Utter there was generally a large admixture of foreigners. Arist ^Sphanes means 
to say,_that he had such a high opinion of the mor e promiscu ous la udfen oe 
which was'collected together in March , ihatjie^ preferred pjUtflpg the first 
e6iii<m 6t~th ^Vlou ds in their hands, toTeav ing it to the^ judgment of the 
FeI>f uaifylpect^ tflCT>_ i^ course compliments of this Cind were worth about 

Y 2 

324 THE CLOUDS. [aCT I. 

Yet against great Justice's rules 

Was I beat by stupid fools. '• 

Have not I good cause to complain 525 

Of you men of learned brain, 

For whose sake I laboured away 

Noon and night to write the play ? 

Still eVn this shan't be a pretence 

For deserting men of sense. — 

Ever since that piece with the plot 

Of the Sobersides and Sot " 

Gained with those unbounded success 

Whom 'tis sweet e'en to address ; 

(1 being then unmarried as yet, 

Could not own my little pet ; 530 

So ex])osed the babe, and another 

Girl became its nurse and mother ; 

a» much m the cut and dried common-places, which some celebrated modem 
counsel have made such ^ood use of—" they have always publicly said how mudi 
" they preferred addressing a jury of such and such a county," filling up the 
blank according to the place where the as-sises happened to be held. We have 
seen our author expressing the very opposite opinion, when his play was brought 
forward in February, and compiiring the native citizens to the pure wheat of 
the commonwealth.— ^cA/imi«7w, 1. 502—508. 

(70) Cratinus and Amipsias, the rival comic poets. See the Introduction. 

(71 ) Our author here refers to his maiden production, the Banqueter*^ which 
we may conclude, from what goes before, to have been exhibited at the great 
feast of Bacchus in March. In this comedy he represented an old man with 
two sons — one a virtuous youth, and the other a h€«dstrong debauched lellow. 
Li^e all his other compositions, until the Knights forced him to change hia 
plan, it was brought forward in the name of another person — ^his friend Callis- 
tratus. This he exjiresses a few lines afterwards by a metaphorical allusion to 
the horrible custom of exposing infimts, so prevalent in most ancient countries, 
and still common in China. 


Aye, aiid you supported the chit 

Well, and educated it ;) 

1 have ever reckoned your troth 

Pledged to me by faitliful oath. — 

Now then, — like th' Electra you see 

On the stage," — this Comedy 

Comes before you, seeking from hence 

For a clever audience ; 535 

And she'll know her prospects are fair, 

If she spies her " brother's hair." 

See how chaste the damsel appears, 
( And how simple, for her years. 

jShe has got no terrible stick 
\Dangling downwards, long and thick, 
/Nor displays the hideous staff 
VAU to make the children laugh ; 

(72) In the LibaHon-bearert of *JEachylu&, El^ra finds a lock of hair on 
the tomb of her murdered Cither Agamemnon, and recognises it as belonging 
to her absent brother Orestes. The lines maj be thus translated : — 

** Electha. I lee upon the tomb a lock of hair. 

" Chohits. Belonging to what man, or deep-girt maid ? 

** Elbctea. This may be guessed with ease by any one. 

" Chokus. Must aged I, then, learn of younger you? 

" Elkctea. Ko one, but I, would offer up such gift. 
^^ . " Cbokus. No ; those, who ought, are now thy father's foes. 

" Elsctea. Besides, it seems most strangely similar. 

" qpoavs. To what f For that is all I lung to learn. 

" Elxctka. It matches most exactly with my hair. 

'* Cmouvs. Then can it be Or6stes' secret gift ? 

" ELKcrmA. It is his curls that it resembles most. 

" Chorus. How could he ever dare to journey here ? 

" ExjicTEA. He tftnt it, to appease my fkther's shade." 

What Aristdphanes th '^^-^'ffrp in<ff^"« '»i t hat if his Chu dt fated to be 
as successful as the Banqu eters jG nnerly wa s, the Comedy herself will easily 
recognise the tokens of success, namely, the applause of the audience." 


[act U 

Nor cracks jokes on baldness ; nor brings 

On the stage her hompipe-tlingsJ' 540 

Nor do«s th' aged gentleman^ who 

Spouts the witty lines to you, 

Strike his fiiend with cudgel of oak 

To conceal a stupid joke/* 

Nor does she rush in fifom below 

Armed with links, nor bawl " Holloa."-* 

Trusting to herself and her rhymes, 

Has she sought these scenic climes. 

I myself, although such a rare 

Poetj sport no flowing hair j 545 

Nor at tempt to cheat you with stale 

Wom-out_plotSj but never fail 

To produce &esh dishi^ offood, 

Non^ alike, and^ alt ri ght good. 

(73) Arliddphftnefl being himfi«]f bald« (see this ptaj a few Imea beloir, and | 
Pea4*4t 1. 767 — 774,) it would be verj unlikely that he shoultl kugh at ba 
meti, either here or any where eliie. The aBsertloit b merely ijiteniled w m 
Bide-hit at ti^o lines of Eupolis, m which he lucknamefl our author "- the bild- 
** headed ha.rd," (See Note 78.) The audience wene enteftained, however, with 
a JutiJcroiiii hornpipe at the ead of the Wasps. 

(74) We Bhall find, nevcrthele«, that the "aged gentleman," Slre|kiJadei| . 
uses hia goad pretty freely on the caroise of one of his creditor^ towiidi Ibe I 
end of thjj» piny, although his eudpel enjoy» a ^iaccure, lathe pln^ <if tht j 
Birdi^ the eitdffei itself h employeil most unmercifully, I 

(75) There is a mnffk; Hnk^ or torch, introduced at the end of thb play to 
fir© 8ocmtes*fi houae^ hut it h brought in very peaceably by a shive, who docs 
not even open hia lips, uuuh less hawl " Holloa ! Holloa I" One of tho 
scholars, however, uttem thii exclamation. In the Ly&iiirala of our author^ 
the toale half of the Chonia are fiimiahed with burning torches, and the 
remale half with ju^js of water ; iit^d the latter mxubg the old gentlemen mmi 
copiouidy, and put out their lights^ to puniish them for their inaolenec 



I floored Clcon, — great as my foe 
Tlieii \\m, — with a belly-blow ; 
Yet disdained to jtimp on the hound 
As he grovelled on the ground. '"* 
But my rivals, now they have iparred 
Through Hyherholus's" guards 
Keep on always thrashing his liidc. 
And his poor old dam's beside* 
First of all that ludicrous nss, 
.Eupol is/^jarrot e " Maricas;*' 
Nothi n g but a copy^ by right s. 
And a poor one, of my ** KnJghts ;" 


(7^) See the Cf»mcd/ of tfie KmghU^ 

ill) Sec AcMrfiiaii^^ Note 92, 

(711) ArisUfplmtieft, CratlnuM, unci Eupolid* were cotisiJured the three great 
luminariea of the old Attic c«inie(ij. The plaj men tinned in thif text was m* 
t«iid«d to i-iin down HyWrbolua, in the Bmne manner aa the Knightt^ had cniahed 
CE^n, The demagt)gue was represented hi it ia a siraUar ^&y under the 
«batBct«r of '* MAritawr which, like ** MAaeUt" Ac^ wai a name for a ^ouDg 
barbftriau idave; while his mother, who pursued the trade of a baker^ or rather 
bread woman, was iatToduced upon the stage in a ridiculous iitateof intoxieattun^ 
and made tq peffonn an aUjufd dimce for the amusement of the audience, At 
to the charge of plajij jarisira, which is »o roundly brought forward by our author, 
Eilpolia retorted it in his Itapim^ by anaertiag that he bad eiJUtH bated to the 
^ompoiition of the Km^htt^ which certainly dcfesnot seem very probable, when 
Vtflortiider the mutual jeabuaiev that prevailed iu the proft^on. His word^^ 
m quoted m the Greek note, were oa foHow t — 

" Why t heljMd tbv baldhradid Tinrd 
** Id till KnLght* ivlthout re ward." 

It WW nlwnyt believed, tJlL the time of EratiSfttheneiw tlial Aldbfades threw 
Ktipolii overbcMLrd during the voyage to Stcity^ in revenge for the Batire he Had 
levelled at him in the ]a«trnaiued comedy^ that celebrated gmmmarian, how* 
ever* «uti(iftictorily proved that he hiid written works posterior to the date of the 
Sidlian t^xpedition, and consequently that the story wa* throjiobjgiailly im- 
1>o«Kible. AnotheraGeount statet» thjit he wa» Mhipwrvekvtl aad drowned in the 
lllille«]Kinr dtiring the I'uloponiiefiiau war, aud tliat the Atbcnians nmde a biw 
in consc^iueiice^ that no poet should go on »crvicc for the future. 


[act w 

With a petticoated old rake 

Added for tlie hompipe*s sake, 5S5 j 

Like the one In Phrynicluia' stale 

Drama swallowed by the whale. ^* 

Then Hemiippus** kicked up a fuss 

To run down Hyberbolus ; 

And the re^st all pointed their blows 

At H}berbi>lus's nose ; 

While each paltry plag-iarist steak 

My resemblance of the eels. '^ 

Let not fools who laugh at such plays^ 

Ever honour mine with praise. fi60 

But if you're delighted with mej 

(79) Thcfc arc three Phr^chus'es mentioucd in iriatdpliMics — one a oule- 
b^^ tragic po«t^ who lived in the timed of the PeTsinri wnrt, — one a general 
who figured about the time of Aloihiiidea'a petwni from hanlBhTnent'— luttj out A I 
oomb poet who wa* neatly contempoiary with our author ; for we are told that 
he gained the second prize when the Fra^s carried otf the fiwti b* c 405* It ii 
the third person of the name who j» here m«int. He ii also ridiculed ia the 
13th line of the Pro^s^ in common with Bomeof his brethren, for making a pnic- 
tke of iatroducing slaves, carrying heavy burdens^ upon the stage^ in order t« 
raise a Borry Inugh at their expeuse. The old gentlewoman whom he caused to 
he ^^swnlloweJ by the whale," was doubtless mtend^as a parody upon a certain 
ijcenc in the Andramefla of EuHisides, where the royal viigin is ^xpneoil on a 
rock to be swallowed by a huge Mja- monster We >halJ Had the fiame pas- 
«Age of Euripidcfl ludicrously exhibited to our notice in the FetMlrMtev, t 

(RO) Another comic poet. He had attacked Pdrkies wttb particular zuallf' J 
nity. and was even uniiallrmt enough to proflecute the beautiftil ^nd talenledl 
Aapdsia for impiety ; from which charge, however, she escaped through the teart4 
imd entreaties of her lover P^riclea, (See Thirl walla //iV/. Greece^ HI. pp* 
89,90.) The Greek note telln us that he bad not vrritten any entire drama 
against Hyh«f^bolu^ hut tlmt the expression " very many breail women;' in unB 
of his compCkftitlonei, mi» supposed to be intended b» a hit at the domagogiiefl 
mother, Athentens nientiun^ n pLiy i>f hif^ called the Breadwom^n^ vhich wm 
m<wit Ukdy the murce whi-m^e the t|uritittion 4-ame. 

(n\) For the aJmile ivboiil the eels, see Kmtthin. L ni>4 — Bf>7. 


And with my new comedy, 

You'll be thought, and not without reason, 

Men of sense .... till next year's season. ** 


First to almighty Jove I pray. 
King of the gods, to hear our lay 

Hymning its high devotion ; 565 

Then to the trident's lord, whose hand 
Ruthlessly heaves the quaking land, 
And the o'erflowing ocean ; " 
Next to our &ther, the Ether, who gives 
Food and support to each creature that lives ; 570 
And to the charioteer, by ^hose nod 

Smiling simbeams are driven 

Thro' the darkness — a mighty god 

Both on earth and in heaven. 

Pray attend to what our case is. 

Cleverest of audiences. 575 

We complain before your faces 

That you've treated us amiss. 
We alone of all your deities 

Ne'er are offered wine or food ; 

(82) That is to say, till the exhibition of fresh comedies in the next February / ^ , 
and March, when your " sense** and judgment will be tested anew by having to ■- T \ 

decide upon their merits. ' * ' L A^tfk, J 

(83) The god here referred to is Neptune. See Knightt, Note 124. ^"y nT^ 



[act u 

Yet, of all their fFodslnps> we it is 

Who have done the state most good. 
We continually watch you ; 

And we thunder or we rain, 
If by any chance we catch you 

Marching out on some mad plan, ** 
When you chose the heaven-hated 

Magab^an currier 
General, we frowned and stated 

Clearly we abhorred the cur ; 
And we rained on you, ** and thunder 

** Burst out through the lightning s blaze ;" 
And the moon, in perfect wonder 

At the schen^e, eclipsed her rays j 
Nay, the very ami, to spite you, 

Drew his wick into himself, 
Swearing tliat he will not light youj 

If you chuse the blackguard elf.** 



(B4) SeQ AeMmtans, Note 2.1 Re«p€etinff tJie "Mflgubffcm currier/ see 
the InCmduciion to the Kidghtt. 

(Bo) Jri the Ttticer^ a loift tragedj d'Sdpbodes, theie wim t3)e followbig pu- 
eagw — 

" and ftum hcAven It H^biencd, 

'* And thundrr bum otit tbiougb the JiijIitnHiif'i UUzc," 

(efi) It is not at aU neccBsary to siippo&e, aa flome fif %he roAttei^f-fbct com- 
mentiitorB have done, that theRc ct'tip;je<s or any of them, actually took place at 
the tnomeot of the Assembly. All thnt the poet tnc-aii^ U to allude to tiieSr 
geneml frcquehcjr during the PelojHinreaiati war, for which we hiiTe the 
authoritj of Thuc^didcs. The proswiic B<;rpler haii even gone the leiigth of 
gravely pointing ottt» thttt im eclipeic of the moon and of the %\m ciiiinot posoiibl/ 
huppea togetlier, the fomter alwjiya occurring at the full^ and the latter at the 
*uftp mo<)n. By the by, Thucjfdidea, nt oli events, must have bucn aware of thiA 
luat astronomical fiiet ; for whea he h mentioning a solar eclipse that took place 
August 3tl, Ik r. 431, ** at the luimr new moou^ l*<? adds the words, ** which »i> 
'' ^^h to be ihe only tiu^c when it is poeeible/' — Thm^L II. '2a, 


Yet you chose him : for the City, 

As they say, is plagued with bad 
Counsek ; but the gods, in pity 

Towards a tribe so strangely mad. 
Make your faults, howe'er outrageous, 

Always turn out well for ye. "^ 
This one too'U be advantageous. 

And I'll prove it easily. 590 

If you shall convict that seap-guU 

Cleon, in the jury-box, 
Of embezzling and illegal 

Gifts, and gag him with the Stocks ; 
Though you've erred in what I mentioned, 

Yet his being General 
Will have thus restored your ancient 

Harmony and turned out well. " 


Hear me again, Apollo, thou 595 

Who from the rocky Cynthus' brow 
Smilest at ocean's surgings ! 

(87) The same sentiment occun in the Debairesset^ (L 473-476,) and in the 
following fragment of Etipolis :— 

" O Athens, Athent, 

" How lacky» rather than how wise, thou art!** 
The oiator Demdethenes also frequently expresses himsdf to the same eiSdcL 
Take as an instance the first few pages of the second Ol^thiac speech. 

(88) In other words, your having chosen Cleon general, and thereby given 
him an opportunity for illegal practices, will be of serrioe to you by leading to 
his downfidl, which is the only event, says the poet, that can restore peace and 
concord to Athens. The philosophy is the same as that of the vulgar proverb, 
"* Tis an ill wind that blows nobody good." 



[act 1- 

Hear me, Ephesian queen, wlio, blest, 
Sitt'st in tliy golden fane at rest, 

Worshipped by Lydian \irgins I *' GOO 

rhou, too, Minen^j our goddess^^ whose liaiid 
Chariots the a&gia** to succour the land I 
Neither let him, who with Bacchajial band 

Roams Pamiissus, forsake us — 
Hi 111 who tosses the blazing brand, 605 

Youthful revelling Bacclius ! 

Just as we'd prepared for starting 

On our voyage to you, the moon 
Chanced to meet us, and at parting 

Bid us take a message do\Mi. 
First, she saysj^ she sends the nation 

And the allies her compliments ; 
Secondly, she*s in a passion 

At the baseness of you gents," 


(HI)) Every one mufit rccoU^t the ftccount fn the New Testament of tJw 
tumult at Ephesns, iu which the mob cried out eiirjlimmJly for tht* »pace of two 
or thri't; huurs, " Great is Diuim o( the Ephtsitma !" 

(DU) The Clouils here, uhen they talk of " mtr gtKldesp," cvldenlly confaund 
IhetaaeLvtfH with lUeir audJuncc. Thia inter«:haniac of iadivi duality^ ji« has bwa 
before* rt'iiiSifked^ is very comiriaj^ in Attic eomtrdy* In the previous So^fli 
((^^e t 5Bfl,) the Chorus tpck^ in Iheir projier cliiu'actera of ** our fniher, the 
** Ether." 

(91) The ''^i'Egia'' waa an ornament fepj^^sentlng & Goifgon's head^ aiHl 
fiiBtened upon the hreaut by i^ross straps, m may be seea Id the »tatQC af the 
EleuHinmii Ceres, preserved at Canibrkliie. 

(ir>) The whole of this piece of pcwtiy refers to certain malpractieea in the 
arrangement oftheAltic rtiotiths, which, ae hx^been liefore btaleil, ^erc Uui»n 
^^ W lien we ctui^ider," aiys Boeekh, '' the principles tif Ihe Gret^ka, which luv 
** imHici<?nUy sees fruoi iheir hialiiriana and phikmopheni, it caanot hc« umtter 




Yi>u have ever found her willing 
To befriend you all, she thinks ; 

For she saves you each a shilling 
Every single month in links. 


*^ of BUiprtiHif that fraud wns im<h1 by public ofEceis at Aibens in «n great a 
** matter as the neifulation of the ihvyK In the early times of the rt'pubHc, 
•* Arifltide» itcciued hb t'oiiteiiiparnry, Thcmisttocleii, of Ihu Ueceit : H wa*even 
** the cammqn opinion^ that there exisited a verimn pn^BcriptLvi* right to ihe 
'* eommifiaion oftbta frauds aiid a pcreciTi whti hiid ^crQplea oti the subject was 
"censured for his too great strictiifss." [Pahi. Bean, Aihfiis^ I. p* 3C0J It 
wiut probably in eouHcqueuce of Ihia tampering with thu CjiIemLir^ that some 
eKtmoHiimrj blunders detailetl by Thuc^dicJea (IV, 7tJ^ ll^Wi^ fMJj took plnce 
H few morttba Wore this phiy wii» Hmt es^iibited. Government had anuuged, 
he tell* U4, that Dotntwlbenca and Hippocrates should make a simultaneoua 
attack upoo Bte<StL% tlie former directing his forces on SiphiL\ from tlie Corinth- 
ian (?u]ph, and the lalter on D(*Uum, fjrom the Attic territory, Owitig, however, 
to mistaking ifus flotfs an which ^ach wan to have marched^ the enemy were 
emthled to liefoiit the two pTojeeta m detail ; Demusthenes having arrived ot 
Sipbeo before bis colleagiie hml credited the intended diveraiou* and Utppt^ 
emtet being received by the whole Ba?(^tian forces, after their retreat from tbe 

town Again ht which Demu^thenefl had puintud his abortive attempt Sec also 


There bad likewiMj been a great and perwiaaent alteratioa made in the 
ngement uf the Attic Calendar nine yean! before this play was broughl 
finrwaid. But m its tendency waa to eauae the civil month to correspond much 
wroTc nearly wllb the lunar one thitn liefore, Aristdphancs can hardly have here 
referred to it; thou^^b we certainly have instances enough and to spare in 
thc4« modem days, of men who are so blindly prejudiced agaitiat innovation, 
that they abuse a new measure for the very defects which were found in far 
gfeater abundance m Jtu pfetleces^r. Siace, however* it is the opinion of Mr, 
CHnlon^thjit it is Ibis reform which in here alluded to, iu deference to so learned 
mu) acute an authority, I shall brieHy explain, n^ nearly a^ pOBsible in his own 
word*, the nature of the cbnnge m quGstUnu The Altie year, after the time of 
Solon, vm lunar of 354 dnjm. The year of 3(KI days, which would have arisen 
from twelve months of thirty days eaeh* wjmi reduced to the lunar time by the 
oiiij««on of six days from six of the months^ m that they consisted altemfttely of 
thirty m\d twenty-nine days. These lunar years wvri; briiught to the course 
of the *un by an intercalary mot>th inwerte*! at the end of t'very twoyear»; for 
the object was to adapt the months to the moon, nod (he years to the courie of 
the lyu. But thb object w^is not aceomplifthed, becjiusc the ancient astrono- 
mers had not accurately determined the true umotmt either of lunar or of »olar 
time. Hljk'e irreguiaritiea in the Calendar. In the year n, c, 432, wbei» Meton 



[act I. 

So that ever}' real or slmvi beau, 

As he's going out at nighty 
Calls out ** Boy, don*t buy a flamljcau \ 

u p^p ^^ moon mil give us light*' 
And she does you many other 

Favours \ yet you count her days 


commenced his cjcle of nineteen y^a% the ticw mooiif mst««d of ^mcg cm the 
firat of the month, fell tiptm the thirteeiith. The irretEtilnritj, therefore, wMch 
he undertook to rectify, wiw oa great aa it eould well be. TTve notuw of the 
clian^ef which he introduced mnA bj$ folio we. Instead of detluctiiig a daj from 
every alternate month of thirtjdayii, or in other wordft^ striking out cvenr 
tLriieth day, he only strufk out ev^ry siviif-ihirtt tiny, so thai the tiro fint 
months in his cjelt; would each conUdn the full riumher of thirty dwya ; there 
would then follow nineteen months alternately of twenty-nine and thirty 
daji^ then two complete months of thirty daySv ftnd m on. Moreover, 
Inetead of inteT<^lntmg a month in every tro yeat^, he only intercalated 
seven months in his eji^le, viz* one in eat:h of the following ycara — thtee^ 
five<^ cigbt, eleven, thirt/cen, sixteen, nineteen* This wiis a great impTove- 
mcnt upon the crtlculation of hia predecfasora ; bat the difference between 
Meton'8 computation and the true time was etill conslderahle. His niee- 
teen yenra, amouiiting to six thousand nme hundred and forty days, ex- 
ceeded the true solar time by about nine and a half boui^ and the true Ixmt^ 
time by not quite seven and a half hour«; ami this inaccuracy of com«e 
increased at the end of each cycle, and rcTidered it necessary to introduce fresh 
innovations rather more than a centtiry afterwards. Although his amtngement, 
too, was calculated to adjust the months to the moon and to the seasons, upon 
the whole^ yet in dctnil, any particular month mi^ht not coincide with the 
course of the moon. Thus in the very fir»t ye&r of the cycle, the third new 
moon, itistead of fnlliuM opon the first of the third month, would full upon the 
twenty- ninth of the second. Hence we may see the reason why Thiicydidc*, 
(as quotetl above. Note Bfi,) talks of an ecli4>9e*8 happening ** at the imvtr ne* 
"" moon," to distinguish it from the ctri/ new moon, or first of the month. 
Two days, however, wjjs the limit of the irregularity, and m the generality of 
caves, the civil month would correspond pretty accurately with the lunar one. 
(86e the Appendix (tn ihe Attic Months^ In the FasH lieiimki.) Any altem- 
tion of the Cnlcndar must of course have ako altered the tlaya of the different 
eticred festivais, mitl our author facetion.dy represents the omniscieut iiumor- 
tah as missing their sacrificet in consequence, just as an ignorant mortal would 
miss his dinner* The interminable sijuahbles that have been cazricd on In 
later times, between the Greek and Rommi Catholic Churches, respecting the 
position of the moveable feaeti, may sene to show us, thnt the Athenians were 
not peculiar in assigning such importance to the merest trifles 


Wrong, and kick up such a pother 

With her calendar, she says, 
That the gods, as she's a sinner. 

Threaten her most grievously, 
Oft as cheated out of dinner 

They're returning to the sky. 
Having missed the feast by applying 

Just a day too late for it. 
Yet you're torturing and trjring 

When your altars should be lit ; 620 

And when we immortals feed on 

Neither cake, nor wine, nor beast, 
Mourning Memnon or Sarpedon," 

You are often keeping feast. 
In revenge for which, Hyberbolus, 

Cruardian of the Sacred Codes, 
Had his garland so superb, alas, 

Ravished from him by us gods.** 
For he'U thus be better brought to 

Feel the upshot of the strife — 625 

That 'tis by the moon he ought to 

Regulate the days of life. 

(93) Two sons of Jtipiter, who were killed before Troy.— See the 'Iliad, 

(94) The ** Guardian of the Sacred Codes*' was one of the commissioners 
despatched from each city to the great Amphictydnic council of the Greeks. It 
has been ingeniously conjectured by Mademoiselle Le F^vre, that Hyb^bolus 
had proceeded in this capacity'from Athens to Delphi, and on his return had had 
his crown, or garland, blown off by a sudden gust of wind, which might very 
well be attributed to the angry vengeance of the divine Clouds, for his neglect* 
ing to cause the Calendar to be better regulated. 


ACT 11. 

Scene I. The Same. 
Enter Socrates. 


I SWEAR by Brc«ath, by Chaos, aiid by Air,** 

I never met with any man so clownish, 

So ignorant, so awkward, so forgetful. 

While I was teacliing him some petty trifles, 630 

He had forgotten them before he learnt them. 

But still ril call him out into the light. 

Holloa, Strepsiadcs, bring out your couch! 

(95) Socrates himself said a little while before, (1. 424,) that be only pa- 
tronized three divinitie:^ Chaos, the Clouds, and the Tongue ; but of couive a 
poet like Aristophanes is not required to be consistent Philttetmtus tells m, 
that the philosopher usually swore either by the Dog, the Goose, or the Plane- 
tree. The two former of these strange oaths are actually put into bis mouth in 
the writing of Plato, so that there ain be little doubt that he was in the habit 
of using them. The adjuration, '' by the Croose,"' is attributed also to the 
Diviner Lampon, in the Bxrds^ 1. 5*21. 


Enter Strepsiades, bearing a couch, and without either 
coat or boots on. 

Aye, but the bugs won't let me bring it out. 


Quick, put it down and pay attention ! 


See! 635 

[Deposits it on the stage, 


Come, tell me which you're anxious now to learn, 

Of all the things you never yet were taught ? 

Is it concerning " measures," " times," or " verses ? " 


Concerning measures ; for the other day 

A miller choused me in a quart of meal. 640 


I don't ask that, but what poetic measure 
You like the best — the triple or quadruple ? 


I think the gallon measure beats them all. 


Pooh, nonsense, fellow ! 


Will you bet me, then. 
The gallon's not " quadruple " of the quart ? 645 


Go to the deuce ; for you're a stupid clown. 
But you can learn, perhaps, concerning " times." 



And how will " times" help me to barley-meal ? 


Firstly, in seeming clever at a party, 

From understanding well what kind of feet 650 

Are used in every separate sort of " time." 


What kind of feet ? By Jove, I know ! 


Then teU me. 


Why, to be sure, the feet I stand upon ; 
And when I was a child, my hands and knees. 


You are an ill-bred boor. 


Confound you, sir, 655 

I don't desire to learn such things. 


What then? 


The art, the art I asked — the Unjust Cause. 


But you must learn some other doctrines first — 
Which of the quadrupeds are rightly male. 


I know the male ones, or I must be mad — 660 

The ram, the boar, the bull, the dog, the turkey. •• 

(99) Strepsiades's ignorance is here ludicroudj ezaggeiattd, by makiiig bho 
reckon up a bird amongst quadrupeds. The Tianalator inupt hwmHj Mk 



Look what you're at ! You call the female turkey, 
And the male turkey, by the sel&ame name. 


Come, how so ? 


How ? A turkey and a turkey. 


You're right, by Jove. What must I call them now? 665 


Call one a " turkeyess," and one a " turker.*'** 


A " turkeyess ! " Well said, by holy Air ! 
And, in return for this bright thought alone, 
I shall present you with a £sit hen woodcock. 


Look, there you go again ! You make your woodcock, 670 
Though 'tis a female, male. 

paidon of the natnraliits for introducing turkeys into ancient 'Attica, when it 
is geneiallj allowed that thej were first hrought into Europe from America 
in the 15th century. The chisaical scholar, however, will see at once the 
ntj of the anachronism ; and as Boeckh has planted veiy copious crops of 
1 in ancient Greece, without any similar compulsion, there is at all events 
great authori^ for such an audacious step. We may now even venture to 
maintain the paupers of antiquity upon poUUoea^ and grstiiy Xerxes with, the 
** new pleasure,** for the invention of which he offered sudi high rewards, by 
presenting him with a fragrant pipe of /o6aooo.— Compare PuJU. Eccn, Aihent^ 
I. pp. 124, 128, &c with p. 381, where the same grain is translated wh&U, 

(97) ** Before the reader concludes too hastily on the impossibility of such a 
**' man as Sdczates descending to the quibbling and nonsense displayed in this 
** scene, he will do well to consult the Platdnic dialogue called Critylus.^-^ 

Z 2 



How do you mean, 
I make my woodcock male ? 


Just as you do 
That rogue Cleonyiiius. 


Tell me, how's that ? 


Your woodcock's of Cleonymus's sex ; 
'Tis male by name, but feminine by nature. 


But, sir, Cleonymus ne'er owned a woodcock ; 675 

He used to purchase kites and crows for dinner. — 
What must I call it for the future ? 


A " woodhen," as you'd say a " waterhen." 


A female woodhen ? 


Now you call it right. 


Then I'm to say a " woodhen" and " Cleonyma?"" 680 

(98) Respecting the eiFeminate Clednymus, see Achdmians^ Note 17. The 
Greek termination " us*' was peculiar to men, as that of " a" or " e** was to 
women. In Latin, on the contrary, " a " was common to both 
" Sylla," " Galba," and conversely, " Ffilvia," " Ter^ntia." 



Moreover, you must also be instructed 

Which names are male, and which of them are female. 


I know which names are female. 


Mention them. 


Phaenarete, Nauphante, Phryne, Lyce. 


And which of them are male ? 


Ten thousand of them — 685 
Philoxenus, Melesias, Amynias. 


But, you thick-headed rogue, these are not male. 


Not male, d'ye say ? 


Not male, decidedly. 
What would you call the dwelling of Amynias ?•• 


Why, to be sure, " Am^nias's house." 690 


Look there ! You reckon him a woman now ; 
.You talk aoout ** Amyniasse's house." 


Am I not right to reckon him a woman — 

(99) A notoriously effeminate coward See Note 9. 


A coward knave^ that never goes on service ? — 
What makes you teach me this that we all know ? 


Nothing. But lie down here. 


And then do what ? 


Try and think out some of your own affitirs. 695 


Not here, I beg of you ; but, if I must, 

Let me think out the things upon the ground. 


You have no choice, but what I tell you. 


Curse it! J 
What swingeing damages the bugs will get ! 

[Deposits himself upon the couch. 


Yes, think, and pry, and twist your mind 700 

In every method you can find ; 

And when you fell into a streight,' 

Leap quickly to a new debate. 

Let honeyed sleep, if you are wise, 705 

Be ever absent from your eyes. ^ 


Alas, alas ! Oh, oh, oh, oh ! 


What is your pain ? what is your woe ? 

8CEHE I.] 




I die, I die I Mj gravels already dug 

Bj fierce barbarians . * * . from the river Bii^. *** 710 

They mangle my sides, and they swallow jny lipi, 

And they driiik up my soul, and they dig through mj hips* 

I shall perish embraced in their merciless cluteh ! 715 


Then do not give way to your sorrow too much. '** 


What am I to do, when jny money is gone, 

And my skin is destroyed, and my life-breath is flown ; 

And, to crown my misfortunes, my boots too are lost. 

Which never had any superiors ; 
And wliile I am " singing a catch on my post," *" 7^ 

I am catching it on my ^jo^^eriors. 

(100) For the sake of Lh« juvenile dasiueii] rt^adei*, whofle kuovledge of modern, 
generaJIy varies mTCPBely a* hia acqaaiiitance with ancieDt geogtaphjr, it ma^ 
be worth irhile to menttoD, that the " Riv*r Bug** is a bonapie river m Rurtda, 
In whatever bod odour it may be tLnicuig^ u*, and runneth into the Vistula 
below Wnreaw. All modem travellert in Greece, wilhoul exception, €omp!am 
mmt hitterly of the awarma of vermin that infest the t?ouiitJj. Mr. Hughe* 
t*}li a At^ry of an Athenian lady, who, in order to make herself pniticuliirly 
B^^reeable to him, took a Bea off her own iweet perron, and laughingly depoalted 
it upon the front of his shirt* 

(101) The Chorus iteenift to have thought fiimple "perishing" aa great a 
luxury iiA Bacon thought *' simple burning." Hallam^ in \^a IHxiory pf England, 
ih p. 23^, note,) quotes a pasaage froiii this '' greatest, wiient, tnvanest of man- 
** kind," wbicrh defenda the ** bowel ling*'" of RomoB Catholics, upon the plea 
that they were '* lees cruel than the wheel, or forcipation, or eveti ampU 
" bumingr—Ste Pa«hley> Trat^U in Crete, I. p. 134. 

(102) Tho&e who were ohliged to keep awake aU night wem proiferbinllj 
said *' to litig a catch on their poet," be<^ujfe the Athenian Hentinols u«ed to do 
to, in order to prevent Ihemsehet from going to ileep imawaret. — Gre^k nde. 

344< THE CLOUDS. [aCT II. 


What are you doing, fellow ? Are you thinking ? 


I ? Yes, by Neptune. 


What then are your thoughts ? 


Whetlier the bugs will leave a bit of me. 725 


I'll do for you ! 


But I'm already done for. 


Don't be discouraged ; wrap the clothes about ye ; 
For you must seek a roguish imderstanding, 
And cozening soul. 


Alas, who'll cover me 
With the coarse rugged rugs of roguery? 730 


Come, now ; I'll peep, and see what he's about. 
Fellow, art sleeping ? 


No, not I, by Phoebus. 


Have you discovered aught? 


Not I ! 


What, nothing? 



Nothing .'. . . except a flea upon my nose. 


Wrap up your face, and think of something quick. 735 


Concerning Vhat ? Do tell me, Sc5crates. 


Do you yourself first tell me what you wish for. 


You've heard ten thousand times what are my wishes — 
To have to fork out interest to no one. 


Come, cover up, and slicing small your reason, 740 

Little by little ponder your afiairs. 
Duly dividing and reflecting. 


Curse it! 


Keep quiet. — If you're puzzled by a thought, 

Depart, and let it go ; and then again 

Rouse itjand barricade it in your mind. 745 


My dearest little Soccy ! 


Well, old man ? 


I've got a scheme to cheat them of the interest. 


Exhibit it. 



[act If, 


An&wer tliis question. 


Which one ? 


Suppose I purchased a Thessalian \dtcht 

And made her draw me down the moon by night ; ^°' i 
Then shut it up, as if it were a niirror, 
In a round bonnet-box, and kept it there — 


What service would it do you. Mend ? 


What service ? 
If the moon rose no longer any where, 
I should not have to pay tlie interest 


Why not? 755 


Because the money's lent by the Lunar Month, 

(103) The witchcfl of ThcMalj were particularly potent^ and are mentioned 
m mmiy authors &a having been poe«etvci3 of thi* e^mordinajy power (Set 
Horace M Epodef, V. 45; VII. 4 & R7- TiMllug, L % 43- Z^wan, VL 193. 
Moit pfobably in these ancient day*, whea miracles were so ordinary an occa^ 
pence» that they had aJmoflt ceaaed tn beconiidened nuiacnlous, it wna iuffidentlo i 
show the image of tbe moon in a tub of water^ to obtain the credit of baviqg ' 
bodily drawn down the moon hereelf from the firmament. The Greek note 
on this pawage terioiiBly in form a lis of the folio wing " iuntjsing fpoit invented 
"by Pythd|ioraa. — If a person »n»ciibeg a mirror in blood with any vonia thai j 
^^ he pleasee^ and bidding EomelMHly else fiLand behind him^ ^howB the l^tentD ^ 
** the moon when it i« at the fiill ; he that h behind, if he looks stedfostly at 
*' tho moon's disk.^ may read every thing that is written upon the mirror upon 
" the muftGe of tbe moon." 



Well said ! I'll place a second scheme before you. — 
If you were sued for fifteen hundred pounds, 
How would you make the action disappear ? 


How ? How ? I do not know ; but I must seek. 760 


Now don't crowd up your reason in jourself. 

But let your thoughts fly loosely in the air, 

Like chafers with their feet confined by threads. *** 


I've found a way to make it disappear, 

And you yourself must say 'tis monstrous clever ! 765 


What is it? 


You have seen i' the chemists' shops 
That beautiful transparent gem, firom which 
They kindle fire ? 


You mean the burning crystal ? 


I do. Now, what if I got one of these, 

(104) Pins not having been invented in these days, the Attic little boys and 
giilB were obliged to tie the thread to the insect's l«g, instead of running a pin 
throu^ its carcase, according to the improved modem practice. During the 
prasent rage for legisUtion on every conceivable subject, a bill mig^t be con- 
veniently introduced into iWliament, constituting it a misdemeanour ** to fly 
^ cockchafers by any other than the ancient Athdnian method— except from 
" motives of necessity, charity, or religion." 



[act II- 

And, when the Clerk was wTiting out the Bill, 770 

Stood at a distance in the sunshine — thus — 
And melted every letter in the tablet ? "* 


That's clever^ by the Graces, sir ! 


Confound it, 

How pleased I aui at having quas!ied a suit 
For fifteen hundred pounds so easily ! 


Come, mind and snap up this directly. 


What ? 775 


How would you turn aside the Opponents' action^ 

If, from a total lack of witnesses. 

You were about to have it given against you ? 

(lOA) The " tablet ^^^ of f^uTHe, b to be understood to have ^cn a board rovered 
with wax^ OQ which thtsy «emicbed the letters with a metallic pen. Every fm<s 
hsA re^ the story utiout Architii^e» having set on iire theflhipi of the 1>e»^iegets 
of S^iruae by GDonnuuB bumia^lflBaes, it we may ao call Uiem, whitih sie 
$uppo«ed to liave beerin, not mmpte lenseri^ but hollow metallic p^^Tamidv, ihv 
iti<iLde of which wna highly polished, ho o^ to collect the rays of the sum in a 
focua. In modem times anme of the most Btubhom substances hafe bees 
liquified by arm liar meane. To return to Strepsfadea'j} wonderful scheme :— 
AtheneetiA telb us, '' that iv celehmted writer of parodies and eom£>die4, named 
" Heg^fmon, had a suit once brought againat him at Atbena. Being a fiiead, 
** however^, of the wealthy and poweriii] Akibfade^^ he perauaded him^ as w«U 
*^ m a whole troop of actors to fid low him to the hall where the notice of the 
** suit waH pustt'd ; when the youn»f nobleman ciKilly wetted his tinaer in hi* 
** mouth, and obliterated every letter of the document The Clerk and the Ruler 
" were in a great rage, but kepi quiBt through fear of Aleihi«dett» and a& to Ihe 
^'^ plaintitf, he a<;tually ran sway in a mortal fright/' (P, 407.) In thil Utai^the 
notice muBt have been " written " in the modern 6CU5€ of the word. 



Most readily and easily ._ - - - 


Explain. j 


If, when there still remained upon the list 

One cause to try, before they called on mine, 

I were to run away and hang myself. 780 


Pooh, you're a fool. 


I'm not ; when I am dead, 
WlioTl bring an action into Court against me ? 


Dolt ! Go ! I won't instruct you any longer. 

[Kicks him off the couch. 


Why not ? Yes, do, for god's sake, Socrates. 


But you forget directly what you've learnt. 785 

Now what was the first thing I taught you ? Tell me. 


Let's see, what was the first ? What was the first ? 
What did we call the bird with the long bill ?*'• 
What did we call it ? 


Go and hang yourself. 
You most forgetful and most stupid dotard. 790 

(IOC) See above, 1. 670-C80. 



Confound the thing, what will become of me ? 
I shall be lost, unless I learn to tongue-twist. 
My dearest Clouds, give me some good advice. 


The advice we give is this, old gentleman — 

If you are blest with any grown-up son, 795 

Dispatch him here to learn, instead of you. 


Aye, I have got a fine firank-hearted fellow. 
But he is loath to learn. What mmt I do ? 


Do you allow this ? 


Yes ; he's strong and plump, 
And of the soaring dames of Cdesyra. ''^ 800 

But 111 go seek him ; and if he refuses. 
By all the gods 111 drive him firom my house ! 

{To Socrates). 
Step in and wait for me a litde while. 

[Exit Strepsiades into hit house. 

CHORUS (to Socrates). 
Do you perceive the wealthy prize 
Youll gain from us good deities ? 805 

The fool's prepared to carry through 
Whatever you may bid him do. 

(107) See above, Note 12. 


Make haste, and while he's no pretense 

To reason or to common sense, 810 

Lick out of the deluded man t 

As much good gravy as you can ; 

For in such matters you'll discern 

The tide of feeling often turn. 

[Exit Socrates ifUo his house. 

/'A V' 



Scene I. Tlie Same. 

Enter Strepsiades and Phidippides from the formers 
home. Strepsiades substitutes a huge Jar in the place 
of the statue of Mircury before his house, and then 
addresses his So7i. 

By Mist, you shan't stay here, sir, any longer ; 
So go and dine on Megacles's columns."* 815 


O my good father, what's the matter with you ? 
You must be crazed, by the Olympian Jove ! 

strepsiades {laughing). 
Olympian Jovel What foolishness, for one 
As old as you are, to believe in Jove ! 

What was it made you laugh at this ? 

(108) M(fgaclcs was his maternal uncle. — See 1. 46. 



The thought 820 
That you're a child, yet have old-&shioned notions. 
Come here to me, and I will teach you better, 
And tell you what will make a man of you ; 
Mind and don't mention this to any body. 


Well, well; whatis't? 


' You swore by Jove just now ? 825 


I did. 


Observe how fine a thing is learning ! 
There is no Jove, my son. 


Who is there then ? 

STREPSIADES {pointing to the Jar). 
** Jar" is now king, and has dethroned old Jove.'** 


Bah! Why d'ye jest? 


I tell you that it is so. 


And who asserts it ? % 

(109) See aboTe, 1.880. 
A A 

. jf 



[act IIU 


Socrates . . , . of Melos^^" 
And Chserephon, wlio knows the steps of fleas/" 


And have you got to such a pitch of madness, 
As to believe such crack-brained chaps as those ? 


Be civilj pray^ and use no vulgar language 
Towards men of wit and mind j who are so thrifty, 
Tliat none of them has ever had his hmr eut, 
Or oiled hb skin, ot gone into a Bagnio ; 
While ^mif sir, bathe my goodj away, as if 
1 were deceasodj and you livere heir to all. — 
Now go and leam instead of me directly* 


What useful knowledge could one get from them ? 




(110) Melos was a little island in the JE^^mn Sear— the only one there ext^t 
Thera not subject to tlie Ath^iiimiiL Seven jrearS ailer the Brst repre^entstioii 
of this play, it was redticvd by lui Ath6nmn force, the is-omen and children were 
enilaved^ and all the ndult males barliarinuly put to death. ^See snme admirable 
obaenrationa on this subjei^t in Tbirlwftir» IlisL Greece^ III, p. 557— 3<>2.) II 
hm Ijeen before mentioned^ how jealously the rightflaf citixenahip n*ere watched 
in Attica, and how great a reptoiu'li it was to thmw out the least hint, thitt ai^ 
body had foreign blood in \m veins. StJeratea, howevL^r, had no flaw of thi* 
kind in his gcneJiloMy. The epithet '^ nf M«io«,"* is here intended to allude to 
the philnaophor Diugoma of Mehw, wliohtid mude himself pee uiinrlyobnajinuie 
to the AthiJniana by hw general impiety, and es|»eciallj by his dlviilging some 
of the Sacred MyfllcrieB ; insomuch, that a price of aW. ^tis &et upon hi* head, 
and double that suro offered to any body who might bring him Ln alive. (See 
Birds, h 107X J The Greek note on thii passage tella ua, that the oecuaion ol 
his impietji was his hav ing been cheated out of a sum of money by the person 
with whoiu he had deposited it, and adds the following luiecdote of him. Hft 
waa one day In a public-house, where they happened to hn?e no firewood to 
boil his dinner. ObsieTving, however, a wooden statue of the god H^rtalcs in 
the room* " Come now,'* says the athci»t, " aeeomplish your thirteenth labour, 
*' Herculea, and i>ojl my porridge form©!*' 

(HI) gee above, h 144. 



^ Are you in earnest ? Every human science ! 
But you shall see how dull and thick you, are. 
Just wait for me a little while out here. 

[Exit Strepsiades into his house. 


What must I do, now that my fitther's crazed ? 

Take out a writ of lunacy against him, 845 

Or tell the Undertakers of his madness ? 

[Re-enter Strepsiades, with a turkey-cock in one 
handf and a turkey-hen in the other. 

Let's see — inform me, what you call this bird. 


A turkey. 


Very well. And what is this one ? 


A turkey. 


Both the same ? Ridiculous ! 
Mind now and call the female for the future 850 

A " turkeyess," and this, that's male, a " turker.** 


A " turkeyess ? " Are these the clever things 

The Earth-born Giants taught you in their house ? "* 

(112) Phidippides impertinently calls the philoaopheiB ** eaith-boiD,** be- 
cause the "* ThinluDg-thop" was represented on the stage as a low, dailc, diiniAl 

A A 2 



[act lit. 


Aye, 1)0}% and many more ; but from iny years 

I instantly forgot whatever I learnt. 855 


Is that the reason, too^ youVe lost your coat ? . 


I have not lost^ hut studied it away, 


Where have you put your boots, you foolish fellow ? 


I spent them " for a needful end," like Pericles, — ^"^ 
But come now, let's proceed ; e'en ^ough you err, 8G0 
Yield to your father, as h^ yielded once 
To you^ — a lispmg child of six years old, — 

(113) VVlien 'Atticn iB-aa invadttl by a Peloponii^uin army twenty-tro jeam 
before the Hnrt eithibjtion of this Cornedy, Pvricles in*!iice<l the young Spartan 
King, PliHtiiniiiuL, and his mntMrer counfellor, Cle^ndridaH, to draw off their 
forccH, before they liad neiir rava^ Ibe whole Attic territory, by bribmg ihe 
latter with a sum which is viuioiwly stated at 3,0<M)/., 4,500/., 6,000/., bM 15,00(1/. 
But ia tenderriCTe tywar^Js the tmitofs, when he presented hit accounts to the 
Public AsBembly, he put down this item a§ expended '' for a needful end," 
without E!xpreaBly mentiotiing the purposu to wbieh it had been applied. The 
people, however, perfectly uaderatood his meaninf ; and ho it appears did the 
Spartan government too. For they infiiii^ted such a severe fine, 4,500/., upon 
their Monarch, tlmt be was obliged to fly the country; while they condemned 
Cleindridtut to death, m which t^asc, as wnsiiftuaKhifettnle wu confiscated. The 
latter, we are told, shrank from the investigation before judgment was pa»ed« 
and retired into jv voluntary exile, cnrrym^f with him, no doubt, a coasideimble 
portion of hii* ill-gotton wealth. Boeckh oddly enough dUtea, ihAt Art^Uf- 
pbitnes here '' miiuinderstanda and ridicules an item in the account of P^riclea* 
*' which he bad rendered in his capacity of genenit, although in this instance 
** he woa free from all blame."' That he *' ridicuk's" it, there can be ti« que«- 
tion ; but how it can be shown that he also ''mlaunderfttands" it^ is not equally 
sTident.— Pi**/, Btftwi. Athem, I. p, 2()2. See aUi> ThiHwal^i HiML Gw^m^, 
III. pp. 41, i% 


When at Jove's feast he purchased you a cart 
With the first two-pence that he earned in Court."* 

PiiiDiPPiDES (yielding). 
The time will come when you'll repent of this. 865 


Bless you for yielding ! Socrates, come out ! 
I bring you here my son. He has consented, 

Enter Socrates. 


Yes, for he's still an infiuit ; 
Nor have the hanging-shelves we hang on, taught him 
To be a-stocking ever of the mind. 


You'i be a stocking , if they hung you up ! 870 


Go to the deuce ! Do you abuse your master? 


Pshaw ! " If they hung you up ! " How sillily, 

And with what gaping-open lips he spoke ! 

How can a youth so self-willed ever learn 

The intricate Acquittal, or the Summons, 

Or the Laxation Suasive? "* Yet Hyberbolus 875 

Paid me three hundred pounds to, learn all this. 

(114) The pay of a juiyman was originally twopence, but during the time 
when Aristdphanes wrote, always sixpence. The step was made at once from 
the fbnner to the latter sum. — See Boeckh*s Puld, Eeon. Atheru^ I. pp. 311 — 
314. The passage from PoUtue, (V II 1. 1 13,) there quoted, clearly refers to the 
Fund for the Public Spectacles. 

(115) This last branch of the SocrHtic discipline, b purposely enveloped in 



[act III. 


Te^h liim, and never fear. He's a great genius. 

As soon as he was grown as high as thisj [Mukinff a sign. 

He moulded houses, and carved ships at home. 

And manufactured little leathern carts, 880 

And made queer frogs out of pomegranate shells. 

Mind that he leanis both the two famous Causes^ — 

The Stronger, what-d'ye-caU-'um, and the Weaker, 

That's in the wrong, yet overturns the StxDnger. 

If not, by all means teach him the Unjust one. 885 


The Causes Twain shall teach your son in person* 


Then 111 be off; remember, you're to make him 

Able to answer all just arguments* 

\Exii Strepsiades, 

Scene II. The Same* 

Enter The Just Cause and The Unjust Cause/** the 
former in tnemt, the latter in rich appareL 


Come here and exhibit yourself, as you*re told, 

To the audience, though so disgustingly bold. 890 

abseuro and mystical language, like a great deal of the ancient phUotnph^^ 
winch waa frequently obliged to coticeal ita tottennea* by a most copious daub- 
ing of fine, fiaritig verbiage- 

(I J6) The Greek note tells U9, that the two Causei appeared upoa the stasBe 
m wicker coops, spitrring at each oihi*r like gajnc-cockfl* Had thU really been 



Lead on to the stage. If I argue before 

The people, youTl find I shall beat you much more.'" 


You beat me ? Who are ye ? 


A Cause. 


Yes, the Weaker. 


But although, as you say, you're the Stronger Speaker, 
I conquer you. 


How ? By what crafty device ? 895 


By inventmg expressions both* novel and nice. 


E2q>res8ions which gain an unworthy repute 
By the means of these fools. 

[PomU to the cniOewee. 

the case, Aristdphanes was not the sort of writer to lose the opportauutji of in^ 
troducing some allusion to the ** combs,'* the ^ spurs," or the "wattles" of the 
combatants. (Compare KmghUy L 490—487.) MoreoTer, i|i line* 103fi» the 
Just Cause is expressly called a ** man,** and in line 1103, he throws his **• coat** 
amongst the spectators. 

(117) The amiable and virtuous Hippdlytus complains in Eur^ides*s pliqr 
of that naiiie;-^ 

« I am not skOtod to tpetk before a crowd, 
" Bvt nttier to addzeee a fow joimg Mends. 
** For tbus 'tis Uwed by flrto— tkoee whom tlie wIm 
«' Consider duU, the crowd wmMm^ dover." 

(1. 986—989.) 



They are sages, you brute. 


I will do for you ! 




By asserting what's just. 900 


But my answer shall prostrate your speech in the dust ; — 
There's no justice existing ! 


Are Justice's rods 

A nonentity ? 


Where does she dwell ? 


With the gods. 


K she dwells with them, how is it Jupiter's brains 

Are not dashed out for putting his father in chains ? "' 905 


Bah, bah! Your ideas are beginning to hasten 
From filthy to filthier. Give me a basin ! 

(118) The mythological legend related, that Jfipiter had dethroned hif fkther 
Satum, and thnut him down into the Ibwest abjsB of helL This, however, was 
but a righteous retaliation, as the old gentleman had previously served his own 
father, 'Uranus, or Heaven, in pretty nearly the same sort of way. The Just 
Cause would find it rather difficult here to answer the arguments of his opponent, 
and therefore very prudently pretends to be sick. Any antiquated dotard, whose 



You're a doating old fool and an underbred slave ! 


You're a blackguardly scamp and an impudent knave ! 


What roses you speak ! 


And a lowlived buffoon ! 910 


What lilies for me ! 


And a parricide loon ! 


You're unwittingly showering gold on my head. 


Such expressions were formerly thought to be lead. 


They are compliments now, and as such let them pass. 


You are preciously bold ! 


You're an old&shioned ass ! 915 


It is you who have made it the general rule 
That lads are averse from the going to school ;"' 

ideea were thought to belong to the ancient regime, wai nicknamed a ** Saturn** 
by the Athtoians ; we shall have an instance twentj-Uiree lines below. 

(119) Shakspeare little thought, when he so graphicallj described his young 
gentlenum, as 

" Creeping, like snail, unwillingly to school,'* 

that it was this quaint,''newfiuigled, Unjust Cause which generated the indispo- 
sition on the part of the body to being flogged for the benefit of the soul. 


[act til. 

And some time or other the Athemans will find 
What stuff you instil in the puerile mind. 


You are shabbily clothed, 


You are handsomely dressed ; 920 

Yet you once were a beggar, and boldly confessed 
You were My si an TclephuSj *** stuffing your gullet .... 
Witli the blackguardly tli oughts that you took from your 



Confound it ! What wit you attribute to me ! 925 


Confound it ! How fearfully mad you must be! 
And how crazy the town that allows your untruths 
To corrupt the ingenuous minds of its youths ! 


You old&ahioned Saturn, you'll certainly miss 
The office of teaching a scholar like this 1 


No, not if he longs for a pros|>erous fate, 930 

And despises the studying nothing but prate. 


Come here, and allow the old dotard to rave. 


If you venture to touch him^ you*ll catch it, you knave ! 

(120) The reader iias already lieqri this hi^t^tly hero nf the poet Eurfpldca 
newt unmercifully ridicvdud in the Jchdmiati4i, I 430^ &e. 



Leave off the contention and strife^ and do you 

Relate what you taught to the oldfiEishioned crew ; 935 

And youy sir, the newfangled studies, that so 

He may judge to which master 'tis better to go. 


I consent to the plan. 


I am willing to do't. 


Come, which of the two shall begin the dispute ? 940 


I will give up the right to this querulous blade ; 

And then, from the very assertions he's made, 

I will shoot him, and wound him, and mangle his flesh. 

With words that are modem and thoughts that are fresh ; 

Till at length, if he venture in any one case 945 

To open his lips, he shall mourn it ; 
For my phrases shall fly out, and sting his whole fiice 

And his eyes, with the rage of a hornet. 


Now, now will the sages, who trust 

To their clever ideas and orations, 950 

And repel the antagonist's thrust 

With sentiment-forged lucubrations. 
Shew which is most able to reach 
The flowers of eloquent speech. 
y And now is the perilous fight 955 

For that triumph in wit and invention. 



[act III. 

Which all my admirers delight 

To pursue with unwearied content! on. 
O thou who adomedst the nations of old 

With many a virtuous custom ; 
Speak ! Tell us tlie schemes thou pursuedst, and unfold 
The method thou tookst to adjust 'em« 960 

Scene III. 


I will give you a history, as I'm desired. 

Of the metliods hy which education 
Was anciently managedj when / was admired. 

And sobriety, too, was in fashion. 
Firstj every boy was as stiU as a mouse, 

Not daring to say one iota ; 
And next, they were marched by the roads, — each house 

In the hamlet affording its quota, — 
In an orderly troop to the Harpniasterg school^— ^"^ 

Stripped, though it was snowing like flour ; *'* 963 

Where, with bodies decorously placed on the stool. 

They warbled with sweetness and power 

(121) The ordhuifj couno of & young Ath(<i]kn'a educattcm waa, lat^ nading 
and writing ; 2diy^ the hnrp and music in goncml \ 3dly, gymnastic exendae^ 
In tnodem Europe wo take pi^tl^v good care of tha mental facultiei, but th«.| 
poor body ii uiuaily left to shift for itaclf us well as it can. 

(122) A little »fiow occaaioimlly fulls in modeni AnlcA, but it nevei lies 
long on the grouud. The cUmotts m one of the wildcui in Greece* 

SCENE Ifl.] 



Eitber *' Pallas tTie terrible sacker of towns 1 " *** 

Or, " Rouse the far-eehoing ditty 1 " 
In the style they received from the good old clowns. 

Who were formerly known to the city. 
But if one of them played the jack-pudding, or tried 

Those quavers, that turn one anew sick, 971 

As of t as they're heard from the modems, his hide 

Was basted for spoiling good music.*** 
In the Wrestling-school, aJsOj the boysj as they sat, 

Were instructed to hold themselves rightly, 
And retain such decorous attitudes^ that 

They exhibited nothing unsightly ; 
And when they arose to level the dust, 

And efface the impression their bodies 975 

Had formedj that it might not be seen and discussed 

By foolish, inquisitive noddies,*" 

(123) The Greek note-writer ftmibhes iw with n few more lines of tliii nng^ 
wliifhj be say^ wan a compo^itioti of one LAmprodeB^ a son of Midon. 
■i pAiiai, the terrtble ucker at towni, 

" Tbe provolcer of tliu^hief t 
** PftUu I c*|] on^ the wNnirjtv of the dqwht ) 
** FiJki, the hQrfk'-taniIng ((Ddclesa of fktvoji I 
" Jttve'* vlrKiii-«yert <!■ lighter I" 
The fh»«meflt quoted in the next verse of tbe text, he tella ii«. waa by Cfdide% 
a hftrper of Ilermfone; hat be doe* not favotir u» with anj more of it. 

{I'M) "Thou nrt one of tho»e," wj> the indijfnant outjftw of the Grkat 
KovKLi^T. " who trith now Freneh graeeii or tmlima dost disturh the ancieiit 
^' EngUih hugte-notefl^ Prior, that ]mt flourub on the recheat hnth added lift:;' 
** crowns to thj? ransoin, for comipting the old true manly bkats of venerie*" — 
/«anAfltf, quoted by Mr. MitcbelL 

(125) The Grecian eustoni was to *t^le naked, wherebj their bidet got 09 
browD as an oM weather- hesit en sailor** h/em. When AgesiliLifl wiehed to in- 
qiiiv ft contempt fur the A^ioitics amongut hk Mldjen, he exposed eome bar- 
buian prktiiieni naked for snle, mnd pointed out the fhimess of tbeir carcaM« 
MS a Iktr subject for the ridi<:ule of his hardy Spartans. 



[act 11 r. 

No lads io those days would anoint their shins, 

Or their knees, or their hips, or their breeches ; 
But, blooming with health, their roseate skins 

Were as dewy and downy as peaches. 
Nor woiJd any with soft and effeminate voice 

Coax presents from aii who were able 980 

To give them ; nor were they permitted the choice 

Of the heart of the cabbage at table ; 
Nor to snatch the dill and the celery*** 

From their very father or mother ; 
Nor to gormandise thrushes or fish, "^ nor to lie 

With their legs crossed one on the other, 


What out-of-date obsolete nonsense ! How full 

Of old-fashioned grasshopper-brooches, "* 
And Cecides's lays, and the Feast of the Bull ! '^ 


Yet, in spite of your sneers and reproaches, 985 

(12(3) These were consuicred delicactc^: E^iibuliw* the comic wnier saji — 

^' AHlioui^ there's porridg^e Lbpte, tbey always dmo 
" On dUl, mnd ceicTyn and tnitupeiyt 
** Ada neilvi Ack'titlflcalJy dteaaetL" 

(127) The tttm here tratuslated " Mi" j>fopor!3' sii^nifies any thing that thojr 
ate with their bread, &c.; ivnd m §f>h wiia the most usiml artkle emj>lojr^ for 
thifl purpooe, it came to signify " fi«h" in particular. In tht; dinlcct of irirHlorn 
Greece, fttmitgvi to Buy, the aamc word, »ljghl]y altered in form, [padrta) m 
applied to ihe Jkh as they awim about in the ftea. It is evident that it cantiot 
mean *' dainties in geneml" hete, because ''neither thmah^a nor dauiti«" 
would be m absurd as ** neithef turbot* not fitih." 

(128) Anciently worn by the Athenians,— See KniffhU, note ISO, 

(129) CecideB waa an ancient Ditbyramhie pool, whose veratss were pmbablj 
a ittle out of date at this period. Tlic ** Feast of the Bull," called Hkeniie 
^' Ihe Foast of the Civic Jupiter," wa» an ancient feftiml, at which oien hod 




It was these regulations that trained up the folks, 

Who conqtiered in Marathon's battle : 
It is pmirs that enveloi>e the striplings in cloaks, 

Ajs soon as they part with tlie rattle* "" 
I am choaked, when the youtha, who should dance at the 

Of Minerva with stark -naked bodies, 
Make use of their sliields but to keep off the blast, 

And neglect the Tritonian goddess.'" 
So chuse me, young man, \iith a confident face — 

Me, who am tlie Cause that*s the Stronger ; 900 

And you'll learn to disUke the Market-pi ace j 

And to go to the Hot-baths no longer ; 
And when shameful expressions are used, to be shamed ; 

And to blush, if a person should jeer you ; 
And to rise firom the scat you have hitherto claimed , 

If you see your seniors near you ; 
And never by word or by deed to behave 

Like a wicked undutiful son, or 

been sacriRced tot fbe finl time^ U liAvjng previously i»cen unlawful lo off^T 
them up to the gods, hike moMl of tha lAiiits' daja in ollt CaJeiidiU'f it wa& 
ia the poet B age, «omewhat the w(»rw for W4»r. 

(150) The old gentleman in the Wtitp^^ who U at last penimded bj hh ■on 
la mdopt the ^hiotiR of the day, exprvdwi the utmriflt dJi^^iut at the thick 
ieecxclook which he wcoro polled to put on,— iriwp*, L 1133, he. 

(151) Btin^'tt was ao called, from a river Triton, utic] n lake Tritonis, in 
Afi-ics, n<»r which she hud a temple, (See the Furifi of :jE«.'hjliw* L 2&3.) 
The Romans abui had a feast, — that of Pari,^iu whieh young men ran stark- 
mkkiMl about the city with whip*, while all the mamed Jadjc« crowded to re- 
eeiYe castigatlon from tboin, uader the idea that it promoted feitililj 1 


i-^ST. JO; 

Oii v*mr iiftun tiit iiuupt of Hcmonr : ^ :]Hff 

Ajuid ikli fr'-jjtu TOUT iagii repnttticBQ : 
Or <Uicj;riVe tit ^sfjumassj/it </ j^jnr fkdier. cr cuE 

II*: w;j;j^/rV3d wur feet a& tJaer lotLered. 

THfc C.K'itSfT cirfi- 
By K«/xhu», youfig rii;auj, if jon fwalkwr Qcim 

'Hji* klifjw\ ridicuk/a* twaddle, lAM 

y^yull f'riMrriiW/r If ippocrateft' wns,^ and lie i 

Will ifTfjtifAinc^ you a manmiysck coddle. 

(i92y ** All msnk/fiid bkT« ahari tmumiafiJ to Ja 
** Ui*!tA vj4 UoofMir^ Ui* BMit Uttof ifiil and bcdj of vlikb are 4 
** vtfry wtul sutd b«tuf« f4 isaf:h indiruiiial. vfafle odien are ( 
'^ v</r«}fip. But tben; «nr ikmmt dt^dif«t««i to Sfaai 
** l*t:r)ury^ t/t Ibfpatitude, all which qualitie* cleare to tin vmck.'*^ 
Ui^rtnntit t'Uwiingt a^foifut AruUtgiUrn^ p. 19L 
{ IZZf llm wkll'kftffvtt %em% <d Virgil majr be thni t 
" ULnmp (MmUm plict 

" F*jof mt with so ivpfef and, eiumiiig 
" Bi>fu* ! to tba vilknr.bed flies, 
" And kiDipi to be icco u •be'* nuuiiiif."— Aitfi m. M. 

(1.54; llusne jrouthf were calUd Telerfppui, Dteophon, and Pfridea. aad* m 
Oalen Utform* uji, the/ were generally ruiiculed bj the comic poeta for tlKir 
Mllirunn, From the ruunen Hipp<krrates and Piridei both preraflipgiB the 
&f»il/, we may conjecture that it belonged to the noble race of Alrwiww. 
(Hee the genealrjgy in Note 12.) The great phjiidaii Hippdcrates waa a Goan 
hy birth, and crnild not therefore have been connected with them. Hie Gieek 
note fiivoun uji with the following fragment of Etipolis concerning the un- 
fortunate trio :— 

" Certain IntercaUted, uteleu sons 

" Of |KK»r Illpp^icrate*, a bleating brood, 

" And mott tremendously unfaahionable." 

SCENE Itl.] 




You shall live in the PubUe Walks with a tkce 

Of a healthy and florid complexion ; 
Not chattering forth in the Market-place 

Each thorny-illnatxired reflection^ 
As the faaliion is now to employ one s self there ; 

Nor dragged, to your grief and distraction, 
To makp your defence in some paltry affair — 

A tough-argument-damnable ^" action. 
But to the Academy you shall descend,*^* 

And, beneath its divine olive-bushes^^" 


113^> These long compound words are Intended to ridicule the DithyTambic 
poeti, (See Achdrni&ns^ Note 48v) lit the DebaiteMteB^ our author aduaUy 
out-Ditfayramljs the Dithjromb ; ibr we hftve there an epithet, which, in the 
tiri^nal, coiisiBUt of ahout elghtj-nine syllable* ! 

(I3fi) The Ac^Sdemy and the Lyc^utn were two of the most celebiated 
" Public Walks" in the otitakirts of Athena. Flacea of thii desscription were 
not msre gurdenn^ but contninotl tar^ and spacious buildlngji| whieh were 
Open^ giBtJB for the accommodation of the public. In Engknd we hnve no 
Kwnf whiLh ciactly expro«iieti the idea- and, what is still worse, we have not 
the thing. But a better npirlt seems now gradually amiiig, and the neit geno- 
lation may perhaps find, that the healthful recreation of the lower ordcn k 
not eonniden^ entirely licncath the notice of their lords and mastert 

(137) There were great numbere of sacred olive- trees* not only on the public 
lands, but also ncntlcTed over the countcy on the estateA of private cttizenit. 
The produce of them was pnJd m a rent to the State, Any i^ermn who dug up 
one, however decayed it might he, was subject to ^e penalty of death ; and 
«ven if he cultivated the land within a certain distance of it, he wm liable to 
be fined. There is a speech stiU extawt, written by the orator Lystat, to defend 
A penon who bad be«n accused of having rooted up the old s^tump of one of 
ih«c sacred trees, (See that orattoa, and Boeckh'ti Fuid. Earn. AiHrns, 11. 
p, 13 J During the Spartan iuTaiions of the Attic territory, the grove* of the 
Ac^emy were spared ; but the aneient^i themselves were not agreed, whether 
it was on account of some tradition connected with the succours which the de- 
icendfLntsof H^rcule^had received at Athens, or whether the enemy ''^respected 
^ the latictity of the olive-trees^ which, according to the Attic legend, had been 
**' planted here with slipt, taken from that which fiR»t sprung up in the Citadel 
** at the bulding of Minerva-" -Thirl wairs HiiL GfHee, IIL p, 134, 

B B 

370 THE CLOUDS. [act III. 

Run races along with a modest young friend, 

Adorned with a chaplet of rushes. 
And smelling of woodbine and heart's-ease so bright, ' 

And the leaf-shedding "* poplar, and eyeing 
The advance of the spring-time with looks of delight. 

When the plane to the elm-tree is sighing. *** 
If you follow the course I am talking about. 
And are diligent also, your breast will be stout, 1010 

Your skin will be ruddy, your arms will be strong. 
Your tongue will be short, and your legs will be long. 
But if you should practise the fashions, that now 
Prevail in the world, with an unabashed brow; 1015 

In the first place, depend on*t, your skin will be white. 
Your arms will be weak, and your breast will be slight. 
Your tongue will be long, and your legs will be short. 
And you'll fill the whole Pnyx with the " BilP that you 

And moreover he'll make you believe in your heart 

That baseness is virtue, and virtue is baseness ; 1020 
And stuff you and cram you in every part 

With Antimachus' filthy unchasteness. "* 

(138) Why the poplar is here called " leaf-ahedding" is not very easy to 
explain ; *^ leaf-shaking" would seem a much more appropriate epithet I 
think I have noticed, however, that the different species of poplar are pecu- 
liarly subject to lose their leaves in hig^ winds. It is the toJUle poplar that is 
meant by Aristdphanes. 

(139) I cannot resist the temptation of translating some beautiful lines from 
the Wooings of Daphms and his Mistress^ by Thedcritus : — 

" Damsel. Hoolie, ye haverel 1 I hear 

" A noise; there is somebody comin' ! 
" Daphnis. No, 'tis the cypresses, dear, 

" To each ither thy weddin'-rites hummin'." 

(140) Respecting this person, tne Achdmiah^, Note 126. The Greek note- 



O thou whose philosophy towers 

To the skies with a sweet ostentation ; 1025 

What modest and elegant flowers 

Are scattered about thy oration ! 
How blest were the people of yore, 
When thou ruledst on mountain and shore ! 
Now therefore I charge ye, do you, 1030 

Whose phrases are wittily rounded, 
Say something in answer that's new ; 

For your rivaVs success is unbounded. 
You'll have to choose a cunning plan, 

And keep your tongue well guided, 
If you intend to beat the man. 

And not to get derided. 1035 


His speech has made my belly ache ; 

I long to use exertions 
To make his stupid doctrines quake 

By contrary assertions. — 
I have been called the " Weaker Cause," 

Because I flrst invented 

writer on thb paamge, pretending to be very learned, says " that there were five 
'* Antimachus'es ; the first a handsome rake, who is the one here alluded to ; the 
** second a rascal ; the third nicknamed * Drop ;* the fourth a banker, mentioned 
^* bj Eiipolis ; the fifth a historian, who perhaps is the same with the first" If 
this worthy grammarian had referred to the passage in the Achdmiansy he might 
have found out likewise, that the third was the same as the fifth ; for the *^ son 
*' of Drop" is there called also ^* the writer of prose and of songs." In all pro- 
bability there was but one individual of the name in the days of Ari8t4$]>hane8 
and Eupolis, who was both a ra»cally rake, and a handsome banker, and an 
inditer of prose and poetry, and nicknameil "" Drop" to boot. 

B B 2 



[act nu 

The way to speak against the laws^ 

To which tJie rest assented. I04O 

And this is worth ten thousand pound — 

To ehuBe with courage glorious 
The weaker side, and yet be found 

At last to he victorious. 
See how 111 rout his rules for youth 

With unexpected slaughter 1 
He says you're not to bathe, forsooth. 

Your person in hot water. 

{To THE Just Cause.) ' 

Now what d'ye mean by aiding 

That hot-baths are untoward? 10+5 

THE just cause. 

That they're a most unwholesome thing, 
And make a man a coward. '" 

THE unjust cause. 

Stop ! For IVe got you round tlie waist !"* 

rU make you cry, " Oh dear oh !" 
Wliich of Jove's offsprings to your taste^ 

Has proved the bravest hero, 

(HI) 1 1 U to the immmlerate use of hot-hfiths, and the eneriratiiig ideas 
g0ncmt{>d by the promt^uoui nsficmblAgti of young girk, of the itiiniG ugi^, in an 
utmo^he're of extrBordinarily high tcmpcmture, that tho prematufe decay of 
femnlc biaiuty at the present day, throughout the East, is nttribulcd by the best 
judgies. A Greek girl of twenty- five, La as old to oil app£«nLni::e as nn English^ 
wotnaii of fifty. Whether the simitar fmSlneaa of the pej^sanal charma of tim'* 
North Ametjeiui ladien may be iiA^igned to the same came, remiuns to be shown, 

(142) A metaphor dmim from the WiefliUng^hmtte 5ee Ach^mian^j Note" 

^ (X OuW 

v-OLiW W 


And reaped the greenest bays in war. 
And undergone most labours ? 


I think that Hercules is far 

Superior to his neighbours. 1050 


And where d'ye see " Herculean Baths,*** 

The springs of which are frigid ? 
Yet who e'er trod in manly paths 

With constancy more rigid ? 


This is the talk which daily flows 

From the young men, and rouses 
Their pride, and crowds the Bagnios, 

And drains the Wrestling-houses ! 


Besides, you blame most bitterly 

The haunting Public Places, 
As markets and the like. Now I 

Approve it in all cases ; 1055 

For if 'twas wrong, we shouldn't have scanned, 

In Homer's moral pages. 

(143) Natoial hot-springs were generallj called bj this name in Greece, and 
were sacred to Hercules ; as, for instance, the celebrated ones from which the 
Pass of Thermdpjla took ito name. (Herod. VII. 176.) The old legends 
generally related, that they had been raised up by some god or goddess to 
refinesh the hero after his toilsome laboursw Some very interesting illustrations 
of this subject will be found in my friend Mr. Padiley^s Travels in Crete^ 
I. p. 92, &c. 


How Nestor spoke in public, and 

The other ancient sages. — 
Now I'll return unto the Tongue, 

Which — as the real fact is — 
It is the duty of the yoimg 

To exercise and practise ; 
Though he maintains in this dispute 

[Pointing to The Just Cause. 

They ought to check its revels. 
And praises Modesty to boot — 

Two of the greatest evils ! 1060 

For who has e*er in any place 

Gained aught by being modest ? 
Tell me ; and I'll allow my case 

Is somewhat of the oddest. 


Why, many men ; it was by this 
That Pcleus got his dagger."* 

(144) There nm an ancient legend, that the hero Peleus, who afterwords be- 
came the father of Achilles, by the Oceanic goddess, Thetis, had been solicited 
by the fair and faithless wife of Acastus, king of Idlcos, at whose court he was 
sUi^-ing, in the same manner n» the Jewish Joseph was by Potiphar^s spouse. 
His virtue, however, passed through the fiery trial with equal credit; on which 
the indignant lady accused him to her husband, of having forcibly attempted 
to do the very tiling for his own pleasure, that she had in reality desired him to 
do for hers. Acistus, we are told, did not choose to slay him, as he was his 
guest, but taking him out, under pretence of hunting, upon a mountain full of 
wild beasts, stripped him of his arms, and there left him to his fate, ovMniming^ 
** If you are innocent, you will be saved." The gods thereupon, who knew 
the falsehood of the charge that had been preferred, immediately sent down 
Mdrcury to him, with a 8])lendid dauger of V^ilcan's fabrication, by which he 
was enabled to preserve his life from the attacks of the ferocious animals which 
surrounded him. — Greek note 


THE UNJUST CAUSE {meeringhf), 
A dagger ? What unheard-of bliss 

For the poor wretched beggar ! 
Hyberbolus, — I can't deny, — 

The Lampseller, bagged coolly 1065 

Some thousands by his roguery ;"* 

But not a dagger truly ! 


And Peleus won fair Thetis through 
His modesty, moreover. 


And then she left his house, and flew 

Away from her dull lover, 
Because he slept too sound of nights — 

A perfect moral pattern ! 
The sex delights in amorous fights. 

You obsolete horse-Satum ! *** 1070 

• {To Phidippides.) 
Now just turn over in your mind. 

Young man, how many pleasures 
You lose at once, if youVe confined 

To sober, modest measures. 

(145) Respecting Hyberbolus, see Achdmians^ Note 92. The Greek note on 
this passage tolls us, that he used to pour lead into his bronxe lamps, and thus, 
in consequence of their weight, obtain a greater price for them than they were 

(146) See above. Note 118, respecting the use of the terra " Saturn." The 
^ horse*" is added, to denote excess or magnihidc. So we might say in English — 
" There was a great horse-godmother of a woman there, who was so fond of 
*' horse-pliiy, that, while \ whh asleep, she filled my mouth with horse-radish, 
'* my pockets with hor»e-cht'stiiutH, :wi(l my boots with horse- leeclies; and then 
" woke nic by scttini;; up a mool trcuicndous'liorbc-lautth." 



[act IU. 

There's wine and wo men j mirtli and ease, 

Sports, banquets J giggling, toying : 
If you're to live deprived of tliese, 

What is there wortli enjoying ? 
Well, now I come to where our firail 

And feeble nature's wanting — 1 075 

You err, you love, and you prevaO, 

And then you're caught gallanting — 
You're done for, as you cannot speak — 

But if youVe had my precious 
Instruetionsy then indulge each freak, 

Ijcap, laugh, think notliing vicious ! 
For though you*re caught gallantingj and 

Receive the cuckold's curse for*t, 
You'll prove by arguments oif-band, 

That he is none the worse for*t; 1080 

Tlien throw the blarae on Jove ; " he, too, 

" Succumbs to love and woman ; 
" Is h& to be surpa^cd by you — 

" The heavenly by the human ? "'*^ 

(147) The miiltifkririuK amcjiira of Jove are wdJ knii^v-ri to tde ^ttidien of 
thiit very useful hook, I-jempnere'? Clansic^t Diriitmnry. Like the nffuaicnt 
urged above, (1. 005,) it woald hiive Ijeea very diflicult indeed to r^iitfi |hi« 
roawiaing, wlthrmt dt^nyin*? the truth of the Pngan Mythnlfj^y, which wa* une 
of the very thin j;,fs for which the fnllowem of The U»j(«t Cause wer? no bitt«>rty 
reviled. The commcutjitnrs have pointed out wme linea in the Hipp6lytus *>f 
Euripides which bear u stning resenibhince to these of our nuthoT'ii. They 
occur where the ok? nurse la endeavouring to perauade Ph^ra to indulge her 
criminal iiafifiion for her steii-Aon. 

" Thoie wlio jtoKsett. the wrlUngK of the ttndetiLi, 
** And MVtH«inielvesth? scholarB of tht^ Musrit. 

SC£NE til.] 




What if his breech is plucked, and blacked^ 
And radished/*' though he brag hardf 

How will he prove that such a fact 
Don't constitute the Woc^guard ? 


And if he M a blackguard » whereas the ill ! 


" And kiww t|i4t btwninf^jed Aur6n iniiched 
" Youug C^ptulus to b«AVep In wdLhe bet lovt," 

L. t3l^4iC. 

'* Tb ijotlitiif elH but ItiwlvQK, lo try 
'* Tb tw iuparior ta Ibe deldoi." 

L. 474, 4^5. 

Tb«/ have likewise t^eited to a panage in the Tr&jan Dam^fih of the same 
poet, in whicb Hel«n thui exctiacs tier eteapade with Paris, 

" WtuU buiJnnt bftd I ta detert my hauic 

" And ooimtrr. anil elope with fofef^er!— 

" Woil t Funlib Vcbii«, and lurpftu grcaX Jotp^ 

" Wha it the iiuLiteT of (be olbftr god»t 

** flul ibve of her! Tliffn mar aot / be pardiined f 

L. 94«— 950. 

The foUorwiiig veraeiSj from Terence's -ffunuisA, arenlflo oddticed as an illtutnir 
tJotti CThnres i» reUting how ho was encoura^^ to attem|]t the chostitj of a 
I caminitted lo hb charge. 

** Wblk thfjr'rc prepdfinir tbtugt. tbc Nvely maid 

" SlU JQ the itarLflur, l^mking al » picture. 

** Wbtcb TvpreKDt^ bow fljeat Jt^ve of yore 

" Foured Into t>4jiai^'t jouTig Ijip a ahower 

*' OfioUd fgld. I, alid, lb«D began 

'! To look »t tt ; stui •tni» he loaf ago 

" H»d played a tlmllar firanfc, my mind n^jolced 

** More bufr^I^p that a gthl hi<j turned hfmieir 

** To ]if1ce, and An^nk^A tbtDu^h other p««pl»'t tfl««, 

*' AiMl fhoujed a woman in tbe phapv of rain. 

** And whit a f^ ! The one that mak«« the fhnet 

** Of the hiith bravenf tremhle with his thtindcdr 1—^ 

'* And mu«t not I—a ptHry htmiau efratiuv-^ 

" Act aa be did l—VM 4b it wiUtnely 1 ** 

Art JII. %6tmh. 
(UB) An Ath^fnian law enncted, ^ thnt he that eatchei an aduUerer in the 
** feet, may iuipose »uiy arbitrary ptinishmiSfiit*^ (Poiter*« ilnli^, Grpt^^ L 
p, 161 ) Thci Rcttnanii eotdelimes used n kind of miillet, which had apriekl/ 
haiik-fin like the pert^h, far iho same pnrpofe ii» thftt for whiih thfs hone^ndlilll 
was cmployt'd by the less ingenioiiH itihahitantH «»f Ailtdit. 



How could you give him a more nauseous pill ? 


What will you say, if I should prove you're wrong ? 


What else remains for me ? I'll hold my tongue. 


Who makes the cleverest barrister ? 


The dirtiest blackguard. 


I concur. — 1090 

And who's tlie wittiest tragic actor ? 


The dirtiest blackguard. 


Nought's exactcr. — 
And who's the greatest orator ? 


The dirtiest blackguard. 


Would you more ? — 1095 
And look which party is most dense 
Amongst the present audience. 


1 wiU. 


Wliich think you ? 


J^y Apollo, 


The tribe of blackguards have it hollow ! 

There's one out here, and t'other there, 1100 

And here is one with flowing hair. 




Fm beaten all to dirt. 

Ye friends to blackguard courses. 

Here, take my coat ; for I'll desert, 

[Throws his coat amongst the audience. 
By heavens, and join your forces."' 

[Exit The Just Cause. 

Scene IV. The Same. 
Enter Strepsiades. 


Well, do you choose to take your son away, 1105 

Or would you have me teach him eloquence ? 

Teach him and punish him, and pray remember 
You give him a good mouth — one side of it 
Suited for Actions, and the other jaw 
Adapted for afiairs of more importance."' 1110 

(149) The coats of the ancients being built very long in the skirtts when they 
wished to run very fast, they naturally took them off. Of course, it was parti- 
cularly requisite for a deserter to give gooil and sufficient leg-bail. 

(1.50) That is to say, afiairb of state. Strepsiades himself had formerly 



[act 111* 


You shall receive him an aceoinplished sophist. 


You mean a miserable pale-faced wretch I 

lEa:eiint Socrates, Phidippides, and The Unjust 
Cause into Soceates's home^ and Strepsiades 
into his own, 


Go and enjoy your fancied bliss ! 
Youll repentj I think, of this. 

( To the Audience*) 
We desire to teU the Judges 

All the benefits they'll gain, ' "115 

Ifj suppressing paltry grudges, 

They assist us might and maiu.^*' 
Firstly, if your early ploughei^ 

Are impeded by the droughtj 
You shall have our first-bom showart, 

While your neighbours go without. 
Secondly! well guard the blossom 

Of your '('iues, until 'tis set. 
So that neither drought shall cross 'em, 

Nor a heavy fall of wet. 1 1 20 

decUred thnt hi» did not wish to emploj- bk mmA upon politics, (s&e L 433;) 
bat muiy a man la willing enough to Icam that by proxy, which h« U too laij 
to study in p<?rMin. 

(151) The GhoruB, \n this elegant little poem, strictlj confine tlieniBelvcH to 
their character of Clouds. The "Judge*" lire the pereons who were appointed 
to decide on the meriU of the rivid poet* ; although it mua.t be evident, thjit in 
a democracy like Athenis, their opinion* would generully coincide with thuftC 
whieh they found to prevail amo^gM the audience^ — ^^^A^Mrman^ Nc»t« 153, 



But if any daring mortal 

Should despise ua goddesses. 
Let him hear us now report all 

We shall do to spoil his 
He shall get no crops of wine, or 

Any tiling besides that's good, 
From hia farm j for when the vine or 

Olive-tree is in the bud, 
We will blast its promise, breaking 

Fniit and flower witli iron slings. 
Or if we should see him making 

Bricks, we*U rain to spoil the things* 
And well smash the tiles he stations 

On his roof, with hall ; and if 
He, or one of Ids relations 

Or his friends, should take a wife. 
All the night we'll keep on raining;"' 

So that he, perhapsj will long 
E*en for Egypt's cloudless plain, in 

Pteference to judging wrong.*** 

(152) ** It waa in tho nifllht that the bride ifm McKod home to her hride- 
*' gloom's house by the company usaemhled for tha marruige-feiwt/' {Grt^k 
note.) The cujtoin coiilinucft to the preient day* ua will be seen tmm the fol- 
lowing |>iuBge. *' It was on a Saturday evctiiHB that we went with Signone 
** Nicoio lo view the nocturnal |ir(>cea«iorit which always accoaipamea the bride- 
•* grtiom in escortbg his betrothed sptmse from the palcnial roof to that of her 
** future hubbajid. Thia coniktfHl of acar a hundred of the first peraoni in 
** Jo4iuiinA, with a great crowd of torcb-bewns and a hand of muak."-^ Hughe*'* 
TraeeU in Greece^ Ate 11. p* 29. 

(153) It is a well-known Ihct that a flhower of rain In Lower Egypt^ though 
not quite so great a miracle an a day without rain in Epgland, !■ yet Ka «X- 
titrroely rare event. The dew k, howevtsr^ are exce«iveljr heavy ; and the annuil 
oveffiowing of the Nile render* the ik>I1 one of the moft fS^rtUe in the world. 



Scene I. The same. 
Enter Strepsiades. 


The 5th, the 4th, the 3d, and then the 2d, 

And then there comes directly after that 

The day I fear, and dread, and execrate 

The most of all of them— the Old and New.'" 

For every man I chance to owe to, swears 1 135 

That he will pay the money for a writ, 

And ruin me, and double-ruin me ; 

Though my requests are moderate and just — 

" Good sir, there's part you must not ask for now, 

" And part that you must fix another day for. 

(154) The Attic month, when it consisted of thirtj days, was divided into 
three periods of ten days each, and in the last one the days were reckoned 
backwards, as with the Roman Calends, &c., and also with some of the Sundays 
of our Ecclesiastical Calendar. When it was a month of twenty-nine days 
only, the odd day was taken out at the beginning of the third period, so that it 
then only contained nine days. Respecting the " Old and New,** see Note 4. 


" And part that you must let me off at present." 

They say they never shall get paid that way, 1 140 

And call me names, and swear that I'm a rogue. 

And that they'll go to law with me directly. 

And let them go ; I do not care one straw. 

If my Phidippides has learnt to plead. 

I'll soon find out by knocking at the door. 

Boy, boy, I say ! 

[^Knocks at Socrates's door. 

Scene II. The Same. 
Enter Socrates. 


Good day, Strepsiades. 1145 


The same to you. But first accept this trifle ; 

[^Gives him a sovereign. 
The Master ought to get some compliment. 
And tell me if my son has learnt the Cause 
You lately took with you into your house. 


He has. 


Well done, great Empress Cheatery ! 1150 


Whate'cr the suit, you're sure to beat the Plaintiff. 



Though witnesses were present when I^rrowed ? 


Yes, all the more, were there a thousand of them. 


Loud will I chant my release from my dangers ! 
Go to the devil, you money-changers, 1155 

You, and your principals, and that pest, 
The interest on interest ! "* 
You shall no longer bother me. 
For I have a son of high degree, 
Bred these mystical buildings among. 
Blest with a glittering double-edged tongue, 1 160 
The jetty that saves me from insolent foe, 
My house's preserver, my enemies' woe. 
The assuager of all his father's grief! 
O summon him out, my honoured chief! 
My child, my boy, O, leave the Hall ! 1 165 

List to thy father's well-known call ! 
[Enter Phidippides with a pale^ haggardy anxious- 
looking face. 


Lo, here is the man. 


With joy I am wild. 

(155) " The practice which was prevalent in the times of Plutarch, of imme- 
^^ diateljr subtracting the interest from the sum borrowed, and again lending it 

" out upon interest, had probably arisen in the flourishing times of Athens." 

Boeckh's Pubi, Econ, Athens, I. p. 171. 



Go, bear him with thee. 


O my child !»• 
[Exit Socrates into his house. 

Scene III. The Same. 


Oh, oh, oh, oh! 1170 

How pleased I am at seeing your complexion ! 

Now you look negative and refutative, *" 

And on your fece the answer of the country 

** What's that you say ?" shines forth, and the appearance 

Of being cheated when you cheat another, 

And when you rob your neighbour — I know what!*** 1175 

In fact you've got an Attic look about you. 

So now preserve me, as you've ruined me. 

(156) The whole of this song is intended as a quiz upon the style of Tragedy, 
Probably the melody also, to which it was chanted, was a ludicrous parody upon 
one of Eurfpides's latest productions in that way. 
t '(157) See the KnighU, Note 199. 

(158) This is equivalent to 

** And, when you rob your neighbour, being robbed ;" 
but the words would not hitch in so easily in Greek as they do in English ; and 
therefore our author expresses himself with a knowing ** I know what !" It is 
possible also that " to be robbed*' was one of the numerous phrases which 
shocked the polite ears of the Ath^ians, and which they thereforo avoided 
using as much as possible. For instance, they often called the Jail the ** Build- 
*" ing." 

C C 



What k it that you fear ? 


The " Old and New." 


Stuff! For can any clay be " Old and New ?** 


Yes, that on which they say thejll get the writs. 1180 


Then they will lose the fees they pay for them j 
For one day cannot possihly be two^ ^^ 


Cannot it ? 


No ; unless one single woman 
Can be both old and young at the same time. 


Yet 'tis the custom, 


But they do not know 1185 

The custom's proper meaning. 

(159) This " Old aDd New" bemg the dajf wi which tlie monthly iaterest »f a 
loan wiiB limmUy payable, if tho cnKliCor wBt nol paid by the deblor before that 
time, h(J might immcdifitely commence his action againirt him. When the Bniii 
in question wna above 5/^ the law enacted Umt certain fee* &hotild be paid by 
both plaintiff and defendant Isefore thtj case was tiied^ tho party who miut 
eventually ima>uec<^afuJ afterwards reimbursing the ex&dk amount to his advei^ 
my. In a suit for soma of from W) to 1000 shilling three ihillingi nm^ the 
fise ©cw^d from each party ; for awma of from lOOt) to ]%(m ibilliDgs, thirty 
shillings ; and for Inrger Aums, probably in the same progrewion. — See Boeckh's 
Puhi. Earn. Atln?ns, U. pp. R4, Ga 

SCENE in.] 




Well, what is it f 


The ancient Solon was the people's friend — '"" 


There*^ nothing yet about the " Old and New ! " 


And ordered that Defendants should be summoned 
For two successive days, — ^the Old and New,— ^^*- 
That they might pay the fees on tlie New Moon, 


Wliydidheadd '* the Old?" 


Tliat the Defendants, 
Being in Court a day before the suit, 
Might compromise the matter ; or, if not. 
Be worried on the mom of the New Moon.'*' 1 195 


(160) Solon «rtijid!y had eut^bliahed iMime rcguktionB^ the nature of which, 
howerer, ii not vwrf clear, for the reli<ff of inBolvent disbtOfB. ** PhidrppldeR,'* 
myn the Gfeek note, " hete Imitat*^ the OTntm% who we hetler s£!f]iuuiit«d 
*' with the ttamei of Inwgiveri tluin wllh their {atniS* 

(IGl) It wtA enacts, m ilateil abov«, that the c-ruclitcir ihould not suniinoTi 
hi» debtor to pay the fees, prepamtory to an aciioti, until the la«t day of the 
tnonth, or the "' Old and New,'* whenever the ftum ttyed for wm either houM- 
fetit, interest^ or any other payment whieh ought to be made at the end of the 
month. When the action wm about a debt unconneeted wfitli the Calesidar in 
thL^ manner, the debtor might in ait probability tie eunxmoned to pay hia fc»ei 
al any fieri od at whieh the Courts were sitting,— See Demmth. p. lOZl* L *2T. 

{l€2) The fun of this argutnent of tho yoimg sophist » co?ifi«ts in it* being 

gTOunded entirely upon an arbitrary hypothesis, without the shadow of a profit 

Monwver, if the *' Old ^d New" meant tttfo days and not oiVt in this oa»e of 

LP^tag these feea, it must ^Im have meant two days in every other aftiiir of 

'iHb; the absurdity of which was siiffidently apparent to an Attie audicnt«, 

thoil^ not caught ao readily by ua. It i« the tame a* if an En^^llEhmani, wh<^ 

c c £ 



[act IV, 


Why don't the Courts receive the suTomons-fees 
On the New Moon, but on the Old and New ? 


Tliey seem to me to act as the forestallers — 

Til at they may bag the fees as soon as possible, 

They have forestalled them by one single day. ISOO 


Bravo ! 

{To ike Audience.) 
Poor fools, why do you sit out there 
A profit to us clever diaps, you stones. 
You mob, you sheep, you useless heaps of wine-jars ? — 
To celebrate our fortune I must chant 
A song upon myself and this my son. 1205 


'' Strepsiades, blest is thy lot ! 

" How great is thy learning and fame ! 
^* And see what a son thou hast ^t 1" 

My neighbours and friends will exclaim. 
Brimful of envy, when the brutes 
Shall hear you plead and gain the sui^. 


wjia Bunimoned to «pp<^T m Court on " Mondiij," wore to nty^i* on the etj- 
mulngy of the wiml, nnd mflJntain that " MoondJnj'* rouit mean tho " Djij of 
*' the New Miwtu" And nfternlU allowing everj thitiR iKnt irna ii«»edeiK the 
only mlvftiitngc that Stri^p^mdes t'ould derive from the eatwbHshraunt uf the 
neurfani^liHi dnclHne ironic] bc^ that the suit would be tried ia-morrnut tnftleMil 
of {o-d€^ff. N<tthing proves more ^troAglj the wedcnew of the poot old geuU^ 
man^A lutellecta than lii» being in SMch iniitures at the depth of h» ion*« logis. 


But first ril take you in my house, 
And there we'll banquet and carouse. 
[Exeunt Strepsiades and Phidippides into the 
former's house. 

Scene IV. The Same. 

Enter Pasias, the money-lender, from below, attended 
by a Bailiff. 

Then ought a man to part with his own money ? 
No, never ! It had been fer better for me 1216 

To unlearn blushing than have all this trouble. 
Here am I dragging you to be my Bailiff*" 
For my own money's sake, and shall besides 
Become the enemy of a near neighbour. 
But, while I live, I won't disgrace my country !*•* 1220 
I summon you, Strepsiades ! 

[Knocks at Strepsiades's door. 

(16*3) When a Defendant was summoned to appear in Court by the PUintiil^ 
the law directed that the latter should be attended by a friend in the capacity of 
^* Bailiff." The intention evidently was, that if there should be any question 
as to the &ct of the summons having been served, the ** Bailiff** might come 
forward as a witness for his Principal. 

(164) As if the acute Athenian nation would be eternally disgraced by one 
of its citizens goodnaturedly allowing himself to be defrauded of his just dues. 
The satire is cutting enough in all conscience. 


STREPSIADES {from within). 
Who's that ? 

Enter Strepsiades. 


To answer on the Old and New. 


Be witness, 
He named two separate days. — And in what matter ? 


The sixty pound you borrowed, when you bought 
The piebald horse. 


A horse ! D ye hear the fellow ? 1225 
I, who hate horseflesh, as you all must know ? 


Yes, and you swore by heavens you'd pay it back. 


Aye, for my son Phidippides, by Jove, 

Did not then know the Unconquerable Cause. 


And do you now intend on that account 

To say you never had the money from me ? 1230 


What other service can his learning do me ? 


And will you call the gods to witness this. 
Where I shall order you ? 


What gods d'ye mean ? 



Jove, Mercury, and Neptune. 


Yes, by Jove ; 
And rd give sixpence for the privilege. 1235 


The devil take you for your impudence ! 


This article should be well rubbed with salt*" 


What cursed insolence ! 


'Twill hold six gallons. 


By the great Jove and all the other gods, 
You shall not cheat me with impunity ! 


What a good joke to talk about the gods, 1S40 

And swear by Jove — ha, ha ! — to knowing hands ! 


The time will come when you shall pay for this ! 
Now, will you give me back my cash, or not ? 
Despatch me with your answer. 

(165) P^ias appears to have been a somewhat corpulent gentleman ; and 
therefore Strcpslades jeers him by tacitly comparing him to a wine-bag, and 
telling him that he will hold a very considerable quantity of good li<{Uor. 
There was much the same kind of joke cracked upon one Ct^phon ir 
Achdmiant, (sec Notes 114 and 115 to that play) : wine-bags, it wooU 
were rubbed with salt, to keep the leather from becoming oifenaiTe. 

3i)2 THE CLOUDS. [aCT IV. 


Stay you here ; 
m give you a clear answer instantly. 1245 

[Exit Strepsiades into his houte^ 

PASiAS {to his bailiff). 
What do you think he'll do ? 


I think he'll pay it. 
[Re-enter Strepsiades, with a Woodcock in his hand. 


Where is the man that asks me for his money ? 

Tell me, what's this ? [Holding out the Woodcock. 


What's this, d'ye say ? A woodcock* 


A pretty chap to ask me for his money ! 

I will not pay one groat to any one, 1250 

Who's ass enough to misname woodhens " woodcocks.'* 


Then won't you pay the cash ? 


So bundle oflF directly from my door. ' 

( 166) This piece of Attic slang b literally translated from the Graek. It 
seems strange that it should coincide exactly with an English cant phnae, 
which was very prevalent a few yeans ago. 



Yes, and I'll pay the money for a writ, 

By heavens, or may I die this very instant ! 1255 


You'll lose it, then, besides your sixty pound. 
Yet I've no wish that you should suffer thus, 
For talking foolishly about — " a woodcock ! " 

[Exit Pasias. 

Scene V. The Same. 

Enter into the Orchestra another Money-lender, Ump- 
ing^ and leading a pair of horses attcu:hed to a broken 


Alas, alas! 



Who's that that's weeping ? Surely 'twas not one 1260 

Of Cdrcinus's deities that spoke ? '" 

[The Money-lender leaves his horses^ and mounts 
the stage. 

(167) The chariot and pair is intended to ridicule a similar enirie in one of 
the compositions of a certain tragic poet, respecting whom anon. 

(168) CiLrcinus, literally Crtib^ was a fellow who had three dumpy, stumpy 
sons, or, as our Athenian wag expresses it, " deities," named X^nodes, 
Xenotfmus, and Demotimus. The last is called by some Greek annotators 
Xenilrchus, or Xenoclftus. They were all tragic actors, and X^odes was 



[act IV- 


What t Do you wish to find out who 1 ami 
A man of woe! 


Then keep it to yourself. 


" O wretched chance ! " — " O chariot-hreaking fates 

'* Of steeds !/'—" O Pallas, how thoust ruined me I " 12R5 


What mischief have you suffered from Tlepolemus ? **• 


Don't jeer me, friend, but tell your son to pay 
The cash he had from me ; especially 
As I have met with a most sad mishap. 


What cash is that ? 

Vilm & o&mpoaer of bad tmgediei^ fnr ifrhtdi he ia f idimiLed both here and in 
BQveml other passa^a. At the end of the Wiispi ih& ttio make their appear^ 
iinee in the orchestm, and dance a ridiculouB hornpipe in the costume of Cmaltf, 
hy way of a hit at their papa's name. The old gentleman himself^ as we fi^ther 
from a panage in the Fmce^ (I. 793,) and the Greek note thereupon, once ex- 
hibited a comedy eidled the Mice, but failed to obtain the prize; which oiir 
aulhoT wittQy ridiculed, by making him complain '^ that the Cat had kHl^ it 
" overnight.*' Som« of the Gf«e1c note- writers caJl him a eomposer of trw* 
gMies ; but thli veema grounded upon a misconception of the Unes in the test : 
and he ought therefore to be transplanted by Mj, Clinton from bia Hit of (m^, 
to hia Hit of comic poets^ — B«^* FojsL HclkA. 

(169) TlepiHemuft, according to a Grecian l^end» aJew the aged Lic^niuR 
by accident This formed the subject of one of X^noclet'a tragiHliin, in which 
the dying man waa represented us essclaimmg, 

" -" O Pailaa, huw tUDii'sr miiud met" 

When the money-lembr, therefore, iiiiaea thSa cry, Strepsiadca very oatomllj 
inquired whether Ttep^kmu^ had mortoUy wounded him. The remaining 
words lfetwt;en inverted commas are probably toga fhim Other compoaitions «C J 
the same poel, , 



The cash he borrowed from me. 1270 


Then you have reaUy met with a mishap ! 


By heavens, my horses threw me from my chariot ! 


Why play the fool, as if an ass had thrown''you ? *^* 


Am I a fool for asking for my money ? 


You can't be in your senses! 


What d'ye say? 1275 


Your brain has had a sort of shake, I think. 


And you, by Jove, are summoned, sir, I think, *^* 
Unless you'll pay the money. 


Tell me now, 
Do you suppose that Jove continually , 

(170) ^ To be thrownlby an ass,*^ was a proverbial expreflsion, applied to tho| 
who were such unskilful riders, that thej could not even sit an ass, much lei 
a horse. It is used'also in the following pasrage of Plato : — ^ It seems to {^^^ 
** that we ought always to keep the discourse well in hand, like a horse, not 1 
** forcibly carried away by it, as' if the mouth we had to deal with was 
" bridled, and, according to the proverb, be throitit, at U were, by an astJ^ 
Law9, III/p.|156. 

(171) He does not actually summon him, because he has no ^ BailiiT' with 
him, and therefore the notice would not hold good in law. 



RainB down fresh water, or that from below 1£S0 

The sun di'aws tliis same water back again ? *'' 


I know not wliich j nor do I care one straw^ 


Wlmt right have you to get your money hack, 
K you know nought of meteorology ? 


Well, if you're short of cash, pay me the interest. 1^85 


What kind of animal is tliis same interest ? 


Why, to be sure, the money *s always gettinr 
Greater and greater erery month and day. 
As time is flowing onwards. 


Very good, ^ 

Wdlj do you think the sea is greater now 1:^90 

Than formerly ? 


No, it is just the same : 
If it got greater^ it would be imnatural. 


And why, then, does the sea become no greater, 
Though it receives so many streams^ you wretch, 
Wliile ffQU desire to make your money greater ? 1295 

(172) Wefthall i 

act the applicdtjon that will be mode of Ihis kind t»i 


Take yourself off directly from my house ! 

Give me the goad ! [Enter a Slave, with a goad, 


Be witness how I'm used ! 

[Descends into the Orchestra. 


Be off! No dawdling! Gallop on, you S-brand ! 

[Goads one of the two horses. 


Is not this insolence ? 


Pull, you outrigger ! "• 
Come, I will goad your rump, and make you go. 1300 

[Goads the Money-lender himself. 
What ? So you fly ? I thmght I should be able 
To stir ye — chariot and pair and all ! 

[Exeunt the Money-lender below, and Strepsiades 
mid Slave into the house. 

SONG BY the chorus. 


Oh, to what misery it leads 

To be attached to naughty deeds ! 

This aged ass has fully bent him 1305 

To keep the money that was lent him. 

(173) By wi^ of a joke, he calls the unfortunate Money-lender, who is lead- 
ing off hii honea, an ** outrigger,** and treats him accordingly.— For the mean- 
ing of the phnMe, see Note 7. 


But he shall suddenly to-day 

Perceive that he is meeting 
With something, that will make him pay 

For his attempt at cheating. 1310 

HeTl very soon discover what 
He long has groped for — namely, that 
The son, in whom he placed his trust, is 
Skilled to refiite the words of justice ; 1315 

And conquers all opponents, though, 

As to his cause, he*s choiceless. 
Perhaps, perhaps he'll suffer so, 

That he will wish him voiceless. 1320 



Scene I. The Same. 

Enter Strepsiades from his house, greatly agitated, and 
rubbing various parts of his body. He is foUowed by 

Holloa, Holloa! 

For god's sake, neighbours, relatives, and friends, 
Help me ! I'm thrashed ! Oh my poor head and jaw ! 
You scamp, d'ye beat your father ? 


Yes, papa."* 1325 


See, he allows he beats me ! 

(174) "* It IB not easy to conceive anj inddent more pointedly seyere than 
**this, which the poet has employed for interesting the spectators in his 
** attack upon the sophists. A son ezhifatted in the impious act of striking his 
** fiither, and justifying the crime upon principle, is sorely as hitter an invecti?e 
** agahist the sdiooU of the phikMoplMn « eta b« deYiaBd.7--<7Mii60rJk^ 

400 THE CLOUDS. [aCT V. 




You scamp, you parricide, you housebreaker ! 


Call mc these very names again, and more too ! 
D'ye know, I love to be abused most dearly ? 


You blackguard ! 


Pelt me with a lot of roses ! 1330 


D'ye beat your fether ? 


Yes, and I will prove 
That I'd a right to beat you. 


O you rascal ! 
How can one have a right to beat his father ? 


I'll demonstrate it, and out-argue you. 


Out-argue me in this ? 


Yes, easily. 1335 

So choose which of the Causes you'll defend. 


What Causes ? 


Why, the Stronger or the Weaker. 



IVe had you taught, confound ye, with a vengeance 
To argue against justice, if you're going 
To prove to me that it is just and feir 1340 

The father should be beaten by the son ! 


I think I shall convince you, and that when 
You've listened, you yourself will not deny it. 


Well, let me hear what you are going to say. 

Scene II. The Same. 

SONO BY the chorus. 

Now then be quick, old man, 

And think about a plan 1345 

To make you victorious. 
Unless he'd trusted in 
His powers, he'd ne'er have been 

So rude and uproarious ; 
There's something hell unfold. 
Which makes the youth so bold, 

And haughty, and furious. 1350 

But tell us what it was that first 

Began the dreadfiil battle. 
I know you'll kindly slake our thirst 
To hear this tittle-tattle. 

D D 



[act V» 


ni tell you what it was that bred 

This most accursed quarreh 
While we were feastings (as I said 

Tliat we should do before all,) 
I bade him take his lyre and sing,^ — 

Unless he knew a better, — a 
Song by SimonideSj that thing, 

** The Ram was sheared, etcetera J" "^ 
But he declared he must decline j 

" 'Twas out of fashion fairly 
** To play and sing over one a "wine, 

'* Like women grinding barley*""* 


( [75) Simijmdea waa an aBclent lyric p(M?t, who died nt the advanced b^ of 
nmety, b. c 4<)7. We have fVagraenU enough of his works still extant to make 
us regret the Iom of the remainder. In the Pfatdgoras of Plato» there will be 
faund a sort of running comtucntarf on Home of hia poetry, which is curious, 
U hang one of the oldest known Kpectmgns of the eritical art. Aj&he pranced 
in lift, he became very covetous, (see Peace^ t tiSJ^) and was fAtd to have firet 
introduced the custom of taJdnj; money for lyrical compositiona. It is of him* 
tliat ' Aristotle hi his Treathe on Rhft&ric, ^ III. 2, 54,) tells the following story. 
A man who had obtAined the victory In tKe Public Gamefl with, his chariot of 
muleSf came to Simunides with a small sum in hia haud^ and requested him 
to write an ode in honour of his success. The biU*d at first could not pa»- 
sibly think of celebrating such vulgar iinima!*i ; but upon the doue&tr b^iag 
increased, he undertook the job, and composed a very brilliant piece of pdetiy^ 
which began by addrewing tlie mulex m ** daughter* of Htorro-footed maj^a!'* 
The ode, of which the first few words are quoted in the text, wos written for a 
wrertler of JEginti^ whose name was Crius^ Ut^rally ilafn, and who had oht&iited 
th« prize in the Olympian gimes. Ttte two commencing verses were — 

** Tlie asm was sht^sied riglil nobly In Jova'i 
*' Luxuriant, coui«FrB,tnl grovei ! " 

(176) Plutarch, in his Drinkin^-pariy t*/ ike Soget^ (IForJt*^ v. IL p. 157. t>.) 
quotes the followini^ ancient ditty, whidi he tella us was sun^ by the Lesbian 
women as th^j ground the com in their mills i — 

" Gdiidr quern, fdnd! For Httaeut tcHV 

" Mltyliae's autoeiat, gitndi like jim**' 

»CENG !!.] 




Now ought 1 not immediately 

To have began to kick at 
Your breech, for begging songs of me, 

As if Fd been a cricket? 


These are the very proofe and pleas 

He urged within to shew it 1 
And he declared Simonides 

Was a most stupid poet. 
And this I bore, though not with all 

The temper of a turtle- 
And then I made a second call — 

" Just take a sprig of myrtle, *" 


Aa an Qluitrmtion of the flonse of thia couplet, tome vcnet of Buhia may be 

" N«~ttr«tch * pDlnt to eatch a pLaek ; 

*' Abiu« a. brother to his ttwk ; 

" SttfftI Uiru' a winnock frae a wha». 

'^ But pdlDt the rakA that talu tht doar; 

*♦ Be Ui Ih* |ioor Uktr our whunsiane^ 

** An' hffud iktir «M«r to the ^umxianti 

** Ply every art o* legal thloTing— 

** Na* Eoalter— stick to loupd bdJeving," 

DrdiCAHun to OaHm Bnmition. 

Plutajt^hf however, undentaadA the «otig to tnean, that Fttta£iii " both ground 
'■^ and kn ended hk own bread," afl if anj free>boTii Greek, much k'sa monaich, 
would Imvi^ descended to io mean an dccu|wt]on t Moreover, the comparing 
the grinding of the miii to the grinding of the mUkr would be in wretched bad 
taate. Plutajrh's ncfiaon for mistnt^irpreting tKe words ia obvioui enough ; aceofd. 
Ing to hiB uaiulI plan nf idealizing hlstorj^ he did not choo«e to esthibit the dark 
aidt? of Pfttacus'fl {iharacter, 

(177) The elegant taiatc of the Greeki» had establiahed it an a cuAtom^ that 
the perwnt wbo aang at an entertainment fthouJd hold a branch of m^vrile or of 
tmy-tret' in their hands. Kny bodj, who has seen how distressed public lijigen 
freqtientlj'^ are to know whiit to do with their fitre-pawsi, will pereetve at on™ 
the meaning of tlib very graceful ^bton* Hence we maj understand the full 



[act V, 

" And spout a bit of *^schylu3 ! " 

When lie began to go it, — 1365^ 

" Why 'iEschylus appears to us, 

*^ The most of any poet, 
" An incoherent^ mouthing, loud, 

" Harsh, precipice-^Titing fellow \ " ^^' 
Wlien this opinion was avowed, 

I felt my heartstrings bellow ; 
But still I bit my lips, and cried, 

" Then pFay comnience reciting, 
** From what the modems have supplied, 

** Some clever bit of ^vriting/* 1370 

He sang Euripides's tale 

Directly, how a brother 
Deflowered a sister (powers of hell !) 

Born from tlie self-same mother. *" 

force of the allusion in the song of Hiirrnddius given m the Achdmians^ (Note 
110.) The conspimtotB had coticeaied their swords in rajrUe- wreaths, at Ibe 
feast upon which they intended to have slain the tyrant; mid therefi>ft? the pet^ 
former^ holding out the myrtli^bmiich in hm hand, exetaima a^etiu^i) - — 

♦* With myrtle wTCftthert III wcni mj BWord* 

*' Ai when yn riew the tyrant lord, 

" And iDJule Athenian fr«dum brlghn^n^ 

" HamiAdiiiB Hiid Ariitogiticiii/' 

(17B) We shall find these charges developed at great length in the Fro^, 
during the contest between '/Esc by I us and Euripides. 

(179) Bj the Athenian law a brother was allowed to marry hh half-witer by 
a different mother, but not if she was the dnnghter of the same mother by a 
diffh-trU father. The former was considered a lawful, the latter an meestuoua 
connexion. *Mo!m^ the tragedy of Euripides here referred to, ii now lost : tia 
iubject was the amours of MAcareus and C^nnche, the children of 'iEolna, In 
theFr«^, (L 860,) we shall find''j£&chy1u3 ahuaiag Euripides on aeeount of the 
very nine play. The reason why this particular poet is patronised by Phi- 
dfppides, is because he was believed to have been aosiated by hisfiiend Sdcmte« * 
in acquinug the general philosophical tone, which makes his trigedtes »o 

And then I could rastraiii myself 

No longer^ but directed 
Floods of reproaches at the elf ; 

And, a3 you'd have expected. 
We grappled plirase to phrase | ^id then 

He sprung on me, and poked me» 1375 

And scratched and clawed me might and main, 

And thumped, and bumped, and choked me. 


Were you not justly punished, please, 

Good sir, for daring ever 
To find fault with Euripides — 

That clever man ? 


He clever ? 

You what-am-I-to-call-ye, you! 
But softly there and lightly \ 
I shall get thumped and thrashed anew ! 


By Jove, 'twould serve you rightly ! 


How rightly ? Afcf, you shameless rogue. 

Who nursed you at your weaning, 1 380 

And when you lisped your childish brogue, 

Always perceived your meaning ? 
If you said " Bryn," I knew your name 

For drink, and brought It quickly 5 
And if you called " MammSn,'' I came 

And gave you bread directly ; 

406 THE CLOUDS. [act V- 

And when I heard you cry *' Caccan/' 

And saw your looks implore me, 
I took you upj and forth 1 ran 

And held you out before me, 1 385 . 

But now, although I raised a shout 
That you would squeeze ray inside out, 
You laughed, you rascal, at my roars^ 
And would not take me out of doors ; 
But choked me, till I went to pot. 
And did " Caccan" upon the spot. 1390 


The striplings' hearts must leap 
To know what course hell keep, 

The opponent to hem in ; 
For if by dint of nerve 
He prove such deeds desen^e 

No moral coudemning, 
I would not give a pea 
For all the hides of ye 
Poor elderly gemmeu*^"" 
Now then, you stirrer-up of new 

Expressions, if you're able, 
Lnvent some argument to shew 
Your conduct's equitable- 


(180) PIftUtus flayi, in hii Brog^odo SoiSer^ Act 11. ie^ne 3*- 

" I would Hoi now 

" Purchiue ymif Ufv, e*eri fux a rctHen ivur ' 



How sweet to learn wise novelties, 

And feel that wc may trust 'em ; 
And to be able to despise 

An old established custom ! 1400 

I could not say three words, I see — 

When all I loved was horses — 
Before I erred ; but now that he 

[Pointing to Strepsiades. 

Has made me leave such courses. 
And I have pondered and discussed 

Fine subtle thoughts ; I rather 
Imagine I can prove it just 

To punish one's own father. 1405 


Then go and study horseflesh, man ! 

I'd better nip my belly 
To feed four horses for you, than 

Be pummelled to a jelly. 


But to resume — now here's a mild 

And candid question for you : 
Pray did you beat me when a child ? 


Yes, from the love I bore you. 1410 


Then ought not /, too, to embrace 

The shortest means of proving 
My love for //om, and beat you, as 

This beating's merely loving ? 



[act V^ 

Why should your body be untom 

By whips J howe er it need *em, 
Wliile mine is not ? Yet / was born, 

Like ^on, possessed of freedom* 
CliiJdren are thrashed ; must fathers go 

Unthraahed and unadmonished ?**' l+I5l 

You'll say it is the law, I know, 

For cliildren to be punished ; 
But 111 reply, that an old man 

Is in his second childhood j'" 
And if he's thrashed more fiercely than 

A youth, it can't be styled odd. 
Because *tis worse in him to err — 

There's something more unfair in 't* 

But *tis the law, sir, every where 

Not to chastise one's parent. 1420 

(181) This IB an allusion to a pamage m the A kUtis of Eunpidea, whent 
Admatifl's father, who had been aolicHed iD die in hit place, poeitivel/ refiises 
thifl Teiy trifling favour, and eajs : — 

" Tcra'fe land i>f Itfr : ^'yn tMnt jmir fkih«r li not f " ■ 

The mull of the lro|?edy i» well known. The dafitatdly craven allows hif 
beautiful jouog wife to immolate heme If in order to save hm own worthless 
imttence. J 

(132) ThefoHowing illufitmtioni of thk Mntiment, quoted by the Greek iiote,^) 
come leapectivelj from the Feleus of Sdphoclei, and from the oomte poels 
TheoiJomput^ PUlo, and 'AoUpIion. 

" Pelcui, the noble ton ol'Micu$, 

" I, tht lole purd^vii of the nianaloOi fchocil,— 

" Old BM he li,— &ud educate hit^ tr^ahx 

'* For an old man becomot a child anew*** 

** Old nwu, Ui |Mjlat of fact, are children twice." 

" DoBH Ml ftld man, lh?n, t&m * child Jififtinf " 

'* Feeding old men t»Ju»C like reediuE ehUrtren,'' 



Was not the author of this law 

Like you and me, a man, sir ? 
And did he not persuade and draw 

The rest to adopt his plan, sir ? 
Then have not I, too, I would learn, 

A right to be the author 
Of a new law, that in return 

The son shall beat the fiither ? 
We'll cancel blows we got before 

This statute was enacted, li&5 

And make a gift of all we bore — 

Both bloody-nose and cracked-head. 
And look how cocks chastise their dads ; 

Yet wherein do their natures 
Differ from us Athenian lads, 

Save that they're no debaters ? 


Then as you say you're like the cocks, 

And prove it by research, too ; 1430 

Why don't you eat the dimg o' the ox, 
And sleep upon a perch, too ? 


Friend, that's a different thing from this ; 
And Socrates would vow so. 


Then do not beat me. Otherwise 
You'll blame yourself. 

^^^H 410 THE CLOUDS. [aCT V, 


^^^^H And how so? 

^^^^H aTEEPSlADES. ^^^ 

^^^^H / Imve a right, — for you're my son,^— > ^^^H 

^^^^H To lay it on your bottom i ^^^H 

^^^^H And i/ou\e a right to lay it on ^^^^H 

^^^^H Your sons', when you have got 'em, ^^^| 

^^^^H PH 1 Dl P PI D E& ^ 

^^^^H And if they're nether got» am / 14S5 

^^^^H To suffer useless lashings, i 

^^^^^L And tfou to live at ease, and die 

^^^^^B Grinniiig at all my thrashings ? 

^^^^H STREPsiADEs {to tkc elderly part of the m^dietwe). 

^^^^H Old gcixtlomen, he seems to me 

^^^^B To take up just positions ; 

^^^^H And I propose that we agree 

^^^^H To this on ^r conditions ; 

^^^^B For if we sin, 'tis fair, J deem^ 

^^^V We sliould he thrashed severely. ^^H 

^^^^H ^^^1 

^^^H Consider now my second scheme, ^^H 


^^^B I ahall be ruined reaUy 1 1440 _i 


^^^^m It will prevent your being vexed ^H 

^^^^H At suffering what you've suffered. ^^^H 

^^^H ^^^1 

^^^^B How can that be ? Explain your text; ^^^H 

^^^^H What good was that you proffered t ^^^H 





Just in the way that I thrashed ^on, 
I mean to thrash — wy vwther* 


What's that, what's that you say ? Tliis new 

Affliction's worse than t'other.*** 

Wliat if I take the Weaker Cause, 
And conquer you with nimble jaws, 
Proving by pKilosophie bother, 
That it is right to thrash one's mother ? 

H you should make so fine a hit. 
You have my full consent to throw 

Your carcase down the Felon'ji Pit ; — "* 
Where else could you expect to go ? 

And carry with you, if you please, 

The Weaker Cause, and S6crate8. 

{To the Chorus). 

I You are the source of these misfortunes, Clouds ; 
For I committed my affairs to yout 


Blame your own self for your mishaps ; for you 
Wriggled yourself into a knavish business. 




(183) Thli k certainly a ledeeming tmit in the otherwiec mterwclj-ielfiili 
ctuLmcter of Btrepeiades. Ttiou^h his wife bos becD the cause of all hiu miifor 
tiii]ea,thfoughihe idea^of fnshionnblc €Xtmvaguiii!e,irhieH flhe hiui irutillcd into 
Phidfppides, yet he in more afflicted at the Ihought of hef being b«eiten, thwi 
by the bloWB that he has btmeelf «etimlly suffered. 

(184) Bee the Kniffhis, Note \94. 



[act V, j 


Ajid why then didn't you say so at the time, 
Inateiid of egging on a poor old clown t 


We always act like this, when we discover 
That any one^s in love with roguery, 
Till we have got the fellow in a mess, 
And lie has learnt at last to fear the gods. 


Alas, ye Cloudsj this is severe, but just 1 

I ought not to have tried to keep the cash 

I borrowed ! *^* — Now then come with me, my son. 

And we'll destroy those blackguards, Chserephou 

And Socrates, who choused both you and me^ 


I will not injure my beloved masters. 


" Yes, pay respect to the Paternal Jove 1 *'"* 


Paternal Jove ! What an old-fashioTied chap ! 

What, is there any Jove ? 


There is. 


(185) " This appeal to Ihe Chonu, their replj to It, atid the old msm's nc- 
^ knotfle^gment, that he mcnted thi^ puniahmeat he met with, tki^ finelj 
*^ mtroditced, and impress a very jtii^ and natuml moml an the catastrophe of 
" the fwhl&r— Cumberland. 

OM) Evidently a line from Aome ifog^df or other. The Athdhktii wor^ 
shipped a PatemiLl Api^lo, but not a Patema] Jove, because Apdllo wa^ &blfd 
to have been tlic father of the Idnian raee. Other tribes, Huppofi^ to be 
descended from Jove, wondiipped a Patema] Jove, but not a Paternal Ap<Ulo. 



There isn't; 1470 

" Jar is now king, and has dethroned old Jove." '"^ 

[Points to the Jar in front of his father's house, 


No, he has not dethroned him, but I thought so, 

[Touching his forehead. 
All through this ^'ar that's here ! O wretched me. 
For taking Jar Po^emal for a god ! 

[Points to the Jar before his house, 


Stop here, and rave and drivel to yourself. 1475 


Scene III. The Same, 


Alas, what craziness ! How mad I was 
To be persuaded to eject my gods 
By Sdcrates ! But, dearest Mercury, 

[Reinstating him in the place of the Jar, 
Do not be wrath with me, nor ruin me ; 
But pray forgive my crazy love of gossip, 1480 

And counsel me, whether I'd better go 
And prosecute them, or whate'er you think. 

[Confers with him. 

(187) He quotes Strepnades's own words agninst him.— See 1. 828. 



[actt V, 

You give me good advice — to stitch no suits, 
But with all possible haste to fire the house 
Of these same gossipers*— Here, Xanthias, here! 1485 , 

[Enter a Slate. J 
Bring out a ladder and a mattock with jou, 
And then go mount upon the Thinking-shop, 
And dig the roof down, if you love your master ^ 
Until you've pulled the house about theh* ears* 

[EwU Slave, and reenter with the ladder, ^c^ 
moanis ths top of Socrates's house^ 
Holloa there, bring me out a lighted torch ; 1 490 

And ril revenge myself on some of them 
ToKlay, although they are such lying braggarts* 

\^A torch is brought in^ and Strepsiades mountt^ 
house-top with it^ and fires the rafters. 

Scene IV, The Same. 

FIRST SCHOLAR {froffi mtMn), 
Holloa, holloa 1 


Take care, good torch, and send forth copious flames. 
A Scholar appears at a windonh 


What are you at, you chap ? 


What am I at? 
I'm chopping logic witli tlie rafters here. 



Another Scholar appears at a window. 


Who's this that dares to set the house alight ? 


The man whose coat you've got, you thievish knaves. 


Oh, you'll destroy us ! 


That's what I intend, 
Unless my mattock should betray my hopes, 1500 

Or I should get a fall before I've done it. 

Socrates appears at a window, 


What are you at, you fellow on the roof? 


" Air-galloping, and questioning the sun." '" 


Poor wretched luckless me ! I shall be stifled ! 
CiLGREPHON appears at a window, 


Unhappy me ! I shall be burnt to death ! 1505 


What business had you, then, to insult the gods, 
And seek to see the bottom of the moon ? 
Pursue, and pelt, and strike for many reasons ; 
But chiefly on account of their impiety. 

[SocRATEs's house is dismantled by Strepsiades and 
his Slaves. 

(188) Sdcrates's expreanons, when he was hung up on hb philosophical 
flhelf.-.8ee 1. 225. 

416 THE CLOUDS. [aCT V. 


Lead out and conclude the redoubtable play ; 
We have chanted and capered enough for to-day. 1510 
[The Chorus leaves tJie Orchestra^ and exeunt omnes. 





••• The numberg, both here and in the tran$lation, refer to the linee of Brunch' e Greeh 
text, which correspond aceuratetn to those of the two texts published by W. Dindorf; 
viz. one in 1825 amongst the Leipzig Classics, and one in 1830 in the PomtM 


L. 1.] Read with Ernesti, r6 jonjfui r£p vwcrSv oaow 'Aviparrop. and 
compare Frogs, 1. 1278, ''fl ZcS ficuriXtv, r6 xpriiia rSv ttlntw wrov.^Ocow 
cannot be put for tis here, and Hermann's interpretation of the old punctua- 
tion seems poor — th XP^f^ "^^^ yvteruy r6aoy iarly, oaoy dw4payroy. 

L. 179.] The fragment of EupoHs given in the note appended to the 
Translation, is read in the two following manners by the Scholiasu, on this 
line, and on line 96, respectively, — 2rri<rtx^pov vp6s r^y k6pay ountx^y 
iKKr^\ and, — Hf^dfitvos 9^ XoMcpdnis rV ^tH^i^ty l,r7taix6pov oirox^ 
licAcifrcy ; the latter of which is manifestly corrupt. I have translated as if 
the poet had written — 

St^dfuyos 9h XcMpdrris 
^rriaixopov wpds ttJv \iipay, 
olyoxoTjy fic\€^€P. 
The lines are all dimeter choriambics; the two first acatalectic, the last cata- 
lectic. For the use of Ux^aeai in this sense see fVatps, L 1222, 1225, 1243. 
The two words r^y iwHti^ty, are a gloss of some ignorant grammarian, who 
thought that 94xt<r$cu, being a transitive verb, must needs have an accusative 
case after it. 

L. 337.] Read, with the edition of 1825, EV dtplas 9itpas yafv^ohs oUtym^s 
i^povrixfis. *Atpla is put for dj^p, on the analogy of if Aojcwyun}, for if Aojcc^ 
yucri x»^ The phrase is quaint, but that is the very reason it is quoted by 
the satirist 

L. 377.] Place a comma after Sfifipov, so that 9i* dy^rymiy may depend upon 
dyayKcurBAru It will not well apply to tearaKprifUfdfitycu, because it is not 
the fact of the clouds being " suspended in the air," which is questioned, and 
which, consequently, it would be requisite to state happened '' on account of 
" necessity." Neither, on the other hand, can 9i dydyieny apply to irAifpcii ; 
for a simple epithet cannot have such a clause depending upon it, though 
they might say, al y€<p€\u at 9i' dy^miy vXiffKir SfiBpov, ** those clouds that 
" arc necenarily full of rain," which is quite a different thing. 

£ E 



L,402.} Read ri pLoBt&v ; iritb the Hav. MS., Bekker, and the Poet Seen.^ 
indteiid of ri va&a^v. The formci' is cqoirfilQnt to — " What biisinc^ hn4 he 
'* tii do It V the latter to — -" How came he to do it P* They are continually 
corifii^L'd ifi the MSS. 

L. 553.] The pass^oge of EupoUattranilated in the tiote, is corruptly quoted by 
the Scholiast on line 55% and still more bo by thnt on line tiiO. 1 ^'ould emend 
the former from thf? latter iti the following way,*-*jjffl Bf Ktbcttyos tuuf 'linr^a;i, 

The line is wliat ii generally called Eupolidean ; the same a& that in ^hich 
thia PdrahoBis is vrrilten. Respecting tbe phrase r^ pahaitp^, compare Pif^cr* 
I 77U 

L. O'^S, 654.] None of th« commenUtorH, aLOciene or modem, fieem to have 
hit the meatting or thi« pasna^, though Brunck Liugh& at poor Mademoiselle 
Le Ffvre for not understatiding it, (as she well might uot^) botb here and in 
the following ungs 11 ant critique on an ol]iservation of hers relative to line 1445 : 
" Quid ilia, qup?sO| ridiCMla nota ad hujus Loci scntcntiaDi facit^ cujufi pulcrt- 
" uidinem et acumi^n non magis percepit bona puella quam nequitiam \xs 
" V. G53 V* Hermann observeB, " Recte Erunckius de pene inrelleicitj ut eat 
** in g\Q9sk, sequentem antem v^eraum de digito tnfamit quo late^ i|unm puer 
'^ easet tiecdum aprus rebui venereis, mannas fecefat/' But to omit all consi- 
deration of what our poet fiays, in the Parabasis, 1. u»3S, about the actors in 
this play not wearing a trsvrtvov Ka&ft^yayt 'Zpv^^t' il^ o^xpoVw irax^i TQts 
TK^iMlots If' ^ yi^u^t the wioi could scarcely tie reckoned a SoKTi/Atif. I should 
sonsider both the fingers exhibited to be ban&Jtde legitimate one»; the first, 
the " infamis »ive nu-dius digitus/* (see Jmfvai X.53»and Rupert fs excellent 
noieO the second, the one mentioned in the following scholium on the 
Aehamiantr h 444: — ^KIMAAISH] i^w^tAiiie ^ ;^A€uaff«. t^ ^tKfn^ 
ZoKfvKl^ tus Tmw yv»atKtitaif -Kvywv eftfd^ai. tiprjTai U i} 
Af |ii Kol iv Elp^rp' ihiytro Bf ^rKifAohitfii^ (*fai]T^T^ /iffrp^ BvtKTbA^ 

L, 1166— 1169.] The test ha* been unwarrantably hacked about here in 
the edition of 1825, in order to prevent the necessity of making Socrates join 
in the old gentleman's song, as if nobody ever sang on the stage except ou 
occasions when he would sing in ordinary life. In the Ptfel, Sc€h, Diudorf 
has properly re- transposed the different clauses according to tbe MSS. 

L. 1175,] Bentley has well observed, that this line, tis it stands in the 
editions, " is colder tbati snow itself." The koJ KaKnvpyaym" it a mo«t 
miserable drag, coming in as a mere explanation of iBiKoDvT\ Hence be 
very ingeniously proposes to read dBtituifrr' oSt*tf«rflai, iced naKavpyavyT" ti 
iFottly.* or HtmaifpyouVT* tvvouy.t the fonner of which is certainly prei'erable as 
far as the fi^nsc goes. Both emendations, however, recede far too much from 
the reading of the MSS. ttaKttvpyiiutrr, oW Sri, I (hitik the Eanie end may 
be attained by simply reading MiKovvr' ftBi*fet4T#cu, koI KOKovpy^ivirr^—oW o ru^ 
and interpreting as in the translation. 

L. 117^.] Strike out the accent over the t« with Bekker and the PoaL 
Seen. Otherwise the answer would be, not tls n^ 7c, but simply tls t^v. 


h. 1201.] FUtc a point after t^* with Iho editidn of 1S25. 

L, ]£03.] Place the coiniiia bcron;, iftstead of after dAAtir%t with KiusClt. 
^AhAms could not viiry wtll depend upon a Doun^ unlcu coupled wilh it by 
hh artick, though it app^jiri nt first sight to do so in (he passage fiwm the 
Tfiondt* quoted by Bergler \ dptorr^jrr' iyMwi^nifiy tckko^ Ohx dpt&pJ^r l[XAtff, 
oAA' iVfpTiJrai'f 4>piJ7(vi^. It h^ however^ in reality there counected with 
#^t{ir<^ip' understood after it. The adverb rT^i^dxXets will supply us with an 
iustHiici,* of its use with sa article* which word i» properly written t^v oKAms 
9fi. Mr f It is opposed to titv rtpl a^ov in the Theettftm, p, 172 fin. 

L. 1228.] Take away the stop after At with the etlition of 1825, however 
the vcrae *i& read in other respects. Pais las aay^^ ^'^ Y<?s, and you swore hy 
*♦ heavens you*d pay it back ;" to which it would be iibsurd for Strepsiades 
to reply^ '* No* by Jove, I did not ; for/' &c. 

L, 1232J2;^3J Read with Hekker and Kiister, rah ^tttbi, 'Iv' ^ ittXtii^m 
*yd IT* i ]|TPE. towi roiom flfoiJf j for ** Uoiaos &^o4j ;*' without the rour would 
mean, in familiar Attic Greek, " Pooh I Nonsense t Don't talk about such 
" tnunpery as gods !'* The article is requin*d to wtk the questioni ** What 
** god« V' to which Pasiai replies in the next line* 

t, 1277,] Read with the Uav. MS., Bekker and Hermann, 3i U w^ 'rh^ 
*Ep^T}V Tpii%KiK\^trSai fcot toK^ii* I doubt very touch whether Z&nfii ^i 
ir^fir<KA^£r(i7i0ai is good Greek; it would rather be wpojKtH\Tt'^6fifvo%^ though 
even thjit would be quaint* Moreover, the very pretty little Hott^teoteleutou 
in the origiua^ is destroyed by thus deviating from the Rav. MS, Thtre is 
I no occasion for the creditor to adhere strictly to chronological accuracy, as 
Hermann has well obaerved* espe^tally as his object evidi'titly is to parody 
5trepstades*s remark as closL»Iy as possible, 

L. S299.] Read fftif ; 4riaA.m with Bekker and the Pmt. Seen, 

L* I SOS— 13:800 ' would propoae to arrange this corrupt strophe and 
f Aittlstrophe in tiie following manner : — 

oTov rd -rpayiidTmy ipf^ <pAiiupwf' 6 y^ 

T^ Xp4t^^* ^ktytiiraTO' 
KmtK firs' 5ir*i?f oiJ T^pLtpov 
K44^tral Ti wparyfi*, £ toii* 
Toy woti^fftt j^¥ ffo^nm^*' Xawt^ 

iTjiAai war* ^9(^ 

ypdfiai iymrritu Xr>fw 
Tffltrw Bttcaloti^ wm n* 
Kf r awavTfis alrwtp &¥ 

Hffwi 3'r Urns 0o^k^^*rm k^j^hovw ah^w ^Xtfoit 



\n I 1304, ipoff&fU k rhe readinj^ uF the MSS. Ami thp old ediu^fii^ 
^^apdti'i or 4&fmtrQtit an em^ndatu^u. Tn U l^f^^ni 13(n, lUc worib tipui, hv0 
art' supplied ham the <?ditioti of 1S25h, In L Li 10, AoBfTir koxi^i' ti \^ tde 
TLdHiint^ of the Porf. 5w«» in*t<jml otthat of th<! MSS, t* ffOJfdi' Aa^**V In 
I. 131^, I have substituted AUtfto^ instead of the rejtdiag of the Rai:cnna aod 
Liiurt^ruiiin MSS. i-wM^TprtL, or those of iome of the oth^^ra, ef*i>fTft, ami ^f»jT*i, 
lH>ine oE which will agree with the ^tro^jhe. The jflosa has occupied the place of 
ihi.^ ^^it^ which it wna mteoded to ejtpUinr as has happened in many other 
insi!^ : tltis is partly Indicated alao by ihe variationa in the readings* di^w, 
ihough an unitBual word in Attic Greek, (^ee^ however^ Theophrasma, 
ffiffrtfcfcrt, XL 2. ed, Schneider,) yet occurs in the compounds ip€^»p^ 
(ill t1ii^ play 1, 192), ^iix<"^^^< (^^^^i ^ T?0), snd vpayfiMToBl<piji (£ir4f, 
U Li',2f). Of course, if it were in c very-day use, a$ 4&rtpa for itialAOoe, 
it would not have had a glo«s, £uid eon!d not consequently have heen 
rject^d by it The hne, when thus emended^ is a common liyper- 
culnltcdc monometcr ehonambic with a h«aet Itlt^ veracs IM6, 1*148, 1^50, 
[iiid the corresponding onta in ihe antistrophe lZ9i — 1398; ttU of whkU 
"iiEcccid 8en&HaDS in n similar niAniker. Vime I'A^t^, however, tnu«t be lirit 
villi i]Jl 1.1, either as HeriiiPinn proposes^ B^KStf y4 tui A^^* 4(rrl fh rMp4i*l 
i»r ivitU Hebig. J^' tJ^ X^fL^Etrrhf rifffr rdUr^^i.t or pi^rhnp* «tlU better